The king of Tyre, who recognized David's newly won position (v.
The description of the king of Tyre (xxviii.
They traded also on the Red sea, and opened up regular traffic with India as well as with the ports of the south and west, so that it was natural for Solomon to employ the merchant navies of Tyre in his oversea trade.
To the north-west Israel bordered upon Tyre, with whom its relations were friendly.
His geography was based more immediately on the work of his predecessor, Marinus of Tyre, and on that of Hipparchus, the follower and critic of Eratosthenes.
See opening of the letters of Abimelech of Tyre, Bezold's Oriental Diplomacy, Nos.
The prince of Tyre occupied part of Galilee.
Tribute was received from Tyre and Sidon; and Jehu, who was now king of Israel, sent his gifts of gold, silver, &c., to the conqueror.
The various continuations of William of Tyre above mentioned represent the opinion of the native Franks (which is hostile to Richard I.); while in Nicetas, who wrote a history of the Eastern empire from 1118 to 1206, we have a Byzantine authority who, as Professor Bury remarks, "differs from Anna and Cinnamus in his tone towards the crusaders, to whom he is surprisingly fair."
17-20, and the description of the commerce of Tyre (xxvii.
Putting into Tyre he was able to save the city from the deluge of Mahommedan conquest which followed Saladin's victory at Hittin.
- Omri (q.v.), the founder of one of the greatest dynasties of Israel, was contemporary with the revival of Tyre under Ithobaal, and the relationship between the states is seen in the marriage of Omri's son Ahab to Jezebel, the priest-king's daughter.
Both Esar-haddon (681-668) and Assur-bani-pal (668 - c. 626) number among their tributaries Tyre, Ammon, Moab, Edom, Ascalon, Gaza and Manasseh himself,' and cuneiform dockets unearthed at Gezer suggest the presence of Assyrian garrisons there (and no doubt also elsewhere) to ensure allegiance.
If Judah was compelled to take part in the Assyrian campaigns against Egypt, Arabia (the Syrian desert) and Tyre, this would only be in accordance with a vassal's duty.
A little later Tyre received as its king Merbaal (555-552) who had been fetched from Babylonia.
He established himself firmly in Tyre (refusing admission to Guy, the king of Jerusalem); and from it he both sent appeals for aid to Europe - which largely contributed to cause the Third Crusade - and despatched reinforcements to the crusaders, who, from 1188 onwards, were engaged in the siege of Acre.
He had saved Tyre; and from it he sent his appeals to the West.
A few years later, in 347, the council of Sardica, a council of practically the whole West save Africa, reversed Tyre and acquitted St Athanasius after a full judicial inquiry.
From Sidon, and later from its more famous rival Tyre, the merchant adventurers of Phoenicia explored and colonized the coasts of the Mediterranean and fared forth into the ocean beyond.
i.) and in his lamentation on Tyre (chap. xxvii.), is also exhibited in the visions contained in chaps.
Jason sent money for a sacrifice to Heracles at Tyre; and the only recorded opposition to his policy came from his envoys, who pleaded that the money might be applied to naval expenditure.
After the Passover he went to Caesarea, where he had games performed in honour of Claudius, and the inhabitants of Tyre and Sidon waited on him to sue for peace.
The fall of Tyre marks a great advance in development of Venetian trade; the republic had now passed beyond the Adriatic, and had taken an important step towards that complete command of the Levant which she established after the Fourth Crusade.
A Venetian fleet of 1 20 sail came in 1123, and after aiding in the repulse of an attack, which the Egyptians had taken advantage of Baldwin II.'s captivity to deliver, they helped the regent Eustace to capture Tyre (1124), in return for considerable privileges - freedom from toils throughout the kingdom, a quarter in Jerusalem, baths and ovens in Acre, and in Tyre onethird of the city and its suburbs, with their own court of justice and their own church.
If there was thus only a customary and unwritten law (and William of Tyre definitely speaks of a jus consuetudinarium under Baldwin III., quo regnum regebatur), then the "Letters of the Sepulchre" are a myth - or rather, if they ever existed, they existed not as a code of written law, but, perhaps, as a register of fiefs, like the Sicilian Defetarii.
They rode incessantly to battle over burning sands, in full armour 1 For instance, the abbey of Mount Sion had large possessions, not only in the Holy Land (at Ascalon, Jaffa, Acre, Tyre, Caesarea and Tarsus), but also in Sicily, Calabria, Lombardy, Spain and France (at Orleans, Bourges and Poitiers).
In the kingdom itself nothing was left to the Latins by the end of 1189 except the city of Tyre; and to the north of the kingdom they only held Antioch and Tripoli, with the Hospitallers' fortress at Margat.
Compelled to leave the court of Constantinople, which he had been serving, he had sailed for the Holy Land and reached Tyre about three weeks after the battle of Hattin.
The opposition was successful: by 1233 Frederick had lost all hold on Cyprus, and only retained Tyre in his own kingdom of Jerusalem.
Till 1243 the party of Frederick had been successful in retaining Tyre, and the baronial demand for a regency had remained without effect; but in that year the opposition, headed by the great family of Ibelin, succeeded, under cover of asserting the rights of Alice of Cyprus to the regency, in securing possession of Tyre, and the kingdom of Jerusalem thus fell back into the power of the baronage.
But about 5840 Ranke suggested, and von Sybel in his Geschichte des ersten Kreuzzuges proved, that Albert of Aix was not a good authority, and that consequently William of Tyre must be set aside for the history of the First Crusade, and other and more contemporary authorities used.
Taking the Western authorities for the First Crusade separately, one may divide them, in the light of von Sybel's work, into four kinds - the accounts of eye-witnesses; later compilations based on these accounts; semi-legendary and legendary narratives; and lastly, in a class by itself, the "History" of William of Tyre, who is rather a scientific historian than a chronicler.
The worship of Baal of Tyre roused a small circle of zealots, and again the Phoenician marriage was the cause of the evil.
the Baal of Tyre) is as intelligible as a tendency to look to Aramaean neighbours.
It is interesting to find that Hadad-nirari claims tribute from Tyre, Sidon and Beth-Omri (Israel), also from Edom and Palastu (Philistia).
Among those who paid tribute were Rasun (the biblical Rezin) of Damascus, Menahem of Samaria, the kings of Tyre, Byblos and Hamath and the queen of Aribi (Arabia, the Syrian desert).
The sabbath, once a festival, had become more strictly observed, and when he found the busy agriculturists and traders (some of them from Tyre) pursuing their usual labours on that day, he pointed to the disasters which had resulted in the past from such profanation, and immediately took measures to put down the evil (Neh.
The overthrow of Tyre and Gaza secured the possession of the coast and the Jewish state entered upon the Greek period.
Although the first definite endeavour to locate the Golden Chersonese thus dates from the middle of the 2nd century of our era, the name was apparently well known to the learned of Europe at a somewhat earlier period, and in his Antiquities of the Jews, written during the latter half of the 1st century, Josephus says that Solomon gave to the pilots furnished to him by Hiram of Tyre commands " that they should go along with his stewards to the land that of old was called Ophir, but now the Aurea Chersonesus, which belongs to India, to fetch gold."
Alexander came within sight of the Persian host without having met with any opposition since he quitted Tyre.
A Phoenician dedication to "Baal of Lebanon" found here, and dated also to the 7th century, suggests that Citium may have belonged to Tyre.
geography more studied; the Crusades gave a great impulse to the writing of history, and produced, besides innumerable other works, the greatest historical work of the middle ages - the Historia transmarina of William of Tyre.
Until about 1840 the authority followed for its history was naturally the great work of William of Tyre.
On his return he was happy in winning the good opinion of Amalric I.; he was made first canon and then archdeacon of Tyre, and tutor of the future Baldwin IV.
(1170); while on Baldwin's accession he became chancellor of the kingdom and archbishop of Tyre (1174-1175).
But the whole subject of the continuators of William of Tyre is dubious.] To the Western authorities for the First Crusade must be added the Eastern - Byzantine, Arabic and Armenian.
It is from the Second Crusade that William of Tyre, representing the attitude of the Franks of Jerusalem, begins to be a primary authority; while on the Mahommedan side a considerable authority emerges in Ibn Athir.
The history of the later Crusades, from the Fifth to the Eighth, enters into the continuations of William of Tyre above mentioned; while the Historia orientalis of Jacques de Vitry, who had taken part in the Fifth Crusade, and died in 1240, embraces the history of events till 1218 (the third book being a later addition).
Gaston Dodu, in the work mentioned below, begins by a brief account of the original authorities, which is chiefly of value so far as it deals with William of Tyre and the history of the assizes; and H.
(4) Phoenice Maritima; capital, Tyre.
She had temples at Sidon and at Tyre (whence her worship was transplanted to Carthage), and the Philistines probably venerated her at Ascalon (I Sam.
Baal of Tyre, of Lebanon, &c., are frequent; see G.
He had a magnificent temple in insular Tyre, founded by Hiram, to which gifts streamed from all countries, especially at the great feasts.
The period between Eratosthenes and Marinus of Tyre was one of great political importance.
The attempts of Methodius of Tyre at the beginning of the 4th century and Apollinarius of Laodicea about 360 to defend chiliasm and assail the theology of Origen had no result.
In Jerusalem, Tyre, and other centres also, orthodoxy was re-established.
marched against north Syria, and among his tributaries mentions Menahem 2 together with Rezin of Damascus, and kings of Tyre, Gebal, &c. (c. 738 B.C.).
13 Javan exports slaves to Tyre, not conversely.
The craft survived and flourished under the Saracenic regime in Alexandria, Cairo, Tripoli, Tyre, Aleppo and Damascus.
Dr John Lindley considered that some of the cedartrees sent by Hiram, king of Tyre, to Jerusalem might have been procured from Mount Atlas, and have been identical with Callitris quadrivalvis, or arar-tree, the wood of which is hard and durable, and was much in request in former times for the building of temples.
It was very popular during the middle ages, and was used by Ordericus Vitalis for his Historiae ecclesiasticae; by William archbishop of Tyre, for his Belli sacri historia; and by Vincent of Beauvais for his Speculum historiaae.
From the time of Diocletian there was a Phoenice ad Libanum, with Emesa as capital, as well as a Phoenice Maritima of which Tyre was the chief city.
On his return he was made titular archbishop of Tyre and librarian of the Vatican library.
At Tyre the year was counted from the 19th of our October, at Gaza from the 28th of the same month, and at Damascus from the vernal equinox.
Era of Tyre.
- The era of Tyre is reckoned from the 19th of October, or the beginning of the Macedonian month Hyperberetaeus, in the year 126 B.C. In order, therefore, to reduce it to the common era, subtract 125; and when the date is B.C., subtract it from 126.
With Tyre and Sidon they are condemned for plundering Judah, and for kidnapping its children to sell to the Greeks (Joel iii.
He undertook the long and perilous journey from Sardis to the Persian capital Susa, visited Babylon, Colchis, and the western shores of the Black Sea as far as the estuary of the Dnieper; he travelled in Scythia and in Thrace, visited Zante and Magna Graecia, explored the antiquities of Tyre, coasted along the shores of Palestine, saw Gaza, and made a long stay in Egypt.
On his return from Egypt, as he proceeded along the Syrian shore, he seems to have landed at Tyre, and from thence to have gone to Thasos.
Among the inscriptions one of the most interesting is the letter of the Tyrian merchants resident at Puteoli to the senate of Tyre, written in 174, asking the latter to undertake the payment of the rent of their factory, and the reply of the senate promising to do so.
31 (journey to Tyre and Sidon and back through Decapolis); viii.
ii-1 9), for underneath the king of Tyre (or perhaps Missor) 4 we can trace the majestic figure of the first man.
Tyre also was made tributary.
655), for the temple of Melkart at Tyre.
made him his private secretary, in 1793 creating him titular archbishop of Tyre and despatching him to Lucerne as nuncio.
are on various foreign nations, Edom, Tyre, Egypt, &c. Prophecies of Israel's future restoration follow in chs.
And when the pagan legend of the Syrian Astarte tells how she lived for ten years in Tyre as a prostitute, this directly recalls the Gnostic myth of how Simon found Helena in a brothel in Tyre (Epiphanius, Ancoratus, c. 104).
In the kingdom only Tyre was left to the Christians.
Of Christian authorities the following are important, the history of William of Tyre (1137-1185), the Itinerarium peregrinorum, probably the Latin version of the Carmen Ainbrosii (ed.
by Stubbs, "Rolls" series, London, 1864), and the Chronique d'outremer, or the French translation of William of Tyre's history and its continuation by Ernoul, the squire of Balian, seigneur of Ibelin, 1228.
The story is told by William of Tyre, who calls the place Quart Piert or Pierre, but it is a mere romance.
He was something of a scholar, and it was he who set William of Tyre to work.
William of Tyre was once astonished to find him questioning, on a bed of sickness, the resurrection of the body; and his taxation of clerical goods gave umbrage to the clergy generally.
William of Tyre is our original authority: see xix.
15, 21) or in Melkarth's shrine at Tyre, described by Herodotus (ii.
Sidon, Tyre and Aradus, though now connected with the mainland, were built originally upon islands; the Phoenicians preferred such sites, because they were convenient for shipping and easily defended against attack.
31), Achzib (now ez-Zib, ibid.), Ahiab (in Assyrian Mahalliba, ibid.) - three towns on the coast south of Tyre, Kanah (Josh.
28), Tyre (Phoen.
But " Sidonians " is the usual designation both in the Old Testament and in the Assyrian monuments (Sidunnu); and even at the time of Tyre's greatest ascendancy we read of Sidonians and not Tyrians in the Old Testament and in Homer; thus Ethbaal king of Tyre (Jos.
king of Tyre in the 8th century is styled " king of the Sidonians."
44) a more moderate tradition which placed the foundation of Tyre 2300 years before his time, i.e., c. 2756 B.C. According to Justin (xviii.
3) the Phoenicians, who had long been settled on the coast and occupied Sidon, founded Tyre in the year before the fall of Troy; possibly the date 1198 B.C., given by Menander of Ephesus (in Jos.
18) as that from which the era of Tyre begins, may refer to the epoch which Justin mentions.
Another city on the sea is called a haven, D'ar (Tyre) is its name, water is carried to it in boats; it is richer in fish than in sands."
divided; Aradus, Simyra, Sidon supported the rebellion; Ribhabad, the vassal of Byblus, and Abi-melech, king of Tyre, held out for Egypt; but while all the towns made professions of fidelity, they were scheming for their own interests, and in the end Egypt lost them all except Byblus.
This was the period of their development, and Tyre became the leading city of Phoenicia.
3, 1, dates the building of Solomon's temple in the 11th year of Hiram, and 420 years after the foundation of Tyre.
In contrast to Hiram I., king of Tyre, Ithobal or Ethbaal is styled in 1 Kings xvi.
of the Phoenicians, showing that in the interval the kings of Tyre had extended their rule over the other Phoenician cities.
" washed his weapons in the great sea," and exacted tribute from the kings of Tyre, Sidon, Byblus and other cities, including Arvad (Keilinschr.
mentions on his tribute-lists " IJirtim of Tyre "; and here for the first time a piece of native evidence becomes available.
was not only king of Tyre, as the Assyrian inscription calls him, but of Sidon too; and further, that by this time Tyre had established a colony in Cyprus (q.v.).
In Tiglath-pileser's Philistine campaign of 734 Byblus and Aradus paid tribute, and an Assyrian chief officer (the Rab-shakeh) was sent to Tyre and extorted from the king, now Metten or Mattun, the large sum of 150 talents of gold (KB.
Elulaeus IX., in Assyrian Lull, who ruled under the name of Pylas, was king of Tyre, Sidon, and other cities at this time (c. 725-690), and at the beginning of his reign suffered from an invasion by Shalmaneser IV.
In the reign of Sargon Phoenicia itself seems to have been left alone; but the inhabitants of Citium revolted, showing that the authority of Tyre in Cyprus had grown weak; and Sargon received the submission of seven Cyprian princes, and set up in Larnaca (probably in 709) the triumphal stele now in the Berlin Museum (Schrader, Cuneif.
in alliance with Egypt and Ethiopia, which aimed at throwing off the oppressive tyranny of Assyria; as usual, however, the city-states of Phoenicia could not combine even against a common foe, and several broke away from Tyre, so Menander tells us, and sided with Assyria.
The blockade of Tyre by sea, significantly passed over in Sennacherib's inscription, is described by Menander.
Sennacherib, however, so far accomplished his object as to break up the combination of Tyre and Sidon, which had grown into a powerful state.'
Tyre also came in for its share of hardship. Elulaeus was followed by Baal, who in 672 consented to join Tirhaka, the Ethiopian king of Egypt, in a rebellion against Assyria.
Esarhaddon, on his way to Egypt for the second time, determined to deal out punishment; he blockaded Tyre, and raised earthworks on the shore and cut off the water-supply; but he did not capture the city itself.
His monument found at Zenjirli represents the great king holding Baal of Tyre and Tirhaka of Egypt by cords fastened in their lips; 2 there is no evidence, however, that he actually took either of them prisoner.
Early in the reign of Assur-bani-pal Tyre was besieged again (668), but Assur-bani-pal succeeded no better than his predecessors.
If this dating is correct, and the Phoenician sea-power was at its height during these years, we can understand why Tyre gave so much trouble to the Assyrian kings.'
22) in 604 to the approaching downfall .538 B.C. of the kings of Tyre and Sidon and the coast-land beyond the sea, i.e.
65 sqq.; these scholars take Menander to refer to the later war of Esarhaddon and Assur-bani-pal against Baal of Tyre.
to displace the Chaldaean supremacy; he defeated Tyre and Sidon, and terrorized the other cities into submission (Herod.
Some of the Phoenician chiefs, among them Ithobal II., the new king of Tyre, while forced to yield to a change of masters, were bold enough to declare their hostility to the Babylonians.
After the fall of Jerusalem he marched upon Phoenicia; Apries withdrew his army, and the siege of Tyre began.
Ezekiel says that Nebuchadrezzar and his host had no reward for their heavy service against Tyre, and the presumption is that the city capitulated on favourable terms; for Ithobal's reign ends with the close of the siege, and the royal family is subsequently found in Babylon.
There seems to have been no struggle; the great siege and the subsequent civil disorders had exhausted Tyre, and Sidon took its place as the leading state.
About this time, too, Carthage made an effort for independence under Hanno the Great (538-521), the real founder of its fortunes; the old dependence upon Tyre was changed for a mere relation of piety observed by the annual sending of delegates (OEwpoi) to the festival of Melkarth (Arrian ii.
The disasters and humiliations which befell Tyre during this and the foregoing period might suggest that its prosperity had been seriously damaged.
His power, however, was limited by the wealthy merchant families, who possessed great influence in public affairs; thus it was possible for war or peace to be decided at Tyre in the king's absence, or at Sidon against his will (Arrian ii.
The priest of Melkarth at Tyre was the second man in the kingdom.
45), perhaps also at Tyre.'
During Nebuchadrezzar's time, as we have seen, a republic took the place of the monarchy at Tyre, and the government was administered by a succession of suffetes (judges); they held office for short terms, and in one instance two ruled together for six years.
Much later, in the 3rd century B.C., an inscription from Tyre mentions a suffete (NSI.
Under the Persians a federal bond was formed comprising Sidon, Tyre and Aradus, whose duty it was to contribute 300 triremes to the Persian fleet (Herod.
from Tyre may be read, " `Abd ba'al chief of the Hundred," NSI.
At this period Sidon occupied the position of leading state; in the fleet her king ranked next to Xerxes and before the king of Tyre (Herod.
67); her situation afforded advantages for expansion which Tyre on its small and densely populated island could not rival.
It was in the reign of Straton that Tyre fell into the hands of Evagoras, king of Salamis, who had already supplanted Phoenician with Greek civilization in Cyprus (Isocr.
Hence Aradus, Byblus, Sidon and Tyre issued a coinage of their own, of which many specimens exist: the coins are stamped as a rule with emblem or name of the city, sometimes with the name of the ruler.'
3 tells a story about Tyre during this period: the city, after being worn out though not defeated in long wars with the Persians, was so enfeebled that it was seized by the slaves, who rose and massacred their masters; one Straton alone escaped and was afterwards made king.
For the time Tyre lost its political existence, while the foundation of Alexandria presently changed the lines of trade, and dealt a blow even more fatal to the Phoenician cities.
Thus in 312 Tyre was captured from Antigonus by Ptolemy I., the ally of Seleucus; in 287 it passed into the dominion of Seleucus; in 275 again it was captured by Ptolemy II.
From the year 275 " the people of Tyre " reckoned their era (CIS.
47 wrongly connecting the story with Tyre).
Berytus was destroyed by the usurper Trypho in 140 B.C. Tyre in 120 and Sidon in 111 received complete independence, and inaugurated new eras from these dates.
Phoenicia was incorporated into the Roman province of Syria; Aradus, Sidon, Tyre and Tripolis were confirmed in their rights of self-government and in the possession of their territories.
In 14 B.C. Augustus rebuilt Berytus as a Roman colony and stationed two legions there; later on Ptolemais, Tyre and Sidon received colonial status.
Where much is still obscure, all that seems certain is that the antiquity of Phoenicia as a sea and trading power has been greatly exaggerated both in ancient and in modern times; the Minoan power of Cnossus preceded it by many centuries; the influence of Phoenicia in the Aegean cannot be carried back much earlier than the 12th century B.C., and, comparatively speaking, it was " foreign, late, sporadic."' A vivid description of the Phoenicians' trade at the time of Tyre's prosperity is given by Ezekiel (xxvii.
The Phoenician colonies were all supposed to have been founded from Tyre: with regard to the colonies in Cyprus and north Africa this was undoubtedly true.
14, 2) that the kings of Tyre ruled over Cyprus at the close of the 8th century; but a clear proof that the Phoenician rule was neither ancient nor uninterrupted is given by the fact that the Cyprian Greeks took the trouble to invent a Greek cuneiform character (Cypriote) modelled on the Assyrian.
3, 2), in the period of Tyre's first expansion.
In the days of Tyre's greatness her power rested directly on the colonies, which, unlike those of Greece, remained subject to the mother-city, and paid tithes of their revenues to its chief god, Melqarth, and sent envoys annually to his feast.
Then at the beginning of the 8th century B.C. the colonial power of Tyre began to decline; on the mainland and in Cyprus the Assyrians gained the Upper hand; in the Greek islands the Phoenicians had already been displaced to a great extent by the advancing tide of Dorian colonization.
But as Tyre decayed in power the colonies turned more and more to Carthage as their natural parent and protector.
For effective control over a colonial empire Carthage had the advantage of situation over far-away Tyre; the traditional bonds grew lax and the ancient dues ceased to be paid, though as late as the middle of the 6th century Carthage rendered tithes to the Tyrian Melqarth.
Carthage), Hippo, Kition, Tyre " (NSI.
Not a vestige remains of the great sanctuary of Melqarth at Tyre; a few traces of the temple of Adonis near Byblus were discovered by Renan, and a peculiar mausoleum, Burj alBezzaq, is still to be seen near Amrit; recent excavations at Bostan esh-Shekh near Sidon have unearthed parts of the enclosure or foundations of the temple of Eshmun (NSI.
p. 401); the conduits of Ras el-`Ain, south of Tyre, are considered to be of ancient date.
21) remind us of the two pillars which Herodotus saw in the temple of Melqarth at Tyre (Herod.
Occasionally we know what the name was; the Baal of Tyre was Melqarth (Melkarth), which again means merely " king of the city "; similarly among the Aramaeans the Ba'al of Harran was the moon-god Sin.
Two or three other deities may be mentioned here: Eshmun, the god of vital force and healing, worshipped at Sidon especially, but also at Carthage and in the colonies, identified by the Greeks with Asclepius; Melqarth, the patron deity of Tyre, identified with Heracles; Reshef or Reshuf, the " flame " or " lightning " god, especially popular in Cyprus and derived originally from Syria, whom the Greeks called Apollo.
In 1874 he received a government commission to undertake explorations in Syria, particularly at Tyre, and as a result he published in 1876 Aus Phonicien, a collection of historical and geographical sketches.
Aedesius returned to Tyre, where he was ordained presbyter.
Educated by William of Tyre, Baldwin IV.
- The narrative of William of Tyre concludes with Baldwin IV.'s transfer of the regency to Raymund of Tripoli.
The numbers are comparatively large and possibly include forces from Tyre, Judah, Edom and Moab.
Besides a valuable account of the principal sacred sites of Judaea, Samaria and Galilee as they existed in the 7th century, he also gives important information as to Alexandria and Constantinople, briefly describes Damascus and Tyre, the Nile and the Lipari volcanoes, and refers to the caliph Moawiya I .
Evagoras at one time (about 386) made himself master of Tyre (Isoc. Evag.
In Tyre and Sidon, no less than in Antioch or Alexandria, Greek literature and philosophy were seriously cultivated, as we may see by the great names which they contributed.
His external policy was not more fortunate than that of his predecessor, as he lost Tyre to the Franks, and a fleet equipped by him was defeated by the Venetians.
The capture and destruction of this important place were followed by the capture of Tyre, Sidon, Haifa, Athlit and Beirut, and thus Syria was cleared of the Crusaders.
This little community suffered much persecution at first from the Greek Church, and afterwards from the Druses, by whom in 1860 nearly 1000 Christians were massacred, while others escaped to Tyre or Sidon.
I) began an intrigue with Moab, Edom, Ammon, Tyre and Sidon, which the prophet Jeremiah vigorously denounced (Jer.
The city that rejects them shall have a less lenient judgment than Sodom; Tyre and Sidon shall be better off than cities like Chorazin and Bethsaida which have seen His miracles; Capernaum, favoured above all, shall sink to the deepest depth.
across, and this breadth it maintains to a short distance south of Tyre, where it suddenly narrows; until, at Ras el-Abiad, it has been necessary to cut a passage in the precipitous face of the cliff to allow the coastroad to be carried past it.
Ladder of Tyre."
(812-783) claims as tributary the land of Hatti, Amor, Tyre, Sidon, " the land of Omri " (Israel), Edom and Philistia.
(745-728): proand anti-Assyrian parties now make themselves felt, and when north Syria was taken in 738, Tyre, Sidon, nance of Damascus (under Rezin), " Samaria " (under Menahem) and a queen of Aribi were among the tributaries.
A recently published inscription of Sennacherib (of 694 B.C.) mentions enslaved peoples from Philistia and Tyre, but does not name Judah.
2 The " Baal of Heaven," reminiscent of the Egyptian title " lord of heaven," given long before to Resheph, appears in the pantheon of Tyre (c. 677).
course and alliance introduced the cults of Chemosh, Milcom, the Baal of Tyre and the Astarte of Sidon.
After the taking of Tyre Alexander decided to advance upon Egypt.
From the military point of view - and Arrian drew upon the memoirs of two of Alexander's lieutenants - the significant thing was that not merely was the coast route from Tyre to Gaza open, but also there was no danger of a flank attack as the expeditionary force proceeded.
Consequently a visit to Jerusalem is interpolated in the journey from Tyre to Gaza; and, Alexander, contrary to all expectation, is made to respect the high priest's passive resistance.
The next king confirmed this and appointed Simon military commander of the district stretching from Tyre to Egypt.
In 42 B.C., however, the tyrant of Tyre encroached upon Galilean territory and in 40 B.C. Herod had to fly for his life before the Parthians.
In 34 B.C. (for example) or earlier, Mark Antony gave Cleopatra the whole of Phoenicia and the coast of the Philistines south of Eleuthesus, with the exception only of Tyre and Sidon, part of the Arabian territory and the district of Jericho.
Further instruction in the art of metal-working came probably to the Jews from the neighbouring country of Tyre.
A struggle followed: in the issue, Baldwin agreed to leave his mother in possession of Jerusalem and Nablus, while he retained Acre and Tyre for himself.
cii.), William of Tyre tells us that he spent his spare time in reading and had a particular affection for history; that he was well skilled in the jus consuetudinarium of the kingdom (afterwards recorded by lawyers like John of Ibelin and Philip of Novara as "the assizes of Jerusalem"); and that he had the royal faculty for remembering faces, and could generally be trusted to address by name anybody whom he had once met, so that he was more popular with high and low than any of his predecessors.
- William of Tyre is the great primary authority for his reign; Cinnamus and Ibn-al-athir (see Bibliography to the article CRUSADES) give the Byzantine and Mahommedan point of view.
The date of the foundation of these colonies cannot be fixed; but at an early period they formed a chain of settlements from Trebizond to Rhodes, and by the 8th century B.C. some of them rivalled the splendour of Tyre and Sidon.
50o), Bentley sufficiently proved that the letters were written by a sophist or rhetorician (possibly Adrianus of Tyre, died c. A.D.
12), writing about this time, describes Kittim (a name derived from Citium, q.v.) as a port of call for merchantmen homeward bound for Tyre, and as a shelter for Tyrian refugees; but the Hebrew geographers of this and the next century classify Kittim, together with other coast-lands and islands, under the heading Javan, " Ionian " (q.v.), and consequently reckoned it as predominantly Greek.
After the victory of Alexander the Great at Issus in 333 B.C. all the states of Cyprus welcomed him, and sent timber and ships for his siege of Tyre in 332.
Throughout the period of Hebrew domination, however, its political connexions were always with Syria rather than with Palestine proper: thus, about 725 B.C. it joined Sidon and Tyre in a revolt against Shalmaneser IV.
As an enemy, Edom in alliance with the tribes along the trade-routes (Philistines, Moabites, &c.) was responsible for many injuries, and in frequent forays carried away Judaeans as slaves for Gaza and Tyre (Am.
Diduna), formerly the principal city of Phoenicia, now a small town of about 15,000 inhabitants, situated on the Syrian coast between Beirut and Stir (Tyre).
Sidon is nearly always mentioned along with Tyre - Jer.
In the Old Testament, as frequently in Greek literature, "Sidonians" is used not in a local but in an ethnic sense, and means "Phoenicians," hence the name of Sidon was familiar to the Greeks earlier than that of Tyre, though the latter was the more important city (ed.
The legend is without any basis in fact, though it appears in the pages of William of Tyre.
It also appears in the pages of Albert of Aix, who wrote somewhere about 1130; and from Albert it was borrowed by William of Tyre.
This saga found its most piquant beginning in the Hermit's vision at Jerusalem, and there it accordingly began - alike in Albert, followed by William of Tyre and in the Chanson des chetifs, followed by the later Chanson d'Antioche.
Maximus of Tyre >>
Fulk readily accepted the offer; and in 1129 he came and was married to Melisinda, receiving the towns of Acre and Tyre as her dower.
William of Tyre speaks of him as a fine soldier, an able politician, and a good son of the church, and only blames him for partiality to his friends, and a forgetfulness of names and faces, which placed him at a disadvantage and made him too dependent on his immediate intimates.
Tyre seems to have revolted at the same time.
Meanwhile the siege of insular Tyre was closely pressed; its water-supply was cut off, and it was compelled to surrender.
After the death of Pamphilus Eusebius withdrew to Tyre, and later, while the Diocletian persecution was still raging, went to Egypt, where he seems to have been imprisoned, but soon released.
Egypt was of interest only as it came into Israelite history, Babylon and Nineveh were to illustrate the judgments of Yahweh, Tyre and Sidon to reflect the glory of Solomon.
Irenaeus then goes on to tell how at Tyre Simon rescued Helen from prostitution, and took her about with him, saying that she was the first thought of his mind, the mother of all things, by whom in the beginning he had conceived the idea of making angels and arch-angels.
9), that he consoled himself for the loss of the Spirit by the purchase of Helen of Tyre (De an.
The last two facts are attested by William of Tyre and Barhebraeus.
The sees are Aleppo, Baalbek, Tripoli, Ehden, Damascus, Beirut, Tyre, Cyprus and Jebel' (held by the patriarch himself ex officio).
On this narrow site Tyre was built; its 25,000 inhabitants were crowded into manystoreyed houses loftier than those of Rome; and yet place was found not only for the great temple of Melqarth with its courts, but for docks and warehouses, and for the purple factories, which in Roman times made the town an unpleasant place of residence (Strabo xvi.
Tyre was still an important city and an almost impregnable fortress under the Arab Empire.
The most important references to Tyre in the Bible are i Kings v., vii., ix.; Is.
For the history of Tyre see PHOENICIA.
He was easily able to clear himself of these charges; but the hatred of his enemies was not relaxed, and in the summer of 335 he was peremptorily ordered to appear at Tyre, where a council had been summoned to sit in judgment upon his conduct.
There appeared plainly a predetermination to condemn him, and he fled from Tyre to Constantinople to appeal to the emperor himself.
of Assyria received tribute of silver and gold from Ya-u-a son of Omri, 1 Tyre and Sidon; another attack followed in 839.
The church of Tyre described by Eusebius (H.E.
Apollonius of Tyre >>
Tyre revolted in the seventh year of his reign, and was besieged for thirteen years; a contract-tablet dated in his fortieth year shows that at that time it was under Babylonian officials.
After the investment of Tyre Nebuchadrezzar marched against Jerusalem, put Jehoiakim to death and placed Jehoiachin on the throne.
Sidon and other Phoenician cities were captured, but Tyre held out, while its king Lulia (Elulaeus) fled to Cyprus.
tyre glared at me and started writing another ticket for having worn tires.
tyre in any doubt always seek the opinion of an experienced tire fitter.
During his captivity Eustace Graverius became regent of Jerusalem, and succeeded, with the aid of the Venetians, in repelling an Egyptian attack, and even in capturing Tyre, 1124.
down to 1 127; for the rest of the reign the authority is William of Tyre.
2 The conquest of the Phoenician coast was not to be altogether easy, for Tyre shut its gates and for seven months Alexander had to sit before it - one of those obstinate sieges which mark the history of the Semitic races.
Thereafter there occur vague references to Chryse in the Periplus of the Erythrean Sea, &c., but the earliest trace of anything resembling first-hand knowledge concerning the peninsula of Indo-China and Malaya is revealed in the writings of Ptolemy, whose views were mainly derived from those of his predecessor Marinus of Tyre, who in his turn drew his deductions from information supplied to him by the mariner Alexander who, there is every reason to think, had himself voyaged to the Malay Peninsula and beyond.
It has been contended that, according to later and more formulated jurisprudence, such an appeal would have lain, since the trial at Tyre was not concerned with purely spiritual matters (see.
A series of campaigns against Edom, Moab, Ammon and the Aramaean states, friendly relations with Hiram of Tyre, and the recognition of his sovereignty by the king of Hamath on the Orontes, combine to portray a monarchy which was the ideal.
- If the records leave it uncertain (a) whether Jehu (like Tyre and Sidon) sent tribute to Shalmaneser as a sign of submission or, while severing relations with Hazael, sought the favour of Assyria, and (b) whether Judah only escaped Hazael's vengeance by a timely bribe or, in freeing itself from Israel, had bribed Hazael to create a diversion, it appears that the southern kingdom suffered little in the disastrous wars between Damascus and Israel.
(d) William of Tyre is the scientific historian and rationalizer, weaving into a harmonious account, which was followed by historians for centuries, the sober accounts of eye-witnesses and the picturesque details of the saga - with somewhat of a bias towards the latter in regard to the First Crusade.
At Tyre, as among the Hebrews, Baal had his symbolical pillars, one of gold and one of smaragdus, which, transported by phantasy to the farthest west, are still familiar to us as the Pillars of Hercules.
Inheriting the trade of ruined Tyre and becoming the centre of the new commerce between Europe and the Arabian and Indian East, the city grew in less than a century to be larger than Carthage; and for some centuries more it had to acknowledge no superior but Rome.
His cruelties and vices, however, caused him to be greatly detested, and during another civil war he was defeated in a battle at Damascus, and killed near Tyre, possibly at the instigation of his wife, a daughter of Ptolemy VII., who was indignant at his subsequent marriage with a daughter of the Parthian king, Mithradates.
The history of this period is mainly a history of Tyre, which not only rose to a sort of hegemony among the Phoenician states, but founded colonies beyond the seas (below).
From the data given in these passages we learn that Hiram I., son of Abi-baal, reigned in Tyre from 970 to 936 B.C. He enlarged the island-town to the east, restored and enriched the temples, built new ones to Heracles (i.e.
But Tyre always counted for more in commerce than in politics; and in the year 586, just before the great siege, Ezekiel draws a vivid picture (ch.
Another Laodicea " by the sea " (ad mare), also of Seleucid foundation, is probably to be identified with the ruined site called Umm el-`Awamid, near the coast between Tyre and Akko; several Phoenician inscriptions have been found there (e.g.
2 See Eupolemus (140-100 B.C.) quoted by Alexander Polyhistor, who, in a supposed letter from Solomon to the king of Tyre, mentions the food-supplies required by the Tyrians and promised from Palestine (Fr.
In this connexion may be mentioned the custom of burning the chief god of the city in effigy, or in the person of a human representative, at Tyre and in the Tyrian colonies, such as Carthage and Gades; the custom lasted down to a late time (see Frazer, loc. cit.
the shrines of Chemosh, Moloch, Baal of Tyre and Astarte of Sidon (1 Kings xi.
The successors of Strato in the headship of the Lyceum were Lyco, Aristo of Ceos, Critolaus, Diodorus of Tyre, and Erymneus, who brings the philosophic succession down to about z oo B.C. Other Peripatetics belonging to this period are Hieronymus of Rhodes, Prytanis and Phormio of Ephesus, the delirus senex who attempted to instruct Hannibal in the art of war (Cic. De orat.
The water-supply of ancient Tyre came from the powerful springs of Ras-al `Ain (see Aqueduct) on the mainland, one hour south of the city, where there are still remarkable reservoirs, in connexion with which curious survivals of Adonis worship have been observed by travellers.
13, 19, Javan trades with Tyre in slaves, bronze-work, iron and drugs.
The French legend of the knight of the swan is attached to the house of Bouillon, and although William of Tyre refers to it about 1170 as fable, it was incorporated without question by later annalists.
Returning through of Syria, and stopping at Tyre to make final arrangements for the conquered provinces, he traversed Mesopotamia and 1 See Bauer,"Die Schlacht bei Issus" in Jahreshefte d.
The bitter invectives against Ammon, Moab, Edom, Philistia, Tyre, Sidon and Egypt, put into Yahweh's mouth, are based wholly on the fact that these peoples are regarded as hostile and hurtful to Israel; Babylonia, though nowise superior to Egypt morally, is favoured and applauded because it is believed to be the instrument for securing ultimately the prosperity of Yahweh's people.
It was well known during the middle ages, and was largely used by William, archbishop of Tyre, for the first six books of his Belli sacri historic. In modern times its historical value has been seriously impugned, but the verdict of the best scholarship seems to be that in general it forms a true record of the events of the first crusade, although containing some legendary matter.
The cult of the Baal of Tyre followed Jezebel to the royal city Samaria and even found its way into Jerusalem.
Only Tyre and Gaza barred the way to Egypt.
He died, probably in the year 254 (consequently under Valerian), at Tyre, where his grave was still shown in the middle ages.
in Sidon (1102) and in Tyre (1123).
After thus gaining a new footing in Tyre, the Venetians could afford to attack the islands of the Aegean as they returned, in revenge for the loss of their privileges in Constantinople; but the hostility between Venice and the Eastern empire was soon afterwards appeased, when John Comnenus restored the old privileges of the Venetians.
A synod was held at Rome, attended by bishops from various regions, which reversed the original judgment of the synod of Tyre which had condemned Athanasius.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.