Soon after he was engaged on an important embassy to Germany, the result of which was the treaty of Ulm, signed July 1620.
For during the year that elapsed before he left Swabia (and whilst he sojourned at Neuburg and Ulm), and amidst his geometrical studies, he would fain have gathered some knowledge of the mystical wisdom attributed to the Rosicrucians; but the Invisibles, as they called themselves, kept their secret.
Driven from Strassburg by the authorities, after a short imprisonment in December 1531, he tried to make a living in 1532 as a soapboiler at Esslingen, removing in 1533 for a better market to Ulm, where (October 28, 1 534) he was admitted as a burgess.
His Weltbuch, a supplement to his Chronica, was printed at Tubingen in 1534; the publication, in the same year, of his Paradoxa at Ulm brought him into trouble with the authorities.
Not interpreting this as applying to works printed outside Ulm, he published in 1538 at Augsburg his Guldin Arch (with pagan parallels to Christian sentiments) and at Frankfort his Germaniae clzronicon, with the result that he had to leave Ulm in January 1539.
ALBERT EINSTEIN (1879-), German-Swiss physicist, was born of Jewish parents at Ulm in the kingdom of Wurttemberg on May 14 1879.
Later on he was at Nuremberg, Ulm and Innsbruck, where he is said to have been condemned to imprisonment for adultery, but released at the intercession of the elector of Saxony.
FREINSHEIM [FREINSHEMIUS], Johann (1608-1660), German classical scholar and critic, was born at Ulm on the 16th of November 1608.
At last, in his seventy-second year, he died at Ulm, on the 10th of December 1561, surrounded by attached friends and declaring undiminished faith in his views.
Of Ulm, with which it is connected by railway.
He did so with masterly skill and swiftness, and the triumphs of Ulm and Austerlitz hid from view the disaster of Trafalgar; and the only official reference to that crushing defeat was couched in these terms: "Storms caused us to lose some ships of the line after a fight imprudently engaged" (speech to the Legislature, 2nd of March 1806).
For Austria we may read Prussia; for Ulm, Jena-Auerstadt; for the occupation of Vienna, that of Berlin; for Austerlitz, Friedland, which again disposed of the belated succour given by Russia.
He died in March 1816 at Ulm, from a carriage accident.
Of the seven editions of Ptolemy which were published up to the close of the 15th century, all except that of Vicenza (1475) contained Ptolemy's 27 maps, while Francesco Berlinghieri's version (Florence 1478), and two editions published at Ulm (1482 and 1486), contained four or five modern maps in addition, those of Ulm being by Nicolaus Germanus.
The campaigns described below are theref ore (a) The Austrian War of 1805 (Ulm and Austerlitz).
That he foresaw the march of events which ultimately drew Mack to Ulm is inconceivable.
Mack's march to Ulm was therefore a necessity of the situation, and his continuance in this exposed position, if foolhardy against such an adversary, was at any rate the outcome of the high resolve that even if beaten he would inflict crippling losses upon the enemy.
By constructing an entrenched camp at Ulm and concentrating all the available food within it, he expected to compel Napoleon to invest and besiege him, and he anticipated that in the devastated country his adversary would be compelled to separate and thus fall an easy prey to the Russians.
On the 26th of September, its deployment beyond the mountains was complete, and as Napoleon did not know of Mack's intention to stay at Ulm and had learned that the Russian advance had been delayed, he directed his columns by the following roads on the Danube, between Donauworth and Ingolstadt, so as to be in a position to intervene between the Austrians and the Russians and beat both in detail.
Believing implicitly in the rumours of a descent on Boulogne and of risings in France which also reached him, and knowing the destitution he had left behind him in his movement to Ulm, when he heard of the westward march of French columns from the Lech he told his army, apparently in all good faith, that the French were in full march for their own coun try.
The road now lay completely open, but the Austrian columns had so opened out owing to the state of the roads that the leading troops could not pursue their advantage - Dupont rallied and the Austrians had actually to fall back towards Ulm to procure food.
Ceaseless industry and energy were the principal results of the victory.
Bonnal, De Rosbach a Ulm (Paris.
Furse, Ulm, Trafalgar and Austerlitz (London, 1905).
High and ranks, after those of Ulm and Cologne, as the third highest ecclesiastical edifice in the world.
ULM, a fortress-city of Germany, in the kingdom of Wurttemberg, situated on the left bank of the Danube, in a fertile plain at the foot of the Swabian Alps, 58 m.
Ulm still preserves the dignified and old-fashioned appearance of a free imperial town, and contains many medieval buildings of historic and of artistic interest.
Ulm cathedral has double aisles and a pentagonal apsidal choir, but no transepts.
The Danube, joined by the Iller just above the town and by the Blau just below, here becomes navigable, so that Ulm occupies the important commercial position of a terminal river-port.
The market for leather and cloth is important, and Ulm is famous for its vegetables (especially asparagus), barley, beer, pipe-bowls and sweet cakes (Ulmer Zuckerbrot).
Ulm has long been a fortress of the first rank.
The fortifications also of Neu-Ulm, on the Bavarian side of the Danube, were ordered to be razed and devoted to municipal purposes.
Ulm is the basis of operations for the German army behind the Black Forest, and can easily shelter a force of ioo,000 men; its peace garrison is 5600.
Ulm is mentioned as early as 854, and under the Carolingian sovereigns it was the scene of several assemblies.
Ulm is remarkable in the history of German literature as the spot where the Meistersinger lingered longest, preserving without text and without notes the traditional lore of their craft.
In 18 3 0 there were twelve Meistersinger alive in Ulm, but in 1839 the four survivors formally made over their insignia and gild property to a modern singing society and closed the record of the Meistergesang in Germany.
NUbling, Ulms Handel and Gewerbe im Mittelalter (Ulm, 1892-1900); G.
Fischer, Geschichte der Stadt Ulm (Stuttgart, 1863); Pressel, Ulmisches Urkundenbuch (Stuttgart, 1873) and Ulm and sein Munster (Ulm, 1877); Schultes, Chronik von Ulm (Stuttgart, 1881 and 1886); Hassler, Ulms Kunstgeschichte im Mittelalter (Stuttgart, 1872); and Das rote Buch der Stadt Ulm, edited by C. Mollvo (1904).
LEONHARD HUTTER (1563-1616), German Lutheran theologian, was born at Nellingen near Ulm in January 1563.
In 1803 he received a commission in an infantry regiment, and took part in the campaign of 1805 under General Davoust, first in the Low Countries, and later at Ulm, Maria Zell and Austerlitz, where he fought with distinction, was wounded several times and promoted.
Of Stuttgart, and with direct railway communication with Ulm and Cannstatt.
He also wrote Tentamen Introductionis in Historiam Doctrinae de Ideis, afterwards completed and republished under the title of Historia Philosophicae Doctrinae de Ideis (Augsburg, 1723); Otium Vindelicum (1731); Kurze Fragen aus door philosophischen Historic (7 vols., Ulm, 1731-1736), a history of philosophy in question and answer, containing many details, especially in the department of literary history, which he omitted in his chief work; Pinacoiheca Scriptorum nostra aetate literis illustrium, &c. (Augsburg, 1741-1755); Ehrentempel der deutschen Gelehrsamkeit (Augsburg, 1747-1749); Institutiones Historiae Philosophicae (Leipzig, 1747 and 1756; 3rd ed.
Born (1743-1807) of Leipzig, in 1790); Miscellanea Historiae Philosophicae Literariae Criticae olim sparsim edita (Augsburg, 1748); Erste Anfangsgrunde der philosophischen Geschichte (Ulm, 1751).
From Ulm by rail, a few miles below Hochstadt.
The ground between the hills and the marshy valley of the Danube forms a defile through which the main road from DonauwOrth led to Ulm; parallel streams divide the narrow plain into strips.
Hans Sachs, on the other hand, sang the praises of the " Wittenberg Nightingale," and a considerable number of prominent men of letters accepted Luther as their guide - Zell and Bucer, in Strassburg, Eberlin in Ulm, Oecolampadius in Augsburg, Osiander and others in Nuremberg, Pellicanus in NOrdlingen.
From Ulm, on the railway to Ingolstadt.
He it was who made the peace of Brdmsebro between the Danes and the Swedes, and turned the latter once again against the empire; he it was who sent Lionne to make the peace of Castro, and combine the princes of North Italy against the Spaniards, and who made the peace of Ulm between France and Bavaria, thus detaching the emperor's best ally.
In 1632 it was invaded by the Swedes, and, when Maximilian violated the treaty of Ulm in 1647, was ravaged by the French and the Swedes.
From Munich, with which, as with Regensburg, Ingolstadt and Ulm, it is connected by main lines of railway.
(at Ulm) to 920 ft.
It is navigable as far as Ulm, 220 m.
Ulm, Nuremberg, Quedlinburg, Erfurt, Strassburg and Guben are famed for their vegetables and garden seeds.
In the interior only Spandau, Custrin, Magdeburg, Ingolstadt and Ulm were maintained as defensive supporting points, and similarly on the Rhine, which was formerly studded with fortresses from Basel to Emmerich, the defences were limited to New Breisach, Germersheim, Mainz, Cohlenz, Cologne and Wesel, all of a barrier character and not organized specially as centres of activity for field armies.
Then the Romanists, under the guidance of Cardinal Campeggio and the archduke Ferdinand, met at Regensburg and decided to take strong and aggressive measures to destroy Lutheranism, while, on the other hand, representatives of the cities met at Spires and at Ulm, and asserted their intenfion of forwarding and protecting the teaching of the reformed doctrines.
Guided by Luther and Melanchthon, the principal states and cities in which the ideas of the reformers prevailedelectoral Saxony, Brandenburg, Hesse and the Rhenish Palatinate, Strassburg, Nuremberg, Ulm and Augsburgbegan to carry out measures of church reform.
The league was soon joined by other strong cities, among them Strassburg, Ulm, Constance, Lhbeck and Goslar; but it was not until after the defeat and death of Zwingli atKappel in October 1531 that it was further strengthened by the adhesion of those towns which had hitherto looked for leadership to the Swiss reformer.
Fortified by the emperor Henry I., Dinkelsbiihl received in 1305 the same municipal rights as Ulm, and obtained in 1351 the position of a free imperial city, which it retained till 1802, when it passed to Bavaria.
Of Augsburg by rail and at the junction of lines to Ulm and Ingolstadt.
CASPAR AQUILA [KASPAR ADLER] (1488-1560), German reformer, was born at Augsburg on the 7th of August 1488, educated there and at Ulm (1502), in Italy (he met Erasmus in Rome), at Bern (1508), Leipzig (151o) and Wittenberg (1513).
Of Prussia detained him in Pomerania; and when at last (December 1805) he led his 6000 men towards the Elbe district the third coalition had already been dissipated by the victories of Ulm and Austerlitz.
In his thirteenth year he was sent to the evangelical seminary at Blaubeuren, near Ulm, to be prepared for the study of theology.
He commanded a corps in the advance on Ulm, and at Austerlitz he led the decisive attack on the allied centre.
It served, however, to precipitate the crisis on the continent of Europe; the great army assembled at Boulogne was turned eastwards; by the capitulation of Ulm (October 19) Austria lost a large part of her forces; and the last news that reached Pitt on his A t lit death-bed was that of the ruin of all his hopes by the US er Z crushing victory of Napoleon over the Russians and Austrians at Austerlitz (December 2).
In the meantime he left Tubingen for Ulm, whence he came finally to the seminary of Maulbronn.
Also, as we are masters of Ulm, we cannot be deprived of the advantage of commanding both sides of the Danube, so that should the enemy not cross the Lech, we can cross the Danube, throw ourselves on his line of communications, recross the river lower down, and frustrate his intention should he try to direct his whole force against our faithful ally.
Austrian troops that had escaped capture at Ulm and had joined Kutuzov at Braunau now separated from the Russian army, and Kutuzov was left with only his own weak and exhausted forces.
"It's not treachery nor rascality nor stupidity: it is just as at Ulm... it is..."--he seemed to be trying to find the right expression.