He was now generally recognized as the able and effective leader of the Ultramontane party among English Roman Catholics,.
The expression ultramontane was originally no more than a term of locality, characterizing the persons so described as living - or derived from - " beyond the mountains."
and the Jews - he to establish the tribunal and they to prevent him - was compiled, as the preface showed, to stem the Ultramontane reaction, but none the less carried weight because it was a recital of events with little or no comment or evidence of passion in its author.
In 1833 he went to Paris, and started L'Univers religieux, which afterwards became Louis Veuillot's ultramontane organ.
active part in the states-general of 1614, when he vigorously upheld the ultramontane doctrines against the Third Estate.
There followed an expression of nationalist and particularistic as opposed to ultramontane and also to German feeling, which undoubtedly was of supreme importance for the whole of the subsequent career of Huss.
von Helfert, Studien i ber Hus and Hieronymus (1853; this work is ultramontane in its sympathies); C. von Hofler, Hus and der Abzug der deutschen Professoren and Studenten aus Prag (1864); W.
high, containing the grave of Ludwig Windthorst, "his little excellency," for many years leader of the Ultramontane (Centre) party in the imperial diet.
The earliest known document proceeding from the Waldensians is an account of a conference held at Bergamo in 1218 between the Ultramontane and the Lombard divisions, in which the Lombards showed a greater opposition to the recognized priesthood than did their northern brethren.2 As these opinions became more pronounced persecution became more severe, and the breach between the Waldenses and the church widened.
In the same year (1844) Sybel came forward prominently as an opponent of the Ultramontane party.
The " mountains " in this case are the Alps, so that, from the Italian standpoint, Germans and French for instance were " ultramontane."
It was not until the 19th century that "ultramontane and " ultramontanism " came into general use as broad designations covering the characteristics of particular personalities,.
He classes as Ultramontane: (1) Whoever places the idea of the Church above that of religion; (2) whoever confounds the pope with the Church; (3) whoever believes that the kingdom of Heaven is of this world, and maintains, with medieval Catholicism, that the power of the keys, conferred on Peter, includes.
This was done for the first time, in 1870, at the Vatican Council, whose decrees, recognizing the universal episcopate and the infallibility of the pope, marked the triumph of that ultramontane doctrine by which they had been long anticipated.
Thus, too, even at the present time, the opinion is very clearly expressed in Ultramontane quarters that, in the event of the state issuing laws contravening those of nature or of the Church, obedience must be refused.
A like result has been produced when, in response to Ultramontane agitation, interdicts have been placed on churchyards in which non-Catholics have found their last resting-place.
T.) but are everywhere met with a blank refusal from the Ultramontane side.
The Ultramontane, indeed, maintains that there is no justification for distinguishing between the two: but the motives underlying this attitude are obvious..
In fact, the terms jesuitical and ultramontane may, in numerous cases, be regarded as equivalent.
Finally, in opposition to the ultramontane movement in the Roman Catholic Church, it came once more into fashion in something of its original sense among the evangelicals.
Originally of Liberal tendencies, he developed from 1837 onwards ultramontane opinions, founded in 1852 the Catholic group which in 1861 took the name of the Centre party (Centrum) and became one of its most conspicuous orators.
In the Kulturkampf he took an active part on the ultramontane side.
It has been stated that in his earlier years Ddllinger was a pronounced Ultramontane.
He also entered into relations with the well-known French Liberal Catholic Lamennais, whose views on the reconciliation of the Roman Catholic Church with the principles of modern society had aroused much suspicion in Ultramontane circles.
Regensburg, 1846-1848) and on Luther (1851, Eng, tr., 1853) he is very severe on the Protestant leaders, and he also accepts, in his earlier works, the Ultramontane view then current on the practical condition of the Church of England, a view which in later days he found reason to change.
He, however, much regretted the gradual and very natural trend of his new English allies towards extreme Ultramontane views, of which Archdeacon, afterwards Cardinal, Manning ultimately became an enthusiastic advocate.
His address to the assembled divines was "practically a declaration of war against the Ultramontane party."
had given them in Prussia, they became very powerful, especially in the Rhine provinces, and, gradually moulding the younger generation of clergy after the close of the War of Liberation, succeeded in spreading Ultramontane views amongst them, and so leading up to the difficulties with the civil government which issued in the Falk laws, and their own expulsion by decree of the German parliament (June 19, 1872).
How, with this pope's support throughout his long reign, the gradual filling of nearly all the sees of Latin Christendom with bishops of their own selection, and their practical capture, directly or indirectly, of the education of the clergy in seminaries, they contrived to stamp out the last remains of independence everywhere, and to crown the Ultramontane triumph with the Vatican Decrees, is matter of familiar knowledge.
The years of his pontificate were marked by the steady development and diffusion of those ultramontane ideas which were ultimately formulated, under the presidency of his successor Pius IX., by the council of the Vatican.
To check this ultramontane propaganda the government secured from the papacy in 1845 the promise to close the Jesuit houses and novitiates in France.
The development of the last decade of the 19th century had clearly shown that the educated bourgeoisie, the tiers Nat, in whose hands the supreme power had since 1848 become vested throughout Europe, was either entirely lost to the Church or, at all events, indifferent to what were called Ultramontane tendencies.
He took as his secretary of state Cardinal Raphael p us x Merry del Val, a Spaniard of English birth and educa tion, well versed in diplomacy, but of well-known ultramontane tendencies.
The new ministry granted the certificate of naturalization; but riots, in which ultramontane professors of the university took part, were the result.
C. de Gerlache (1785-1871) wrote the history of the Netherlands from the ultramontane standpoint.
The Ultramontane party in Austria, France and Bavaria had, after 1866, been hostile to Prussia; there was some ground to fear that it might still succeed in bringing about a Catholic coalition against the empire, and Bismarck lived in constant dread of European coalitions.
In the controversy which ensued, Lutz, the chief member of the ministry, found himself confronted by an Ultramontane majority, and the priests used their influence to stir up the people.
By the constitution this was within their power, and by clever manipulation of the constituencies they brought it about that the Ultramontane majority was reduced to two.
They offered their resignation, but the king refused to accept it, publicly expressed his confidence in them, and they continued in office during the lifetime of the king, although in 1881 the growing reaction gave a considerable majority to the Ultramontane party.
de Sixte-Quint (Paris, 1869, 2nd ed.); Segretain, Sixte-Quint et Henri IV (Paris, 1861, strongly Ultramontane); Ranke's masterly portrayal, Popes (Eng.
The progress of Catholicism was undeniable, but yet Wiseman found himself steadily opposed by a minority among his own clergy, who disliked his Ultramontane ideas, his Romanizing and innovating zeal," especially in regard to the introduction of sacred images into the churches and the use of devotions to the Blessed Virgin and the Blessed Sacrament, hitherto unknown among English Catholics.
He combined with the principles known as Ultramontane no little liberality of view in matters ecclesiastical.
He had meant only to lop off a few ultramontane extremists; he succeeded in sending Catholics of every shade and colour pell-mell into the arms of Rome.
Yet - thanks to its organization, its press, and the elaborate network of alliances spun by Windhorst - the Ultramontane Centre still remains a powerful force in German politics.
somewhat prolonged conflict between the Committee and the vicars apostolic, who for the most part represented the high ultramontane view.
The outcome of the Committee's work was the great Protest, signed by 1500 bishops, priests and leading laymen, in which the loyalty of Catholics to the crown and constitution was strenuously affirmed and the ultramontane point of view repudiated in the startling declaration, " We acknowledge no infallibility in the pope."
The outward sign of this was the substitution of the Roman ritual for the English pre-Reformation use hitherto followed in the services, while English Roman Catholicism became increasingly ultramontane in temper, a tendency much strengthened under Cardinal Manning.
He entered parliament in 1872 as a liberal Catholic, attaching himself at first to the Deal party; but the feudal and ultramontane traditions of his family circle profoundly modified, though they could never destroy, his popular ideals.
There are on the summit of the hill the remains of an old castle, and a monument erected in 1875 to Prince Bismarck, with an inscription taken from one of his speeches against the Ultramontane claims of Rome - "Nach Canossa gehen wir nicht."
Outside the movement for constitutional reform, the most important internal question was the successful Liberal attack on the privileged position and narrow views of the Church, which led to the birth of a strong ultramontane party among the clergy.
Codde was :the nominee of the Dutch secular clergy, and these had for years past been at violent odds with the Jesuits, the champions of the ultramontane principle.
a strong Ultramontane movement arose.
Bossuet can only be thought of as the high-priest of authority and common-sense; but Fenelon has been made by turns into a sentimentalist, a mystical saint, an 18th-century philosophe, an ultramontane churchman and a hysterical hypocrite.
No doubt through the influence of Ferdinand, the policy of Matthias henceforth assumed a yet more pronouncedly ultramontane character.
But though a sincere Roman Catholic, his whole spirit as a historian was hostile to ultramontane pretensions, and his independence of thought and liberalism of view speedily brought him into conflict with the Roman Catholic hierarchy.
In 1874, when Gladstone published his pamphlet on The Vatican Decrees, Lord Acton wrote during November and December a series of remarkable letters to The Times, illustrating Gladstone's main theme by numerous historical examples of papal inconsistency, in a way which must have been bitter enough to the ultramontane party, but demurring nevertheless to Gladstone's conclusion and insisting that the Church itself was better than its premisses implied.
put forward by his own act what is known as the creed of the Council of Trent; and, after the coldness of the 18th century and the evil days of the French Revolution, an Ultramontane revival, relying with enthusiasm on the papacy, grew more and more strong until it became all-powerful under Pius IX.
Within the Anglican Church, however, the new revival was Augustinian and Calvinistic, till it gave place to a Church revival, the echo or the sister of the Ultramontane movement in the Church of Rome.
While Germany and England, where ultramontane doctrines had been allowed to creep in, were seeking a remedy ~ against the economic exactions of the papacy in a 1516.
The parlement cut short these bargainings by condemning all ultramontane pretensions and Spanish intrigues.
He tried to make the clergy into an instrument of government by recalling the Jesuits, who had been driven away in 1594, partly from fear of their regicides, partly because they have always been the best teachers of servitude; and he gave theyouth of the nation into the hands of this cosmopolitan and ultramontane clerical order.
The nobility remained- in debt and disaffected; and the clergy, more Grit kisn remarkable for wealth and breeding than for virtues, of Henry were won over to the ultramontane ideas of the IV.
the war clamoured for by the Protestants, politicians like Sully, and the nobility; and the Spanish alliance, to be cemented by marriages, and preached by the ultramontane Spanish camarilla formed by the queen, Pre Coton, the kings confessor, the minister Villeroy, and Ubaldini, the papal nuncio.
As president of the clergy at the states-general of 1614 he had figured as an adherent of Spain and the ultramontane interest; he appeared to be a representative of that religious party which was identical with the Spanish party.
The ultramontane and oppressively burdensome church had been taunted with its lack of Christian charity, apostolic Dovertv and primitive virtue.
The king and his prime minister were equally agreed about the necessity of showing the Vatican and the Church sufficient favor to induce them to cease coquetting with the pretender Don Carlos, but not so much as to allow the pope and the clergy to expect that they would tolerate any excessive Ultramontane influence in the policy of the Restoration.
During the next three years the Ultramontane party hoped to bring about an anti-Prussian revolution, and Napoleon was working for an alliance with Austria, where Beust, an old opponent of Bismarck's, was chancellor.
He had no difficulties in respect of the teaching and practice of his church, being in truth an ardent Ultramontane in doctrine, as was all but inevitable in his time and circumstances, and his great merit was the instinctive tact which showed him that the system of monasticism could never be the leaven of secular life, but that something more homely, simple, and everyday in character was needed for the new time.
He was much affected by the romantic movement and the Ultramontane revival, and after his return home interested himself greatly in the revival of Czech language and literature and the growth of the Bohemian national feeling.
The Revolution intervened; and when, during the religious reaction that followed, men sought for an ultimate authority, they found it in the papal monarch, exalted now by ultramontane zeal into the sole depositary of the apostolical tradition (see ULTRAMONTANIsM).
(See Canon Law and Decretals, False.) As every fully equipped university had its faculty of canon law in which the Corpus juris canonici was studied, Rashdall is hardly guilty of exaggeration when he says: " By means of the happy thought of the Bolognese monk the popes were enabled to convert the new-born universities - the offspring of that intellectual new birth of Europe which might have been so formidable an enemy to the papal pretensions - into so many engines for the propagation of Ultramontane ideas."
In 1865 Dellinger wrote: " The Ultramontane view can be summarized in a single, concise, and luminous proposition; but out of this proposition are evolved a doctrine and a view that embrace not merely religion and the Church, but science and the state, politics, morals and the social order - in a word, the whole intellectual life of men and nations.
If any one desires to appreciate the intellectual plane and the power - of this Ultramontane habit of thought, he will find ample material in the performances of the notorious swindler Leo Taxil under Leo XIII., and in the acceptance of his blasphemous effusions by the highest ranks of the clergy.
The hierophants of this Ultramontane system are to be found in the Society of Jesus (See Jesuits).
The Syllabus of 1864, however, carried with it a recognition of the Ultramontane condemnation of all modern culture (see the articles Pius IX., and Syllabus).
He was forced also to maintain a long conflict with the ultramontane element of the Roman Catholic church in Quebec, which for many years had a close working alliance with the Conservative politicians of the province and even employed spiritual coercion in order to detach votes from the Liberal party.
The unparalleled spread of ultramontane ideas (see Ultramontanism) brought about a centralization of authority at Rome such as would have appalled the 18th century.
The open protection it accorded to the Old Catholic movement contributed in no small measure to estrange those influential elements which, whilst favouring the suppression of Ultramontane tendencies, desired no schism in the Church, and viewed with horror the idea of a National Church in Bismarck's sense (see OLD Catholics).
Episodes, such as the protection so long extended to the Leo Taxil affair, and to the revelations of Diana Vaughan (the object of which last was to bring Italian freemasonry and its ostensible work, the unity of Italy, into discredit), together with the attitude of the Ultramontane press in the Dreyfus affair, and later towards England, the invigoration of political agitation by the Lourdes celebration and by anti-Semitism, were all manifestations that could not raise the " system " in the estimation of the cultured and civilized world.
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