He first asserted his power by literally throwing to the dogs the last of his boyar tyrants, and shortly afterwards announced his intention of assuming the title of tsar, a title which his father and grandfather had coveted but never dared to assume publicly.
His fathers took a prominent part in Athenian politics, and in 479 held high command in the Greek squadron which annihilated the remnants of Xerxes' fleet at Mycale; through his mother, the niece of Cleisthenes, he was connected with the former tyrants of Sicyon and the family of the Alcmaeonidae.
And now in all the Greek cities of Aeolis and Ionia the oligarchies or tyrants friendly to Persia fell, and democracies were established under the eye of Alexander's officers.
all tyrants in the world look at with fear," and as one directly ordained by God.
The tyrants general policy was to favor the multitude at the expense of his own caste.
Henry established imperial vicars in the Lombard towns, confirming the tyrants, but gaining nothing for the empire in exchange for the titles he conferred.
The tyrants, as we have already seen, established themselves as captains of the people, vicars of the empire, vicars for the church, leaders of the Guelph and Ghibelline parties.
In others the petty tyrants whom thc Visconti had uprooted reappeared.
Francesco Sforza was the only condottiero among many aspiring to be tyrants who planted themselves firmly on a throne of firstrate importance.
Thus free thought received a check, by which not only ecclesiastical but political tyrants knew how to profit.
The European ferment of ideas which preceded the French Revolution expressed itself in men like Alfieri, the fierce denouncer of tyrants, Beccaria, the philosopher of criminal jurisprudence, Volta, the physicist, and numerous political economists of Tuscany.
Italy and expelling the foreigner, and told that he was free to choose whether he would be the first of men or the last of Italian tyrants.
Then the tyrants (Tyrannidae), with more than seventy genera (ten of which range into the northern region), and over 300 species.
The nobility of France, keeping the most oppressive social and personal privileges, had been shorn of all political and even administrative power; the tyrants of the people were the slaves of the king.
Thus among those who became "tyrants" in the Greek world he gained his position as one of the old nobility, like Phalaris of Agrigentum, and Lygdamis of Naxos; but unlike Orthagoras of Sicyon, who had previously been a cook.
Later he took refuge in Paris, where he pleaded for a national reunion of all parties against the Red tyrants.
Kings held a secondary position, and were generally regarded as adventitious tyrants, rather than as the heads and representatives of the nation.
Freeman, "Tyrants of Britain, Gaul and Spain" in Eng.
He was honoured as a hero, and his memory was held in such respect that when all the brazen statues of tyrants were condemned to be sold in the time of Timoleon (150 years later) an exemption was made in favour of the statue of Gelo.
Plutarch's statement that the Thirty Tyrants removed the bema so as to face the land instead of the sea is probably due to a misunderstanding.
Its fortifications, though not increased, were apparently strengthened by the Tyrants.
The equalization of classes was already far advanced when towards the end of the century a nobleman of the Alcmaeonid family, named Cleisthenes, who had taken the chief part in the final expulsion of the tyrants, acquired ascendancy as leader of the commons.
The condition of his subjects was deplorable, and if Cesare's rule in Romagna was an improvement on that of the local tyrants, the people of Rome have seldom been more oppressed than under the Borgia.
The most stirring episode in the history of the Peiraeus is the seizure of Munychia by Thrasybulus and the exiles from Phyle, and the consequent destruction of the "30 tyrants" in 404 B.C. The three chief arsenals of the Peiraeus were named Munychia, Zea and Cantharus, and they contained galley slips for 82, 196 and 94 slips respectively in the 4th century B.C.
popular outbreak and more bloodshed; the conspirators were put to death and Hiero's family was murdered; whilst the Carthaginian faction, under the pretence of delivering the city from its tyrants, got the upper hand and drew the citizens into open defiance of Rome.
He was succeeded by other lords or tyrants, of whom the most renowned was Castruccio Castracane, a political and military adventurer of much the same stamp as Uguccione himself.
New lords, or petty tyrants, rose to power in turn during this period of civil discord, but the military valour of the Pisans was not yet extinguished By sea they were almost impotent - Corsica and Sardinia were lost to them for ever; but they were still formidable by land.
It occupies the site of Agyrion, an ancient Sicel city which was ruled by tyrants, one of whom, Agyris, was the most powerful ruler in the centre of Sicily.
The tyrants (560-510 B.C.) left to the council its cognizance of murder cases (Demosth.
duties, appointed an autocratic boule of its own creatures, and proceeded by judicial murders and confiscations to earn for the new government the name of "the Thirty Tyrants.
In later accounts (and even in the Odyssey) Ares' character is somewhat toned down; thus, in the "Homeric" hymn to Ares, he is addressed as the assistant of Themis (Justice), the enemy of tyrants, and leader of the just.
The old Calvinist nobility of Lithuania were speedily reconverted; a Uniate Church in connexion with Rome was established; Greek Orthodox congregations, if not generally persecuted, were at least depressed and straitened; and the Cossacks began to hate the Pans, or Polish lords, not merely as tyrants, but as heretics.
His generals rebelled against him in almost every province of the empire, and this period of Roman history came to be called the reign of the Thirty Tyrants.
This struggle between spiritual and secular powers, owing to the tremendous sensation which it created throughout Christendom, showed the nations that at the head of the Church there was a great force for justice, always able to combat iniquity and oppression, and sometimes to defeat them, however powerful the evil and the tyrants might seem.
The latter, through their general Phocion, rescued it from the tyrants suborned by Philip of Macedon (354 and 341).
Byblus and Tripolis fell into the hands of " tyrants " (Strabo xvi.
Ever anxious to extend the league, in which after 245 he was general almost every second year, Aratus took Corinth by surprise (243), and with mingled threats and persuasion won over other cities, notably Megalopolis (233) and Argos (229), whose tyrants abdicated voluntarily.
To Aratus is due the credit of having made the Achaean League an effective instrument against tyrants and foreign enemies.
Freeman, "Tyrants of Britain, Gaul and Spain" (Eng.
But from both the racial and religious standpoint, the Arab and Persian Shi`as, who constitute the vast bulk of the population, regard the Turks as foreigners and tyrants.
In 404 the Thirty Tyrants were established at Athens under the protection of a Spartan garrison.
It appears that he had rendered valuable services to the exiles during the reign of the tyrants, and in 403 Thrasybulus proposed that these services should be recognized by the bestowal of the citizenship. The Boule, however, had not yet been reconstituted, and hence the measure could not be introduced to the ecclesia by :the requisite "preliminary resolution" (irpo,60bXevµa).
During his later years Lysias - now probably a comparatively poor man owing to the rapacity of the tyrants and his own generosity to the Athenian exiles - appears as a hard-working member of a new profession - that of writing speeches to be delivered in the law-courts.
In 403 he came forward as the accuser of Eratosthenes, one of the Thirty Tyrants.
Of these, the fragmentary speech For Pherenicus belongs to 381 or 380 B.C., and is thus the latest known work of Lysias.2 In literary and historical interest, the first place among the extant speeches of Lysias belongs to that Against Eratosthenes (403 B.C.), one of the Thirty Tyrants, whom Lysias arraigns as the murderer of his brother Polemarchus.
Their political constitutions were aristocratic; that is, the franchise was confined to the descendants of the original settlers, round whom an excluded body (Ffflos or plebs) was often growing up. The ancient kingship was perhaps kept on or renewed in some of the Siceliot and Italiot towns; but it is more certain that civil dissensions led very early to the rise of tyrants.
But Gelo, like several later tyrants of Syracuse, takes his place - and it is the redeeming point in the position of all of them - as 1 Panaetius of Leontini (608 B.C.) is said to have been the earliest tyrant in Sicily.
The mercenaries who had received citizenship from the tyrants were settled at Messana.
Art, science, poetry had all been encouraged by the tyrants.
Ducetius's own foundation of Kale Akte lived on, and we presently hear of Sicel towns under kings and tyrants, all marking an approach to Greek life.
The two tyrants drove Carthage to a peace by which she abandoned all her Sicel allies to Dionysius.
It fell with the coming back of the xile Dion in The tyranny had lasted so long 3 5 7 Y Y g that it was less easy than at the overthrow of the elder tyrants to fall back on an earlier state of things.
Through the time of both tyrants, he was, next to the actual rulers, the first man in Sicily; but of his record of his own times we have only what filters through the recasting of Diodorus.
The cities, Greek and Sicel, were occupied by tyrants.
Timoleon drove out all the tyrants, and it specially marks the fusion of the two races that the people of the Sicel Agyrium were admitted to the citizenship of free Syracuse.
Earlier tyrants were well pleased to be spoken of as kings; but no earlier rulers of Sicily put either their heads or their names on the coin.
On the death of Agathocles tyrants sprang up in various cities.
Pyrrhus is said to have dreamed of kingdoms of Sicily and of Italy for his two sons, the grandsons of Agathocles, and he himself reigned for two years in Sicily as a king who came to be no less hated than the tyrants.
Some of the old tyrants had ruled out of Sicily; none had ruled over all Sicily.
None the less Amasis employed Greeks in numbers, and cultivated the friendship of their tyrants.
Adam of Bremen, from whom these details come, was himself uncertain whether " so many kings or rather tyrants of the Danes ruled together or succeeded one another at short intervals."
Tell is called "the first Confederate," and his feat is treated as the real and only reason why the Confederation was formed and the tyrants driven out of the land.
They passed instead into the power of Antigonus Gonatas of Macedonia, who maintained his control by means of tyrants.
The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants.
Tughlak, who reigned from 1325 to 1351, is described by Elphinstone as " one of the most accomplished princes and one of the most furious tyrants that ever adorned or disgraced human nature."
On the 17th of March he delivered a speech in the senate urging a general amnesty like that declared in Athens after the expulsion of the Thirty Tyrants.
He succeeded in so far that 15,000 Kufians swore to fight with him for the maintenance of the commandments of the Book of God and the Sunna (orthodox tradition) of his Prophet, the discomfiture of the tyrants, the redress of injury, and last, not least, the vindication of the family of the Prophet as the rightful caliphs.
Much has been made of his defective accounts of the tyrants and the Macedonian empire, and his opinion that Greek history ceased to be interesting or instructive after Chaeronea.
But its virtual independence was established in the 7th century, when a line of tyrants arose and initiated an anti-Dorian policy.
This dynasty, known after its founder Orthagoras as the Orthagoridae, exercised a mild rule, and therefore lasted longer than any other succession of Greek tyrants (about 665-565 B.C.).
After the fall of the tyrants their institutions survived till the end of the 6th century, when the Dorian supremacy was re-established, perhaps by the agency of Sparta, and the city was enrolled in the Peloponnesian League.
His deposition by the Thebans and subsequent murder freed Sicyon for a season, but new tyrants arose with the help of Philip II.
For the most part it remained Guelph, though at times, as when it called in Galeazzo Visconti, it was glad to appeal to a powerful Ghibelline for aid against its domestic tyrants.
These sought, as a rule, to cope with the difficulty by transferring the government to individual persons who enjoyed their confidence: the tyrants of the Greek towns.
The only really brutal tyrants were Darius II., who was completely dominated by his bloodthirsty wife Parysatis, and Artaxerxes III.
In the city of tyrants it would have been dangerous to present comedies like those of the Athenian stage, in which attacks were made upon the authorities.
These men, in their turn, became tyrants.
It was the rule of some thirty-five or thirty-six petty tyrants, under whose oppression and private wars even the invaders suffered.
Tughlak, who reigned from 1325 to 1351, and is described by Elphinstone as "one of the most accomplished princes and most furious tyrants that ever adorned or disgraced human nature."
In 1792 he placed 12,000 livres at the disposal of the Republic - "for the arming of forty or fifty fighters in the sacred cause of man against tyrants."
The house of Spartocus was well known as a line of enlightened and wise princes; although Greek opinion could not deny that they were, strictly speaking, tyrants, they are always described as dynasts.
His eloquence on behalf of the tyrants of Verona was successful.
It was in vain that his correspondents pointed out the discrepancy between his professed zeal for Italian liberties, his recent enthusiasm for the Roman republic, and this alliance with tyrants who were destroying the freedom of the Lombard cities.
The tyrants of Milan were aspiring to royal alliances; Gian Galeazzo Visconti had been married to Isabella of France; Violante Visconti, a few years later, was wedded to the English duke of Clarence.
His relations to the Lombard nobles were equally at variance with his professed patriotism; and, while still a housemate of Visconti and Correggi, he kept on issuing invectives against the tyrants who divided Italy.
Herodotus, in the spirit of 5th-century Greeks, which conventionally regarded the tyrants as selfish despots, says he ruled harshly, but he is generally represented as mild, beneficent and so popular as to be able to dispense with a bodyguard, the usual attribute of a tyrannis.
He cultivated friendly relations with the tyrants of Miletus and Mytilene, and maintained a connexion with the kings of Lydia, of Egypt and, possibly, of Phrygia.
The lives, which (with few exceptions) are arranged in chronological order, are distributed as follows: - To Spartianus: the biographies of Hadrian, Aelius Verus, Didius Julianus, Septimius Severus, Pescennius Niger, Caracallus, Geta (?); to Vulcacius Gallicanus: Avidius Cassius; to Capitolinus: Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, Verus, Pertinax, Clodius Albinus, the two Maximins, the three Gordians, Maximus and Balbinus, Opilius Macrinus (?); to Lampridius: Commodus, Diadumenus, Elagabalus, Alexander Severus; to Pollio: the two Valerians, the Gallieni, the so-called Thirty Tyrants or Usurpers, Claudius (his lives of Philip, Decius, and Gallus being lost); to Vopiscus: Aurelian, Tacitus, Florian, Probus, the four tyrants (Firmus, Saturninus, Proculus, Bonosus), Carus, Numerian, Carinus.
This caused a miniature rebellion, and on its suppression five ringleaders were publicly hanged at the spot - Slachters Nek - where they had sworn to expel " the English tyrants."
The names of two tyrants, Amphiclus and Polytecnus, are mentioned.
He had been wayward, unwise and occasionally revengeful; but his provocation had been great, and if few tyrants have used more violent and offensive language, few have committed such a small list of actual crimes.
He treated the struggle as one simply for the establishment of free institutions; and when at last the crimes of the leaders became patent to the world, he contented himself with lamenting the unfortunate fact, and fell back on the argument that though England could not sympathize with the French tyrants, there was no reason why she should go to war with them.
In the autumn of 1851 the queen was much annoyed at hearing that he had received a deputation at the foreign office, which had waited on him to express sympathy with the Hungarian refugees, and to denounce the conduct of the despots and tyrants of Russia and Austria, and that he had, in his reply, expressed his gratification at the demonstration.
Three roads lead to Athens from the Boeotian frontier over the intervening mountain barrier - the easternmost over Parnes, from Delium and Oropus by Decelea, which was the usual route of the invading Lacedaemonians during the Peloponnesian War; the westernmost over Cithaeron, by the pass of Dryoscephalae, or the "Oakheads," leading from Thebes by Plataea to Eleusis, and so to Athens, which we hear of in connexion with the battle of Plataea, and with the escape of the Plataeans at the time of the siege of that city in the Peloponnesian War; the third, midway between the two, by the pass of Phyle, near the summit of which, on a rugged height overlooking the Athenian plain, is the fort occupied by Thrasybulus in the days of the Thirty Tyrants.
Moreover, she had no share in the expansion of Greek commerce and Greek culture; and, though she bore the reputation of hating tyrants and putting them down where possible, there can be little doubt that this was done in the interests of oligarchy rather than of liberty.
It was not long afterwards that the dual kingship ceased and Sparta fell under the sway of a series of cruel and rapacious tyrants - Lycurgus, Machanidas, who was killed by Philopoemen, and Nabis, who, if we may trust the accounts given by Polybius and Livy, was little better than a bandit chieftain, holding Sparta by means of extreme cruelty and oppression, and using mercenary troops to a large extent in his wars.
They became petty local tyrants, all the more despotic because they had nothing to fear save the distant authority of the kings missi, and the more rapacious because they had no salary save the fines they inflicted and the fees that they contrived to multiply.
their tyrants should have vacated their high position, and when royalty should have summoned them to power.
At Modena, Duke Francis IV., the worst of all Italian tyrants, was expelled by a Carbonarist rising, and a dictatorship was established under Biagio Nardi on the 5th of February.
This family quickly struck root in the town and gave birth to future tyrants; for in 1237 Giovanni was named podesta, and this office was the first step towards the sovereign power afterwards assumed by his descendants.
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