that the organization of the ulema, or legist and ecclesiastical class, is due.
So also did the " Midhat Constitution " promulgated by Abd-ul-Hamid almost immediately after his accession to the throne, owing largely to the reactionary spirit at that time of the' Ulema and of the sultan's immediate advisers, but almost, if not quite, in equal measure to the scornful reception of the Constitution by the European powers.
Besides these members of the secretarial class, such as nishanjis and defterdars, as well as regular army officers, and occasionally members of the ecclesiastical class, or ulema, rose to the rank of vizier.
the only schools had been the colleges of the Ulema and such preparatory schools as had been founded by private munificence.
The rules regulating the Ulema were amended, a school for judges was founded, and the Sheikh-ul-Islam was charged with the duty of revising all judgments.
Mutinous troops seized the parliament house and the telegraph offices; the grand vizier resigned and was succeeded by Tewfik Pasha (April 14); and delegates were sent by the Liberal Union, the association of Ulema and other bodies to discuss terms with the committee.
Among higher religions orthodox Islam has never had real priests, doing religious acts on behalf of others, though it has, like Protestant churches, leaders of public devotion (imams) and an important class of privileged religious teachers (`ulema).
Nevertheless his descendants were left in possession of their ancestor's dominions; and till 1170 Kerman, to which belonged also the opposite coast of Oman, enjoyed a well-ordered government, except for a short interruption caused by the deposition of Iran Shah, who had embraced the tenets of the Ismailites, and was put to death (IIoi) in accordance with a fatwa of the ulema.
The grand cadi, who must belong to the sect of the Hanifis, sits at Cairo, and is aided by a council of Ulema or learned men.
Among the Moslems the Sheikh-elIslam, appointed by the khedive from among the Ulema (learned class), exercises the highest religious and, in certain subjects, judicial authority.
There is aso a grand cadi, nominated by the sultan of Turkey from among the Ulema of Stamboul.
The Ulema observe the same custom on the first three days of the spring quarter.
On the 12th of Safar 1220 (May 12th, 1805) the sheiks, with an immense concourse of the inhabitants, assembled in the house of the 1~alI; and the ulema, amid the prayers and ~
The ulema, in answer, were desired and to go to the citadel; but they were apprised of ifleheme~ treachery; and on.
Al-Alfi and his partisans were unable to pay the sum promised to the Porte; Salih Pasha received plenipotentiary powers from Consta,ntinople, in consequence of the letter from the ulema; and, on the condition of Mehemet Alls paying 4000 purses to the Porte, it was decided that he should continue in his post, and the reinstatement of the beys was abandoned.
The writer, probably a member of the Ulema class, addressing the British agent as the reformer of Egypt, said:
These are the ` ulema, " knowers," theology being briefly named "the knowledge" (` ilm).
Abi `Amir proposed to confiscate a religious foundation and the assembled ulema refused to approve the act, and were threatened by his vizier, one of them replied, "All the evil you say of us applies to yourself; you seek unjust gains and support your injustice by threats; you take bribes and practise ungodliness in the world.
The same consciousness of independent authority and strength still survives among the ulema.
The way in which the ulema are recruited and formed into a hierarchy with a vigorous esprit de corps throws an instructive light on the whole subject before us.
A place is not hard to find, for the powerful corporation of the ulema seeks to put its own members into all posts, and, though the remuneration is at first small, the young `alim gradually accumulates the revenues of several offices.
Yet it is but a small fraction of the ulema of the Moslem world that enjoy even such an education as the Azhar affords.
But among his own subjects he is compelled to defer to the ulema and has no considerable influence on the composition of that body.
He nominates the Sheikh ul-Islam or mufti (q.v.) of Constantinople (grand mufti), who is his representative in the imamate and issues judgments in points of faith and law from which there is no appeal; but the nomination must fall on one of the mollahs, 2 who form the upper stratum of the hierarchy of ulema.
And, though the various places of religious dignity are conferred by the sultan, no one can hold office who has not been examined and certified by older ulema, so that the corporation is self-propagating, and palace intrigues, though not without influence, can never break through its iron bonds.
The deposition of `Abd ul-Aziz is an example of the tremendous power that can be wielded by the ulema at the head of their thousands of pupils, 3 when they choose to stir up the masses; nor would Malhmud II.
4 a on it, and is answerable only to a member of the third class of the ulema, viz.
For the organization of the `ulema in the Ottoman Empire during the middle ages see E.
Suleiman's claims to renown as a legislator rest mainly on his organization of the Ulema, or clerical class, in its hierarchical order from the Sheikh-ul-Islam downwards.
The terms amamah and dastar are used chiefly with reference to the turbans of priests and ulema, that is learned and religious persons.
The scheme met with keen opposition from the Mussulman governing classes and the ulema, or privileged religious teachers, and was but partially put in force, especially in the remoter parts of the empire; and more than one conspiracy was formed against the sultan's life on account of it.
The same prince employed the most learned among the ulema of Transoxiana for a translation of TabarIs second great work, the Tafsir, or commentary on the Koran, and accepted the dedication of the first Persian book on medicine, a pharmacopoeia by the physician Abfl MansUr Muwaffaq b.
His leaning to Christians aroused further opposition to his rule, and in January 1908 he was declared deposed by the ulema of Fez, who offered the throne to Hafid.
In a narrower sense, Ulema is used, in a Muslim state, of a council of such learned men, holding government appointments.
On the training of the ulema see SUNNITES.
Prior to my years in Saudi Arabia, I had been puzzled by the vehemence of the traditional ulema 's hostility to Wahhabism.
Although some of his quatrains are purely mystic and pantheistic, most of them bear quite another stamp; they are the breviary of a radical freethinker, who protests in the most forcible manner both against the narrowness, bigotry and uncompromising austerity of the orthodox ulema and the eccentricity, hypocrisy and wild ravings of advanced Sufis, whom he successfully combats with their own weapons, using the whole mystic terminology simply to ridicule mysticism itself.
If all conception of intermediary priesthood be eliminated, the Ulema may be said to be equivalent to the secular clergy of Roman Christendom (see Dervish).
Even among Muslim ulema who had not been to India, we find interestingly positive appraisals of Hinduism.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.