I can handle those types of issues.
I thought you domestic security types were supposed to be watching this kind of thing.
Though many types of manually operated switchboards have been brought into use, differing from each other in respect of circuit and working arrangements, yet each of them may be placed in one or other of three main classes according as the system of working is magneto, call-wire, or common battery.
Of other variations and combinations of types, fig.
According to these observations, two distinct types of so-called tabby cats are recognizable.
The two types of beings had last brought their war to the mortal realm during the time of the Schism, when they'd almost destroyed the universe.
You get used to knowing the different types of hardness and thickness.
of the deep-sea cables within the first twelve years, placed the probable life of a cable as low as fifteen years, but the weeding out of unserviceable types of construction, and the general improvement in materials, have by degrees extended that first estimate, until now the limit may be safely placed at not less than forty years.
There were many types, indeed, scarcely two being alike; but all were equally disagreeable in appearance.
Beginning with 1620, New England was colonized by English Presbyterians of the two types which developed from the discussions of the Westminster Assembly (1643-1648) into Presbyterianism and Congregationalism.
As types of non-revolving cranes, fig.
In the early 1900s, we learned about blood types, vitamins, and Alzheimer's disease, and invented the electrocardiograph.
Elise is one of the fed's special security types.
The mechanical laws, to which external things were subject, were conceived as being valid only in the inorganic world; in the organic and mental worlds these mechanical laws were conceived as being disturbed or overridden by other powers, such as the influence of final causes, the existence of types, the work of vital and mental forces.
There are two distinct types of fermentation: (1) those brought about by living organisms (organized ferments), and (2) those brought about by non-living or unorganized ferments (enzymes).
There appear to be no true distinctive characteristics for these two types.
Threeridged and four-ridged types occur both in Mastodon and Tetrabelodon.
One or other of these types is to be found in cats of almost all breeds, whether Persian, short-haired or Manx; and there appear to be no intermediate stages between them.
i on Plate II.) Note - Of the two types of colouration found in modern domestic cats, the striped type obviously corresponds to the original wild cat as seen in various parts of North Europe to-day.
Apart from the above-mentioned division of the striped members of both groups into two types according to the pattern of their markings, the domesticated cats of western Europe are divided into a short-haired and a long-haired group. Of these, the former is the one which bears the closest relationship to the wild cats of Africa and of Europe, the latter being an importation from the East.
At the present day, however, Persians exhibit nearly all the colour and pattern types of the short-haired breeds, the "orange Persian" representing the erythristic phase.
If Ritschl had clearly shown that judgments of value enfold and transform other types of knowledge, just as the "spiritual man" includes and transfigures but does not annihilate the "natural man," then within the compass of this spiritually conditioned knowledge all other knowledge would be seen to have a function and a home.
Direct radiators are a development of the early coil of pipe; they are made in various types and designs and are usually of cast iron.
These types co-operated as in Old England in the county associations; and a mixed system was produced, called by Henry M.
Some information as to the types of fortification adopted in.
The secondary and tertiary amides of the types (RCO) 2 NH and (RCO) 3 N may be prepared by heating the primary amides or the nitriles with acids or acid anhydrides to 200° C. Thiamides of the type R.
Most of the species, particularly the specialized types, are more or less completely herbivorous.
The same deposits have also yielded remains of extinct types of kangaroo, some of gigantic size, constituting the genera Sthenurus, Procoptodon and Palorchestes.
Numerous types more or less nearly allied to the phalangers, such as Burramys and Triclis have also been described, as well as a flying form, Palaeopetaurus.
The Jurassic system is represented by two types.
The comparative richness of proteaceous plants in Western Australia and South Africa first suggested a common source for these primitive types.
A theory was therefore propounded that these known types were all derived from a continent which has been named Antarctica.
On the Australian side the fact that Tasmania is richest in marsupial types indicates the gate by which they entered.
As a step towards such hypothesis it has been noted that the Antarctic, the South African, and the Australian floras have many types in common.
types, may be distinguished, and these, with the two extremes of brown coal or lignite and anthracite, form a perfectly continuous series.
He finds near kinsmen for them in the Ainus of Japan, the Khmers and Chams of Cambodia and among some of the Micronesian islanders who, in spite of much crossing, still exhibit marked Caucasic types.
The stone implements are generally of one or two types: a long rectangular adze or wedge rudely pointed at one end, and used in conjunction with a mallet or flat stone, and a roughly triangular axe-head, which has evidently been fixed in the B too R.
His command of the art is such that his plays read like original works, and it may be at least said that some of his characters stand out so vividly from his canvas that they have ever since served as representatives of certain types of humanity, e.g.
We may miss the finer insight into human nature and the delicate touch in drawing character which Terence presents to us in his reproductions of Menander, but there is wonderful life and vigour and considerable variety in the Plautine embodiments of these different types.
Our task is simply to furnish the general reader with an account of the types of instrumentation prevalent at various musical periods, and their relation to other branches of the art.
There are numerous and important variations of these two types, but the above contain the elements out of which most cranes of the class are built.
- Sections of three types of Submarine Cables, full size.
In many cases a still heavier type is used for the first mile or two from shore, and several intermediate types are often introduced, tapering gradually to the thin deep-water type.
The instruments used for land telegraphs on this system are of two types - " sounders," which indicate by sound, and " recorders," which record the signals.
In the types of cable that were first used, the wires, usually with a cotton insulation, were drawn into lead tubes, and the tubes filled with paraffin or other similar compound, which kept the wires from the injurious effects of any moisture which might penetrate the lead tube.
Certain types of dangerous individuals are relegated after serving a sentence in the ordinary convict prisons, and by administrative, not by judicial process, to special penal colonies known as domicilii coatti or forced residences.
Old types of vessels have been sold or demolished, and replaced by newer types.
It may help us if we rapidly review at this point the leading types of philosophy in their application to the theistic problem.
2 An outline of the history of theism is reserved for Section IV.; but it has not proved possible to sketch the types of philosophy without introducing references to the history of philosophy and sometimes even to the history of theism as well.
Theism then has its most habitual affinities with intuitionalism, but may fall under any one of our philosophical or quasi philosophical types.
We have distinguished three types or tendencies: empiricism, intuitionalism, idealism.
In "God as perfection" Martineau handles the basis of ethics without reference to his own modification of the intuitionalist position (Types of Ethical Theory), according to which "good."
The general character of the forests is Burmese with an admixture of Malay types.
As already stated, there occur in the Hydromedusae two distinct types of person, the polyp and the medusa; and either of them is capable of non-sexual reproduction by budding, a process which may lead to the formation of colonies, composed of more or fewer individuals combined and connected together.
From them are developed two distinct types of histological elements; the genital cells and the cnidoblasts or mothercells of the nematocysts.
- Colony of Bougainvillea distinct types of budding are fruticosa, natural size, attached to the found, which are best deunderside of a piece of floating timscribed in botanical terminober.
In this method of budding F s there are two types.
Besides the three types of individual above mentioned, there are other appendages of hydroid colonies, of which the individuality is doubtful.
Further, two distinct types of otocyst can be recognized in the Hydro medusae; that of the Leptolinae, in which the entire organ is ectodermal, concrement-cells and all, and the organ is not a tentaculocyst; and that of the Trachylinae, in which the organ is a tentaculocyst, and the concrement-cells are endodermal, derived from the endoderm of the modified tentacle, while the rest of the organ is ectodermal.
The endoderm of the medusa shows the same general types of structure as in the polyp, described above.
Two types of budding must be distinguished - the direct, so-called palingenetic type, and the indirect, so-called coenogenetic type.
The special property of the medusa is the umbrella, distinguishing the medusa at once from other morphological types among the Coelentera.
The cleavage of the ovum follows two types, both seen in Tubularia (Brauer ).
Many views have been put forward as to the morphological relationship between the two types of person in the Hydromedusae.
Huxley, the sporosac is the starting-point of an evolution leading up through the various types of gonophores to the free medusa as the culminating point of a phyletic series.
The question still remains open, however, which of the two types of person may be regarded as the most primitive, the most ancient in the race-history of the Hydromedusae.
The Hertwigs when they discovered the endoderm-lamella showed on morphological grounds that polyp and medusa are independent types, each produced by modification in different directions of a more primitive type represented in development by the actinulastage.
Speaking generally, three principal types of hydranth can be distinguished, each with subordinate varieties of form.
The appendages show various types of form and structure corresponding to different functions.
Divergent views have been held by different authors both as regards the nature of the cormus as a whole, and as regards the homologies of the different types of appendages borne by it.
The general theories of Siphonophoran morphology are discussed below, but in enumerating the various types of appendages it is convenient to discuss their morphological interpretation, at the same time.
In the nectosome one or more of the following types of appendage occur: I.
In the siphosome the following types of appendages occur: I.
In other types the medusae may be set G, Cavity of the large central and a " trachea.
The various types of appendages described in the foregoing may be arranged in groups termed cormidia.
an opening to the exterior S From a comparison of the two embryological types there can be no doubt on two points; first, that the pneumatophore and the protocodon are strictly homologous, and, therefore if the nectocalyx is comparable to the umbrella of a medusa, as seems obvious, the pneumatophore must be so too; secondly, that the coenosarcal axis arises from the ex-umbrella of the medusa and cannot be compared to a manubrium, but is strictly comparable to the " bud-spike " of a Narcomedusan.
The Physalina comprise the families Physalidae and Epibulidae, of which the types are Physalia (figs.
The following types are exceptional.
He has the familiar Calderonian limitations; the substitution of types for characters, of eloquence for vital dialogue.
It is convenient here to define the two chief types of cell-form which characterize tissues of the higher plants.
In the group of the Siphoneae both these types of differentiation may exist in the single, long, branched, tube-like and multinucleate cell (coenocyte) which here forms the plant-body.
In these brown types with bodies of considerable thickness (Laminariaceae and Fucaceae), there is, however, a further differentiation of the internal tissues.
In addition to the cell types described, it is a very common occurrence in these bulky forms for rhizoid-like branches of the cells to grow out, mostly from the cells at the periphery of the medulla, and grow down between the cells, strengthening the whole tissue, as in the Rhodophyceae.
These branch, and may be packed or interwoven to form a very solid structure; but each grows in length independently of the others and retains its own individuality, though its growth in those types with a definite external form is of course correlated with that of its neighbors and is subject to the laws governing the general form of the body.
In the aquatic, semi-aquatic, and xerophilous types, where the whole surface of the plant absorbs water, perpetually in the first two cases and during rain in the last, the hydrom strand is either much reduced or altogether absent.
types of glands also exist, either in connection with the epidermis or not, such as nectaries, digestive glands, oil, resin and mucilage glands, &c. They serve the most various purposes in the life of the plant, but they are not of significance in relation to the primary vital activities, and cannot be dealt with in the limits of the present article.l The typical epidermis of the shoot of a land plant does not absorb water, but some plants living in situations where they cannot depend on a regular supply from the roots (e.g.
The pericycle and mesocycle together form the conjunctive tissue of the stele in these simplest types.
In such cases the vascular system is said to be polycyclic in contrast with the ordinary monocyclic condition, These internal strands or cylinders are to be regarded as peculiar types of elaboration of the stele, and probably act as reservoirs for water-storage which can be drawn upon when the water supply from the root is deficient.
In the haplostelic ferns the leaf-trace appears as a single strand with a tendency to assume the shape of a horseshoe on cross-section, and this type is also found in the more primitive solenostelic types.
In the petiole these strands may increase in number by branching, and thotigh usually reducible to the outline of the primitive horseshoe, more or less elaborated, they may in some of the complex polycylic dictyostelic types (Marattiaceae) be arranged in several concentric circles, thus imitating the arrangement of strands formed in the stem.
It is found in most of P all I of those Pteridophytes which we have other reasons for e considering as primitive types, and essentially the same Ontogeny type is found, as we have seen, in the independently with developed primitive conducting system of the mossPh.~logeny.
Besides the types forming this series, there are a number of others (Medulloseae and allied forms) which show numerous, often very complex, types of stelar structure, in some cases polystelic, whose origin and relationship with the simpler and better known types is frequently obscure.
indications of polystely, frequent occurrence of extra-stelar concentric bundles, anomalous secondary thickening) which recall these complex types of stelar structure in the fossil Cycadofilices.
Many cases exist which are intermediate between the two extreme types described.
A tissue mother-cell of the xylem may, in the most advanced types of Dicotyledons, give rise to(I) a tracheid; (2) a segment of a vessel; (3) a xylem-fibre; or (4) a vertical file of xylem-parenchyma cells.
A considerable evolution in complexity can be traced in passing from the simplest forms of xylem and phloem found in the primary vascular tissues both among Pteridophytes and Phanerogams to these highly differentiated types.
numerous, mainly German, workers, though no fundamentally new types of tissue have been discovered.
without revealing any entirely new types of structure.
The types of vegetation (tropical forests, sclerophyllous forest, temperate forests, tundra, &c.) thus briefly outlined are groups of Schimpers climatic formations.
There are two types of tissue: non-articulate and articulate.
These are connected by the presence of peculiar types, Proteaceae, Restiaceae, Rutaceae, &c., mostly shrubby in habit and on the whole somewhat intolerant of a moist climate.
Successive types have arisen in ascendi-,.L-s., ~ r~-,A ..,,i, ..
Upper Cretaceous formations in America have yielded a copious flora of a warm-temperate climate from which it is evident that at least the generic types of numerous not closely related existing dicotyledonous trees had already come into existence.
They point to cooler conditions in the northern hemisphere: palms and tropical types diminish; deciduous trees increase.
While Europe and probably North America were occupied by a warm temperate flora, tropical types had been driven southward, while the adaptation of others to arctic conditions had become accentuated.
This was accompanied in Europe by a drastic weeding out of Miocene types, ultimately leaving the flora pretty much as it now exists.
At the close of the Pliocene the European flora was apparently little different from that now existing, though some warmer types such as the waterchestnut (Trapa natans) had a more northern extension.
The glacial period effected in Europe a wholesale extermination of temperate types accompanied by a southern extension of the arctic flora.
During the milder interglacial period some southern types, such as Rhododendron ponticum, still held their own, but ultimately succumbed.
has been brought about rather by extermination than specialization, and their distinctive facies by the development and multiplication of the surviving types.
It has preserved its characteristic types, such as Magnolia, Liriodendron, Liquidambar, Torreya, Taxodium and Sequoia.
They doubtless equally supply a path by which southern temperate types may have extended northwards.
the Palaearctic and the Nearctic. But to justify such a division it is necessary to establish either an exclusive possession or a marked predominance of types in the one which are correspondingly deficient in the other.
Glacial elimination has been less severe, or rather there has been, at any rate on the Atlantic side, an unimpeded return of Miocene types.
Labrusca, reappears in Japan), and others; an assemblage, as long ago pointed out by Asa Gray, which can only be paralleled in the Chino-japanese region, another centre of preservation of Miocene types.
An Indian element derived from the northeast is most marked on the eastern side: the Himalayan Gloriosa will suffice as an example, and of more tropical types Phoenix and Calamus amongst palms.
The South American sub-region is perhaps richer in peculiar and distinctive types than either of the preceding.
The resemblances consist, in fact, not so much in the existence of one general facies running through the regions, as is the case with the northern flora, but in the presence of peculiar types, such ai those belonging to the families Restiaceae, Proteaceae, Ericaceae Mutisiaceac and Rutaceae.
On the whole, it consists of local species of some widely distributed northern genera, such as Carex, Poa, Ranunculus, &c., with alpine types of strictly south temperate genera, characteristic of the separate localities.
The older types of Gymnosperms are inelastic and dying out.
High mountain levels supplied paths of communication for stocking the South Temperate region, the floras of which were enriched by adapted forms of tropical types.
The great development of photography has been a notable aid to explorers, not only by placing at their disposal a faithful and ready means of recording the features of a country and the types of inhabitants, but by supplying a method of quick and accurate topographical surveying.
A further subdivision depends on the character of the inter-relation of land and sea along the shore producing such types as a fjord-coast, ria-coast or lagoon-coast.
into types has usually had regard rather to geological structure than to external form, so that some geologists would even apply the name of a mountain range to a region not distinguished by relief from the rest of the country if it bear geological evidence of having once been a true range.
Professor Keane groups man round four leading types, which may be named the black, yellow, red and white, or the Ethiopic, Mongolic, American and Caucasic. Each may be subdivided, though not with great exactness, into smaller groups, either according to physical_; characteristics, of which the form of the head is most important, or according to language.
The contrast between the yellow and white types has been softened by the remarkable development of the Japanese following the assimilation of western methods.
The forms of government of colonies present a series of transitional types from the autocratic administration of a governor appointed by the home government to complete democratic selfgovernment.
or federated of distinct self-governing units like Germany (where the units include kingdoms, at least three minor types of monarchies, municipalities and a crown land under a nominated governor), or the United States, where the units are democratic republics.
According to the position of the chief sound-producing membranes, three types of syrinx are distinguishable: - (i) Tracheo-bronchial, by far the commonest form, of which the two others are to a certain extent modifications.
In all, there is a wonderful amount of specialization, though perhaps in a very straight line from generalized forms; but the affinity to Australian or Polynesian types is in many cases clearly traceable, and it cannot be supposed but that these last are of cognate origin with those of New Zealand.
Owing to the comparatively scanty number of harmful mammalian types, the birds play a considerable part in this large region, and some authorities consider its avifauna the richest in the world.
Euryceros of the Oscines, and Philepitta of the Clamatores, are remarkable enough to form the types of Passeriform families, and Mesites half-way between Galli and Gruiformes is of prime importance.
At all stages of religious development, however, and more especially in the case of the more primitive types of cult, prayer as thus understood occurs together with, and shades off into, other varieties of observance that bear obvious marks of belonging to the same family.
It ceases to lay much stress upon coincidences between Old Testament predictions or " types " and events in Christ's career.
An account of the principal types of stridulators that have been described has been published by C. J.
447; few traces remain of the Roman city, but more than one hundred types of its coins attest its importance.
Settlements belonging to the Stone age, and manufactories of stone implements, burial-grounds of the Bronze epoch, earthen forts and burial-mounds (kurgans) - of this last four different types are known, the earliest belonging to the Bronze period - are superposed, rendering the task of unravelling their several relations one of great difficulty.
The columns vary somewhat in diameter (more than even the difference caused by fluting would warrant) and three different types of capital are noticeable.
There are two main ways of attaching the rails to the sleepers, corresponding to two main types of rails - the bull-headed rail A B FIG.
At both types of crossing, check rails (c) must be provided to guide the wheel-flanges, and if these are not accurately placed the safety of the trains will be endangered.
At intermediate stations the roofs are often carried on brackets fixed to the walls of the station buildings, and project only to the edge of the platforms. At larger stations where both the platforms and the tracks are covered in, there are two broad types of construction, with many intermediate variations: the roof may either be comparatively low, of the " ridge and furrow " pattern, borne on a number of rows of pillars, or it may consist of a single lofty span extending clear across the area from the side walls.
In both types pits are constructed between the rails on which the engines stand to afford easy access for the inspection and cleaning of their mechanism.
All types of valves are with few exceptions operated by a link motion, generally of the Stephenson type, occasionally of the Allan type or the Gooch type, or with some form of radial gear as the Joy gear or the Walschaert gear, though the latter gear has characteristics which ally it with the link motions.
It is generally designed as a 4-2-2 engine, but some old types are still running with only three axles, the 2-2-2.
(9) " Eight-coupled " total-adhesion type, o-8-o; now found on a good many English railways, and common on the continent of Europe for heavy slow goods traffic. In America it is comparatively infrequent, as total-adhesion types are not in favour.
In addition to the foregoing list, various special locomotive types have been developed for suburban service, where high rates of acceleration and frequent stops are required.
Other special types are in limited use for " rack-railways," and operate either by engagement of gearing on the locomotive into a rack between the track rails, or by a combination of this and rail adhesion.
The principal types to be found in the United Kingdom and on the continent of Europe are open wagons (the lading often protected from the weather by tarpaulin sheets), mineral wagons, covered or box wagons for cotton, grain, &c., sheep and cattle trucks, &c. The principal types of American freight cars are box cars, gondola cars, coal cars, stock cars, tank cars and refrigerator cars, with, as in other countries, various special cars for special purposes.
These elevated railways as a rule follow the lines of streets, and are of two general types.
Underground railways are of three general types: the one of extreme depth, built by tunnelling methods, usually with the shield and without regard to the surface topography, where the stations are put at such depth as to require lifts to carry the passengers from the station platform to the street level.
In Italy these railways are called " economic railways," and are divided into five types.
Types I., II.
The chief difference between the first three types lies in the weight of rails and rolling stock and in the radius of the curves.
Certain main types may, however, be enumerated.
The Narrenschiff of Sebastian Brant was essentially German in conception and treatment, but his hundred and thirteen types of fools possessed, nevertheless, universal interest.
intermediate types are ascribed to mixed and multiple infections.
It is certain that towards the close of this third and concluding Late Minoan period in the island certain mainland types of swords and safety-pins make their appearance, which are symptomatic of the great invasion from that side that was now impending or had already begun.
Both the signet types and the other objects of art here discovered display the fresh naturalism that characterizes in a special way the first Late Minoan period.
Coin Catalogue, Crete, &c.; P. Gardner, The Types of Greek Coins), which during the good period display a peculiarly picturesque artistic style distinct from that of the rest of the Greek world, and sometimes indicative of a revival of Minoan types.
Minor, or merely formal, needs of the state might lead to the creation of other types of this office.
It would be much nearer the truth to take both as types of a thoroughgoing rationalism.
The extremely dry and hot tracts which constitute an almost unbroken desert from Arabia, through south Persia and Baluchistan, to Sind, are characterized by considerable uniformity in the types of life, which closely approach to those of the neighbouring hot and dry regions of Africa.
The musk deer (Moschus) is also quite restricted to northern Asia, and is one of its most peculiar types.
The lion and the hunting-leopard, which may be considered as, in this epoch at least, Ethiopian types, extend thus far, besides various species of jerboa and other desert-loving forms.
The European forms seem to extend to about 30° N., south of which the Indo-Malayan types are met with, Japan being of the Europeo-Asiatic group. The northern forms extend generally along the south coast of the Mediterranean up to the border of the great desert, and from the Levant to the Caspian.
In general terms they extend, with modifications of character probably due to admixture with other types and to varying conditions of life, over the whole of northern Asia as far south as the plains bordering the Caspian Sea, including Tibet and China, and also over the IndoMalayan peninsula and Archipelago, excepting Papua and some of the more eastern islands.
Of these the first three represent different types of civilization: the fourth has little originality, but has been of great importance in affecting the distribution of races and political power.
It cannot be doubted that the three types of David, represented by the books of Samuel, of Chronicles, and the superscriptions of the Psalms, are irreconcilable, and that they represent successive developments of the original traditions.
These two lastmentioned types show features which can be, as it seems, matched in the Eudrilidae.
Schweinfurth declares them the best-looking of the Nile nomads, and the men are types of physical beauty, with fine heads, erect athletic bodies and sinewy limbs.
In the divine intelligence exist exemplars or types of the genera and species of natural objects.
Five well-contrasted types of scenery in Derbyshire are clearly traceable to as many varieties of rock; the bleak dry uplands of the north and east, with deep-cut ravines and swift clear streams, are due to the great mass of Mountain Limestone; round the limestone boundary are the valleys with soft outlines in the Pendleside Shales; these are succeeded by the rugged moorlands, covered with heather and peat, which are due to the Millstone Grit series; eastward lies the Derbyshire Coalfield with its gently moulded grasscovered hills; southward is the more level tract of red Triassic rocks.
is not large it is of considerable importance to stock-breeders, as it is a frequent occurrence for buyers for export-to Argentina, Australasia, Canada, the United States and elsewhere-to bid freely at the sale rings, and often to pay the highest prices, thus stimulating the sales and encouraging the breeding of the best types of native stock.
2.-Marble Idols, Amorgos; 6-II Fiddle And Mallet Types, 12-14, Developed Types.
The arrangement of Aegean palaces is of two main types.
5.-Clay Sealings From Zakro, With Minotaur Types.
Schists in the common acceptance of that term are really highly crystalline rocks; fissile slates, shales or sandstones, in which the original sedimentary structures are little modified by recrystallization, are not included in this group by English petrologists, though the French schistes and the German Schiefer are used to designate also rocks of these types.
They are soft and lustrous, with a peculiarly smooth feel, and though often confounded with mica-schists may be distinguished by their richness in magnesia; many of them contain tremolite or actinolite; others have residual grains of olivine or augite; and here also every gradation can be found between the unmodified igneous types and the perfectly metamorphic schists.
Oriental types range far northwards into China and Japan.
Holoarctic types reappear on the Andes and in South Africa, and even in New Zealand.
That one of the five larger groups into which every natural circle is divided ` bears a resemblance to all the rest, or, more strictly speaking, consists of types which represent those of each of the four other groups, together with a type peculiar to itself.'
That these primary divisions of every group are characterized by definite peculiarities of form, structure and economy, which, under diversified modifications, are uniform throughout the animal kingdom, and are therefore to be regarded as the primary types of nature.
Carrying on the work from the anatomical point at which he had left it, correcting his errors, and utilizing to the fullest extent the observations of Keyserling and Blasius, to which reference has already been made, Muller, though hampered by mistaken notions of which he seems to have been unable to rid himself, propounded a scheme for the classification of this group, the general truth of which has been admitted by all his successors, based, as the title of his treatise expressed, on the hitherto unknown different types of the vocal organs in the Passerines.
In the evolution of these laws Dr Cornay had most laudably studied, as his observations prove, a vast number of different types, and the upshot of his whole labours, though not very clearly stated, was such as to wholly subvert the classification at that time generally adopted by French ornithologists.
Like the Yue-Chi they have probably contributed to form some of the physical types of the Indian population, and it is noticeable that polyandry is a recognized institution among many Himalayan tribes, and is also said to be practised secretly by the Jats and other races of the plains.
By the 14th century two types of almucium were distinguished: (I) a cap coming down just over the ears; (2) a hood-like cap falling over the back and shoulders.
Trap-door nests are made by spiders belonging to two widely different groups, namely the Lycosidae or wolf-spiders, to which the true tarantula belongs, and the Mygalomorphae, containing the species which construct the best-known types of this style of burrow.
The interest of these two types of web lies in the fact that they bridge over the structural gap between the simple sheet-web of Agalena and the perfected orb-web of Aranea.
Swammerdam's Biblia naturae, issued in 1737, fifty years after its author's death, and containing observations on the structure and lifehistory of a series of insect types.
Opposed to the various types of roller gins is the " saw gin," invented by Eli Whitney, an American, in 1792.
In the principal figures of ecclesiastical history he tried to depict the representative tendencies of each age, and also the types of the essential tendencies of human nature generally.
Tanks of various types are employed in storing the oil, those at the wells being circular and usually made of wood, with a content of 250 barrels and upwards.
The religious types also are strongly divergent.
Nevertheless there are three principal types under which the different modifications can be arranged.
Kelvin ampere balances are made in two types - (i) a variable weight type suitable for obtaining the ampere value of any current within their range; and (2) a fixed weight type intended to indicate when a current which can be varied at pleasure has a certain fixed value.
pp. The extent to which elements of heathen cult entered into purer types of religion is illustrated in the worship of Yahweh.
The councils were of various types, each with a constitutional history of its own.
From a detailed study of organic compounds Gerhardt had promulgated a " theory of types " which represented a fusion of the older radical and type theories.
The theory of valency as a means of showing similarity of properties and relative composition became a dominant feature of chemical theory, the older hypotheses of types, radicals, &c.
It is often convenient to regard compounds as formed upon certain types; alcohol, for example, may be said to be a compound formed upon the water type, that is to say, a compound formed from water by displacing one of the atoms of hydrogen by the group of elements C 2 H 5, thus - H C2H5 O H O H Water Alcohol.
He also postulated, with Regnault, the existence of " molecular or mechanical types " containing substances which, although having the same number of equivalents, are essentially different in characters.
This rejuvenation of the notion of radicals rapidly gained favour; and the complete fusion of the radical theory with the theory of types was not long delayed.
These conclusions were co-ordinated in Gerhardt's " new theory of types."
Taking as types hydrogen, hydrochloric acid, water and ammonia, he postulated that all organic compounds were referable to these four forms: the hydrogen type included hydrocarbons, aldehydes and ketones; the hydrochloric acid type, the chlorides, bromides and iodides; the water type, the alcohols, ethers, monobasic acids, acid anhydrides, and the analogous sulphur compounds; and the ammonia type, the amines, acid-amides, and the analogous phosphorus and arsenic compounds.
A further generalization was effected by August Kekule, who rejected the hydrochloric acid type as unnecessary, and introduced the methane type and condensed mixed types.
We now proceed to discuss the types of aliphatic compounds; then, the characteristic groupings having been established, an epitome of their derivatives will be given.
Deferring the detailed discussion of cyclic or ringed hydrocarbons, a correlation of the various types or classes of compounds which may be derived from hydrocarbon nuclei will now be given.
It is convenient first to consider the effect of introducing one, two, or three hydroxyl (OH) groups into the - CH 3, > CH 2, and >CH groups, which we have seen to characterize the different types of hydrocarbons.
Three types of amines are possible and have been prepared: primary, R.
The carboxyl group constitutes another convenient startingpoint for the orientation of many types of organic compounds.
By transformations of the carbonyl group, and at the same time of the hydroxyl group, many interesting types of nitrogen compounds may be correlated.
Here we meet with a great diversity of types: oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and other elements may, in addition to carbon, combine together in a great number of arrangements to form cyclic nuclei, which exhibit characters closely resembling open-chain compounds in so far as they yield substitution derivatives, and behave as compound radicals.
The readiness with which ethylene is acted on in comparison with other types of hydrocarbon, for example, is in harmony, he considers, with the circumstance that the greatest distortion must be involved in its formation, as if deflected into parallelism each valency will be drawn out of its position through 2.109° 28'.
As an illustration it may be pointed out that in the case of the two known types of lactones - the y-lactones, which contain four carbon atoms and one oxygen atom in the ring, are more readily formed and more stable (less readily hydrolysed) than the S-lactones, which contain one oxygen and five carbon atoms in the ring.
The more important types are derived from aromatic nuclei, benzene, naphthalene, &c.; the ortho-di-derivatives of the first named, lending themselves particularly to the formation of condensed nuclei.
The skeletons of these types are (the carbon atoms are omitted for brevity): We have previously referred to the condensation of heterocyclic ring systems containing two vicinal carbon atoms with benzene, naphthalene and other nuclei.
Benzo-ortho-diazines exist in two structural forms, cinnolin and phthalazine; benzo-meta-diazines are known as quinazolines; benzo-para-diazines are termed quinoxalines; the dibenzo-compounds are named phenazines, this last group including many valuable dyestuffs - indulines, safranines, &c. In addition to the types of compounds enumerated above we may also notice purin, tropine and the terpenes.
But it is important to realize that both these types of modern harmony are radically non-Wagnerian.
It is no exaggeration to say that a parallel condition in literature would be produced by a strong public opinion to the effect that any Enelish style was hopelessly out of date unless it consisted exclusively of the most difficult types of phrase to be found in the works of Browning and Meredith.
Whether it was really Semitic we also do not know: whatever its skull may be its facial type is certainly not Semitic, whether of the fine pure Arab or the coarse big-nosed " Hethitized " types.
But as a matter of fact an exclusively Elamite origin is not improbable, from the fact that its earliest and first types are found at Susa.
- At the beginning of the 4th century B.C. two types of political association confronted each other in the lands of the Eastern Mediterranean, - the Persian monarchy with its huge agglomeration of subject peoples, and the Greek city-state.
The inhabitants are of three types.
4 Movable types are utilized in several other ways in the production of maps.
We have to deal thus with three types of these early maps, viz.
The map or diagram of which Leonardo Dati in his poem on the Sphere (Della Spera) wrote in 1422 " un T dentre a uno 0 mostra it disegno " (a T within an 0 shows the design) is one of the most persistent types among the circular or wheel maps of the world.
It is to be remembered, however, that all these types interbreed freely, and that many intermediate, and forms of wholly doubtful position, occur.
The number of breeds is very large, the two extreme types being the smooth fox-terrier with compact shape, relatively long legs, and the longbodied, short-legged Skye terrier, with long hair and pendent ears.
To the student of ecclesiastical history it is remarkable as exhibiting a form of Christianity widely divergent from the prevalent types, being a religious fellowship which has no formulated creed demanding definite subscription, and no liturgy, priesthood or outward sacrament, and which gives to women an equal place with men in church organization.
They attach, however, supreme value to the realities of which the observances are reminders or types - on the Baptism which is more than putting away the filth of the flesh, and on the vital union with Christ which is behind any outward ceremony.
The discovery of flint implements of the same types as those found in Egypt, Mauritania, and Europe show Somaliland to have been inhabited by man in the Stone age.
Here again two types of text, A.
The value of a herbarium is much enhanced by the possession of "types," that is, the original specimens on the study of which a species was founded.
Thus the herbarium at the British Museum, which is especially rich in the earlier collections made in the 18th and early 19th centuries, contains the types of many species founded by the earlier workers in botany.
It is also rich in the types of Australian plants in the collections of Sir Joseph Banks and Robert Brown, and contains in addition many valuable modern collections.
The Kew herbarium, founded by Sir William Hooker and greatly increased by his son Sir Joseph Hooker, is also very rich in types, especially those of plants described in the Flora of British India and various colonial floras.
There is usually a short gap between the canine and first premolar; the upper molars are short-crowned and transitional between the bunodont (tubercular) and selenodont (crescentic) types, with two outer concave tubercles and two inner conical ones; while the lower molars are crescentic, with three lobes in the last of the series..
In the earlier forms the cheek-teeth are low-crowned, but in the higher types they become high-crowned.
In the high-crowned types, as well as in some of the intermediate ones,.
They enumerate the following primary types of instinctive behaviour: the manner of attacking and capturing a particular kind of prey which alone affords the requisite presentation to sense; the manner of conveying the prey to the nest; the general style and locality of the nest; the method and order of procedure in stocking the nest with food for the unseen young.
" The mystics accorded the first place to prayer, which was considered as a mystical progress towards God, demanding a state of ecstasy."4 As a result, some of the finest specimens of Jewish devotional literature and some of the best types of Jewish individual character have been Kabbalist.
It supplied a want which has always been felt by certain types, and it became a movement which had mischievous effects upon ill-balanced minds.
The acid finds considerable use in organic chemistry, being employed to discriminate between the different types of alcohols and of amines, and also in the production of diazo, azo and diazo-amino compounds.
But the desire to obtain general enunciations of theorems without exceptional cases has led mathematicians to employ entities of ever-ascending types of elaboration.
Mathematical Logic as based on the Theory of Types,"Amer.
Functions, operations, transformations, substitutions, correspondences, are but names for various types of relations.
Elsewhere three types of soil are distinguished - a black soil, of decayed vegetable matter, where the land is under forest, a reddish clay, and a white soil occurring along the shores.
The guns are of various Krupp types.
As regards the development of the form of the pastoral staff, there are four principal types: (I) staves with a simple crook, the oldest form, which survived in Ireland until the 12th century; (2) staves with a ball or knob at the top, a rare form which did not long survive as a pastoral staff; (3) staves with a horizontal crook, so-called Tau-staves, used especially by abbots and surviving until the 13th century; (4) staves with crook bent inwards.
The Thracians of the region from Olympus to the Pangaean district, usually regarded as rude tribes, had from a very early time worked the gold and silver of that region, had begun to strike coins almost as early as the Greeks, and displayed on them much artistic skill and originality of types.
There are accordingly parts of Siberia, especially among the Raskolniks or Nonconformists, where the north Russian, the Great Russian and the Ukrainian (or southern) types have maintained themselves in their full purity, and only some differences in domestic architecture, in the disposition of their villages and in the language and character of the population remind the traveller that he is in Siberia.
It was indeed only a renewal, under new conditions, of the conflict between two types of thought, the rational and the mystical, the school of Antioch and that of Alexandria.
Since +xZ=x x we have six types of symbolic factors which may be used to form invariants and covariants, viz.
Of all his portraits of adventurous sailors, "Gentleman Chucks" in Peter Simple and "Equality Jack" in Mr Midshipman Easy are the most famous, but he created many other types which take rank among the characteristic figures in English fiction.
Three types of reverberatory practice are in vogue-the English, Carinthian and Silesian.
In Cumberland, Northumberland, Durham and latterly the United States, the reverberatory furnace is used only for roasting the ore, and the oxidized ore is then reduced by fusion in a low, square blastfurnace (a "Scottish hearth furnace") lined with cast iron, as is also the inclined sole-plate which is made to project beyond the furnace, the outside portion (the "work-stone") being provided with grooves guiding any molten metal that may be placed on the "stone" into a cast iron pot; the "tuyere" for the introduction of the wind was, in the earlier types, about half way down the furnace.
Fleming, Magnets and Electric Currents, p. 193) are shown three very different types of hysteresis curves, characteristic of the special qualities of the metals from which they were respectively obtained.
- Appendages of the 2nd and 3rd pairs retained and developed, as in the more primitive types of Nymphonomorpha; but those of the 1st pair are either rudimentary, as in the Ascorhynchidae, or atrophied, as in the Colossendeidae.
The naval strength of the republic consisted in 1906 of a collection of armoured and wooden vessels of various ages and types of construction, of which three armoured vessels (including the two designed for coast defence), four protected cruisers, five destroyers and torpedo-cruisers, and half a dozen torpedo boats represented what may be termed the effective fighting force.
The Annual describes 21 vessels of various types, and mentions 23 small gunboats used for river and harbour service.
The five equalities which stand first in the five pairs of equalities in ï¿½ 15 (2) may therefore be taken as the main types of a simple statement of equality.
(iii.) If there are n types, the number of individuals in each type being unlimited (or at any rate not less than r), the number (n H r) of distinguishable groups of r individuals out of the total stock is n[r].
The types of linear associative algebras, not assumed to be commutative, have been enumerated (with some omissions) up to sextuple algebras inclusive by B.
Under the present heading it is proposed only to discuss briefly the various types of episcopacy actually existing, and the different principles that they represent.
The adherence to type, the favourite conception of the transcendental morphologist, was seen to be nothing more than the expression of one of the laws of thremmatology, the persistence of hereditary transmission of ancestral characters, even when they have ceased to be significant or valuable in the struggle for existence, whilst the so-called evidences of design which was supposed to modify the limitations of types assigned to Himself by the Creator were seen to be adaptations due to the selection and intensification by selective breeding of fortuitous congenital variations, which happened to prove more useful than the many thousand other variations which did not survive in the struggle for existence.
The leading idea of Cuvier, his four embranchemens, was confirmed by the Russo-German naturalist Von Baer (1792-1876), who adopted Cuvier's divisions, speaking of them as the peripheric, the longitudinal, the massive, and the vertebrate types of structure.
This style and the types of dagger, cauldron, bit and twolooped socketed axehead run right across from Hungary to the upper Yenisei, where a special Bronze Age culture seems to have developed them.
An Iranian origin would not account for the presence of analogous types on the Yenisei.
Even so, he showed some boldness in exposing types of the prevailing charlatanism and follies, though his liberty of speech is far less than that of Gil Vicente.
TRIAZINES, in organic chemistry, a series of cyclic compounds, containing a ring system composed of three carbon and three nitrogen atoms. Three series are possible, the positions of Marine Trias Of The Alpine And Indian Types.
Various types of granite are the predominant variety.
Whether for ordinary or for special occasions a great variety of costume prevailed, and several types can be distinguished among both sexes (Erman, pp. 207 seq., 213 sqq.; see fig.
B.C.) and the numerous types of female statues, largely represented by copies of Roman date, made to serve as grave-monuments.
Although we have not reached a stage of certainty regarding their origin, function and destiny, recent investigations have brought forward evidence to elucidate the importance of the part played by the different cells in the various types of the inflammatory process.
Not only so, but the physician, thus fascinated by "types," and impressed by the silent monumentsof the pathological museum, was led to localize disease too much, to isolate the acts of nature, and to forget not only the continuity of the phases which lead up to the exemplary forms, or link them together, but to forget also that even between the types themselves relations of affinity must exist - and these oftentimes none the less intimate for apparent diversities of form, for types of widely different form may be, and indeed often are, more closely allied than types which have more superficial resemblance - and to forget, moreover, how largely negative is the process of abstraction by which types are imagined.
The first of these aberrant types is Schweinfurth's chimpanzee (Anthropopithecus troglodytes schweinfurthi), which inhabits the Niam-Niam country, and, although evidently belonging to the same species as the typical race, exhibits certain gorilla-like features.
Basic antenna types:
The climate of the delta is cooler and more temperate than in Upper Burma, and this is shown in the fairer complexion and stouter physique of the people of the lower province as compared with the inhabitants of the drier and hotter upper districts as far as Bhamo, where there is a great infusion of other types of the TibetoBurman family.
The very much longer lists of German and French firms contain only a few types not represented in this table.
Most metals form carbonates (aluminium and chromium are exceptions), the alkali metals yielding both acid and normal carbonates of the types Mhco 3 and M 2 CO 3 (M = one atom of a monovalent metal); whilst bismuth, copper and magnesium appear only to form basic carbonates.
While the Martello tower owes its reputation and its widespread adoption in Great Britain to a single incident of modern warfare, the round masonry structure entered by a door raised high above the base is to be found in many lands, and is one of the earliest types of masonry fortification.
They are Melanesians of mixed blood, of two fairly distinct types, one sub-Papuan and the other Polynesian.
apart; the distance apart in the rows varies greatly with various types of tobacco: 3 ft.
for Cuba and Sumatra types.
The view has been put forward that fermentation is due to the activity of bacteria, distinct types occurring in various tobaccos, but the balance of evidence is against it.
Italy produces two principal types, a dark, heavy Virginian tobacco on the heavy soils of northern Italy, and a Turkish type tobacco on the sandy soils of the southern part of the country.
Various combinations and modifications of these two types of furnace have given rise to distinctive names, and as each system has its advantages and disadvantages local conditions determine which is the better.
All these types of plough are virtually hoes pulled through the ground, breaking but not inverting the soil.
The process is indicated in the illustration of different types of furrow.
In working from early Dorian models they introduced refinements of their own, with the result that they produced beautiful, but somewhat vapid and academic types.
30) obtained potassium by the electrolysis of a mixture of potassium and calcium chlorides fused over a lamp. There are here foreshadowed two types of electrolytic furnace-operations: (a) those in which external heating maintains the electrolyte in the fused condition, and (b) those in which a currentdensity is applied sufficiently high to develop the heat necessary to effect this object unaided.
The electric furnace has several advantages as compared with some of the ordinary types of furnace, arising from the fact that the heat is generated from within the mass of material operated upon, and (unlike the blastfurnace, which presents the same advantage) without a large volume of gaseous products of combustion and atmospheric nitrogen being passed through it.
The skull is narrower and longer than in typical squirrels, and there are distinctive features in the cheek-teeth; but the more aberrant types come much closer to squirrels.
The tertiary amines may also be of two types, the purely aromatic and the mixed type.
The types show late Greek and perhaps also late Punic influence, but approximate later to Roman models.
The Phoenicians have left no marked trace of their presence; but inasmuch as they were probably of nearly the same race as the Arabs, it would not be easy to distinguish the two types.
There are two distinct general types - the coast tribes occupying the fertile river valleys, who are employed on the plantations, in domestic service in the cities, or in small industries of their own, no longer numerous; and the sierra tribes, who are agriculturists, miners, stock-breeders and packers, still comparatively numerous.
4, and reappearing in the two types of Christian recognized by Clement and Origen and in later Catholicism.
Of other common types of condenser, we may notice the "spiral" or "worm" type, which consists of a glass, copper or tin worm enclosed in a vessel in which water circulates; and the ball condenser, which consists of two concentric spheres, the vapour passing through the inner sphere and water circulating in the space between this and the outer (in another form the vapour circulates in a shell, on the outside and inside of which water circulates).
Three types of columns are employed: (I) the elongation is simply a straight or bulb tube; (2) the column, properly termed a "dephlegmator," is so constructed that the vapours have to traverse a column of previously condensed vapour; (3) the column is encircled by a jacket through which a liquid circulates at the same temperature as the boiling-point of the most volatile component.
The curves Pa4Q, having a minimum at a4, Pa3Q, having a maximum at a 31 and Pa 5 Q, with neither a maximum nor minimum, correspond to the types i., ii., iii.
Dephlegmation of the vapours arising from such mixtures as coaltar fractions, petroleum and the "wash" of the spirit industry, is very important, and many types of apparatus are employed in order to effect a separation of the vapours.
Many types of distilling plant are in use in addition to those mentioned above, for example the Rayner, Kirkaldy, Merlees, Normand; the United States navy has adopted a form designed by the Bureau of Engineering.
Here the two elements, ovum and yolk-cells, are surrounded by a shell of operculate or of spindle-capped types.
However this may be, remnants of their primitive superhuman qualities cling to the Celtic heroes long after they have been transfigured, under the influence of Christianity and chivalry, into the heroes of the medieval Arthurian romance, types - for the most part - of the knightly virtues as these were conceived by the middle ages; while shadowy memories of early myths live on, strangely disguised, in certain of the episodes repeated uncritically by the medieval poets.
The weakest pair of concave lenses with which one can read clearly test types at a distance of 18 ft.
The system for which the Positive Philosophy is alleged to have been the scientific preparation contains a Polity and a Religion; a complete arrangement of life in all its aspects, giving a wider sphere to Intellect, Energy and Feeling than could be found in any of the previous organic types, - Greek, Roman or Catholic-feudal.
In 1858 he was called to I Types of Ethical Theory, i.
That is especially true of the moths (yacho), 100 species of which have been identified with English types.
Wasps, bees and hornets, generically known as hachi, differ little from their European types, except that they are somewhat larger and more sluggish.
More important than either of these types as an element of the Japanese nation is the Malay.
Like the Malay and the Mongol types they are short and thickly built, but unlike either they have prominent brows, bushy locks, round deep-set eyes, long divergent lashes, straight noses and much hair on the face and the body.
In short, the Ainu suggest much closer affinity with Europeans than does any other of the types that go to make ug the population of Japan.
The life of the virtuous Japanese woman being essentially uneventful, these romancists not unnaturally sought their female types among dancing-girls and courtesans.
Shortly afterwards there appeared in Yokohama whence it was subsequently transferred to TOkyothe Mainichi Shimbun (Daily News), the first veritable daily and also the first journal printed with movable types and foreign presses.
The orchids may be taken as offering fair types of the Japanese artists ideal in all art work.
Seifu YOhei, however, has the special faculty of manufacturing monochromatic and jewelled porcelain and faience, which differ essentially from the traditional Kioto types, their models being taken directly from China.
Only lately did Owari feel the influence of the new movement towards Chinese types.
Three types of heresy have appeared in the history of the Christian Church.'
If we add to pictures of this class a few Scriptural subjects, a few Oriental dreams, one or two of tender sentiment like "Wedded" (one of the most popular of his pictures, and well known by not only an engraving, but a statuette modelled by an Italian sculptor), a number of studies of very various types of female beauty, "Teresina," "Biondina," "Bianca," "Moretta," &c., and an occasional portrait, we shall nearly exhaust the two classes into which Lord Leighton's work (as a painter) can be divided.
They include terrestrial, semi-aquatic and burrowing types; none of them with any signs of degradation; on the contrary they belong to the most highly organized of snakes.
There were two types of canine divinities in Egypt, their leading representatives being respectively Anubis and Ophois (W p-w;-wt, " opener of the ways"): the former type is symbolized by the recumbent animal the other by a similar animal (in a stiff standing attitude), carried as an emblem on a standard in war or in religious processions.
It has been said that Roman poetry has produced few, if any, great types of character.
But the Verres, Catiline, Antony of Cicero are living and permanent types.
The simplest types of process or operation are: (I), heating or cooling at constant volume, represented by vertical lines such as Bb, called Isometrics, in which the pressure varies, but no ex ternal work is done.
The value of the index, n, appears to be different for different types of molecule.
Other favourite types' of equation for approximate work are (I) p=RO/v±f(v), which makes p a linear function of 0 at constant volume, as in van der Waal's equation; (2) v=RO/p+f(p), which makes v a linear function of 0 at constant pressure.
The energy is less than that of an ideal gas by the term npc. If we imagine that the defect of volume c is due to the formation of molecular aggregates consisting of two or more single molecules, and if the kinetic energy of translation of any one of these aggregates is equal to that of one of the single molecules, it is clear that some energy must be lost in co-aggregating, but that the proportion lost will be different for different types of molecules and also for different types of co-aggregation.
The shipbuilding yards developed greatly and war vessels of all types, including dreadnoughts and submarines, were constructed during the war.
Four distinct types of reef gold deposits may be distinguished: (I) Gold may occur disseminated through metalliferous veins, generally with sulphides and more particularly with pyrites.
The genesis of the last three types of deposit is generally assigned to the simultaneous percolation of solutions of gold and silica, the auriferous solution being formed during the disintegration of the gold-bearing metalliferous veins.
The extraction of gold may be effected by several methods; we may distinguish the following leading types: 1.
The, most eminent preacher of the century was Bernard of Clairvaux (1091-1153), esteemed alike by gentle and simple, and summing up the popular scholastic and mystical types of preaching.
- The three creeds which may be called oecumenical, although the measure of their acceptance by the universal church has not been uniform, represent three distinct types provided for the use of the catechumen, the communicant, and the church teacher respectively.
While we may hope for eventual agreement on the history of the different types of creed forms, there can be no hope of agreement on the interpretation of the words Holy Spirit between Unitarian and Trinitarian critics.
Whewell's History of Moral Philosophy in England, Jouffroy's Introduction to Ethics (Channing's translation), Sir Leslie Stephen's English Thought in the Eighteenth Century, Martineau's Types of Ethical Theory, Windelband's History of Philosophy (Eng.
The artist must indeed start with imaginative types, revealed to him in visions or borrowed from current myths.
In none of the existing, and in but few of the extinct types, are collar-bones, or clavicles, developed; and the scaphoid and lunar bones of the carpus are separate.
He sets his face against innovation in such matters as the accepted authorship of canonical writings, verbal inspiration, and the treatment of persons and events in the Old Testament as types of the New.
That end is the analysis of the conception of the state, studied under two main types, republican and monarchical.
Dollond then points out three different types in which a glass so divided and mounted may FIG.
Of these and kindred instruments only two types have proved of practical value.
In the deep sea two types of feature are recognized under the general names of depression and elevation.
Three types of areometer are in use: (I) the ordinary hydrometer of invariable weight with a direct reading scale, a set of from five to ten being necessary to cover the range of specific gravity from 1 000 to 1.031 so as to take account of sea-water of all possible salinities; (2) the " Challenger " type of areometer designed by J.
Two main types of water-bottle for collecting samples have been long in use.
Many forms have been tried, but only three types are in general use.
One of the indirect methods of investigating currents is by taking account of the initial temperature of the current and following it by the thermometer throughout its course; hence the familiar contrast between warm and cold currents, of which the Gulf Stream and the Labrador current are types.
Steam at high pressure exhausting into the atmosphere is still commonly used, but the great power required for raising heavy loads from deep pits at high speeds has brought the question of fuel economy into prominence, and more economical types of the two-cylinder tandem compound class with high initial steam pressure, superheating and condensing, have come in to some extent where the amount of work to be done is sufficient to justify their high initial cost.
Both of these dramas, which were not printed at the time but were widely circulated in manuscript, are of the type which preceded the Shakespearean age - they are allegorical and all the characters are types.
As regards the gradual specialization and development of the modern types, the following features are noteworthy.
There are two types, that found in the Acanthus spinosus, which was followed by the Greeks, and that in the Acanthus mollis, which seems to have been preferred by the Romans.
It has been generally supposed that there is only one palm-squirrel throughout India, but there are really two distinct types, each with local modifications.
Roughly speaking, it is found that there are three main types of molecular motion corresponding to the three states of matter - solid, liquid and gaseous.
2), in the topics which he treats of, and the class of social vices and the types of character which he satirizes.
Fullerborn, Beitrage zur physischen Anthropologie der Nord-Nyassaldnder (Berlin, 1902), a fine series of pictures of native types, and Das Deutsche Nyassaand Ruwuma gebiet, Land and Leute (Berlin, 1906); K.
On the banks of the Fly river d'Albertis observed at least two widely differing types, those on its upper course bearing some resemblance to the tribes of the eastern coast.
In response to the exceeding diversity of habitat and of the conditions of life, the parasites exhibit manifold and widely-different types of form, organization and life-history.
The bestknown generic types are Eucholoeops, Hapalops and Pseudahapalops, of which considerable portions of the skeleton have been disinterred.
In other words they were types, things which had a prophetic significance.
Two strongly contrasted types were found among them.
A study of these in the American museums are the witnesses and types of these.
In this work appear woodcuts - rude but characteristic and unmistakable - of two distinct types of European wild cattle; one the aurochs, or ur, and the other the bison.
That these purely mechanical arrangements have any psychic, occult or predictive meaning is a fantastic imagination, which seems to have a peculiar attraction for certain types of mind, and as there can be no fundamental hypothesis of correlation, its discussion does not lie within the province of reason.
Varied as are the forms which this idea has assumed under varying conditions of time and place, it remains distinctive enough to constitute one of the three main types of ecclesiastical polity, the others being Episcopacy and Presbyterianism.
But though Presbyterians did not in many instances become Congregationalists also, until a later date, the two types of Puritanism were drawn closer together in the half-century after 1662.
The Methodist movement touched all existing types of English religion, but none more than Congregationalism.
The Congregational churches, as distinct from the churches retaining the same polity, but separated by the adoption of Unitarian opinions, have in times past professed to be Calvinists of stricter or more moderate types.
Several types of horse-drawn hoe capable of working one or more rows at a time are used among root and grain crops.
B ut more important and less speculative is the hero's aspect as a national type or an amalgamation of tribal types of physical force, of dauntless effort and endurance, of militant civilization, and of Hellenic enterprise, " stronger than everything except his own passions," and " at once above and below the noblest type of man " (Jebb).
Although the acid is monobasic, salts of polymeric forms exist of the types (MP0 3) n, where n may be 1, 2, 3, 4, 6.
168); the chief coin type, a gryphon, is identical with that of Teos; the coinage is noted for the beauty and variety of its reverse types.
There are three distinct types, which we will consider in succession.
But keeping r/X small we may as before form stationary waves, and it is evident that the series of fundamental and overtones will be just as with the air in pipes, and we shall have the same three types - fixed at one end, free at both ends, fixed at both ends - with fundamental frequencies respectively 41, p ' 21 V p, and I velocity in rod =velocity in air X distance between dust heaps.
In this connexion it is usual to distinguish three types of atheism: - the dogmatic, which denies the existence of God positively; the sceptical, which distrusts the capacity of the human mind to discover the existence of God; and the critical, which doubts the validity of the theistic argument, the proofs for the existence of God.
These varieties tend to multiply, and it is difficult to reduce them all to a few types.
The bridge flooring rests on the supporting members, and is of very various types according to the purpose of the bridge.
development of theory has advanced poi passe with the demand for bridges of greater strength and span and of more complex design, and there is now little uncertainty in calculating the stresses in any of the types of structure now adopted.
Three types of bracing for the web very early developed the.
They are of several types: (i) Lifting Bridges.
The result is that American bridges are generally of well-settled types and their members of uniform design, carefully considered with reference to convenient and accurate manufacture.
(4) Some types of bridge can be built out from the abutments, the completed part forming an erecting stage on which lifting appliances are fixed.
Professor Claxton Fidler (Treatise on Bridge Construction, 1887) has made a very careful theoretical analysis of the weights of bridges of different types, and has obtained the following values for the limiting spans.
Types of Braced Girder Bridges.
The hogbacked girder is a compromise between the two types, avoiding some difficulties of construction near the ends of the girder.
It is true that they do not include the whole even of the ecclesiastical literature of the sub-apostolic age, not to mention what remains of Gnostic and other minority types.
They are after all personal expressions of Christianity, in which are discernible also specific types of local tradition.
The types of its coins suggest a trade in wheat, wine and fish.
In form, the flower assumes three types: trumpet-shaped, with a more or less elongated tube, e.g.
It must be a medium which can be effective for transmitting all the types of physical action known to us; it would be worse than no solution to have one medium to transmit gravitation, another to transmit electric effects, another to transmit light, and so on.
Thus the attempt to find out a constitution for the aether will involve a synthesis of intimate correlation of the various types of physical agencies, which appear so different to us mainly because we perceive them through different senses.
This merely thermal energy - which is gradually but very slowly being restricted in amount as new subsidiary organized types become recognized in it - though transmutable in equivalent quantities with the other kinds, yet is so only to a limited extent; the tracing out of the laws of this limitation belongs to the science of thermodynamics.
The laws of thermodynamics, including the fundamental principle that a physical property, called temperature, can be defined, which tends towards uniformity, are thus relations between the properties of types of material bodies that can exist permanently in presence of each other; why they so maintain themselves remains unknown, but the fact gives the point d'appui.
Returning now to the aether, on our present point of view no such complications there arise; it must be regarded as a continuous uniform medium free from any complexities of atomic aggregation, whose function is confined to the transmission of the various types of physical effect between the portions of matter.
Various types of elastic solid medium have thus been invented to represent the aether, without complete success in any case.
These circuital relations, when expressed analytically, are then for a dielectric medium of types = (dt + x) (f',g',h')+dt(f,g,h), dR dQ = da dy dz dt' ' I See H.
The idea of priestly asceticism expressed in the celibacy of the clergy belongs also to certain types of heathen and especially Semitic priesthood, to those above all in which the priestly service is held to have a magical or theurgic quality.
In the first place, we find in this group two distinct types of person or individual, the polyp and the medusa (qq.v.), each capable of a wide range of variations; and when both polyp and medusa occur in the life-cycle of the same species, as is frequently the case, the result is an alternation of generations of a type peculiarly characteristic of the class.
It is convenient to distinguish two types of polyp by the names hydro polyp and anthopolyp, characteristic of the Hydrozoa and From Gegenbaur's FIG.
C,C', D,D', two types of medusa organization; C and D are composite sections, showing a radius (R) on one side, an interradius (IR) on the other; C' and D' are plans; the mouth and manubrium are indicated at the centre, leading into the gastral cavity subdivided by the four areas of concrescence in each interradius (IR).
Thus the development of the two types of individual seen in the Hydrozoa may be summarized as follows: - Egg Free Blastula "Planula" Parenchymula Stage I Gastrula Actinula 1 Polyp Medusa This development, though probably representing the primitive sequence of events, is never actually found in its full extent, but is always abbreviated by omission or elimination of one or more of the stages.
The Hydrozoa may be defined, therefore, as Cnidaria in which two types of individual, the polyp and the medusa, may be present, each type developed along divergent lines from the primitive actinula form.
Owing to the great beauty of the flowers they have been favourites in European gardens for two or three centuries, and have been crossed and recrossed till it has become almost impossible to refer the plants to their original types.
There are many early rock-cut churches in Abyssinia, closely resembling the Coptic. After these, two main types of architecture are found - one basilican, the other native.
Fly flowers, chiefly visited by Diptera, and including very different types: a.
Lastly, by the side of the classical Gymnasium, we now have the " German Reform Schools " of two different types, that of Altona (dating from 1878) and that of Frankfort-on-the-Main (1892).
Among the Tertiary volcanic rocks those of acid types (granites, granulites) were the first to appear and are developed latitudinally; rocks of intermediate type (dacites, andesites) characterize the Miocene and early Pliocene periods; while the basic rocks (ophites, elaeolite syenites and basalts) attained their maximum in later Pliocene and Quaternary times.
33 (S 48) at Paris, which often agrees with r; BL and is the best minuscule representative of the " Neutral " and " Alexandrian " types of text in the gospels; cod.
We can distinguish two main types, African and European.
Of these three types WH thought that the Neutral was decidedly the best.
Both of these point to the existence in the 3rd and even 2nd century of types of text which differ in very many points from anything preserved in Greek MSS.
This has not yet been done, but enough has been accomplished to point to the probability that the result will be the establishment of at least three main types of texts, represented by the Old Syriac, the Old Latin and Clement's quotations, while it is doubtful how far Tatian's Diatessaron, the quotations in J ustin and a few other sources may be used to reconstruct the type of Greek text used in Rome in the 2nd century when Rome was still primarily a Greek church.
The tropical Asiatic element predominates on the low lands; types characteristic of Australia and New Zealand occur principally on the upper parts of the high islands.
oak, ash, elm, &c.; the articles FIR and Pine treat of two large groups of conifers; general information is provided by the articles Plants and Gymnosperms; tree cultivation will be found under Forests And Forestry and Horticulture; and the various types of tree whose wood is useful for practical purposes under Timber.
associations had done no more than organize a new form of spiritual excitement, they would have only added one to the many mechanical types of hysterical religion which are found all over the East.
As other collections are but a fraction of the whole of these, and are much less completely examined, little if any good would be done by including them in the combined results, though for special types or inscriptions they will be mentioned.
Hence the 224 unit seems to have been formed from the 129, after the main families or types of that had arisen.
With Abel Remusat he was joint founder of the Societe asiatique, and was inspector of oriental types at the royal printing press.
The great philosophical impulse was that given by Darwin in 1859 through his demonstration of the theory of descent, which gave tremendous zest to the search for pedigrees (phylogeny) of the existing and extinct types of animal and plant life.
Successive observers in Italy, notably Fracastoro (1483-1553), Fabio Colonna (1567-1640 or 1650) and Nicolaus Steno (1638 - c. 1687), a Danish anatomist, professor in Padua, advanced the still embryonic science and set forth the principle of comparison of fossil with living forms. Near the end of the 17th century Martin Lister (1638-1712), examining the Mesozoic shell types of England, recognized the great similarity as well as the differences between these and modern species, and insisted on the need of close comparison of fossil and living shells, yet he clung to the old view that fossils were sports of nature.
Recognition of this threefold character led Deshayes to establish a threefold division of the Tertiary based on the percentage of molluscs belonging to types now living found in each.
He showed that from each individual shell of an ammonite the entire ancestral series may be reconstructed, and that, while the earlier shell-whorls retain the characters of the adults of preceding members of the series, a shell in its own adult stage adds a new character, which in turn becomes the pre-adult character of the types which will succeed it; finally, that this comparison between the revolutions of the life of an individual and the life of the entire order of ammonites is wonderfully harmonious and precise.
Thus all recent discovery tends to carry the centres of origin and of dispersal of all animal types farther and farther back in geological time.
In the face of the continuous series of characters and types revealed by palaeontology, the Linnaean terminology, the individual order of development and the ancestral order of evolution.
lung-fish (Ceratodus) was the most primitive (or Archipterygium), placed as the primordial type a fin which palaeontology has proved to be one of the latest types if not the last.
The ingenuity of nature, however, in adapting animals is not infinite, because the same devices are repeatedly employed by her to accomplish the same adaptive ends whether in fishes, reptiles, birds or mammals; thus she has repeated herself at least twenty-four times in the evolution of long-snouted rapacious swimming types of animals.
Among the ammonites of the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods types occur which in their external appearance so closely resemble each other that they could be taken for members of a single series, and not infrequently have been taken for species of the same genus and even for the same species; but their early stages of development and, in fact, their entire individual history prove them to be distinct and not infrequently to belong to widely separated genetic series.
- Diagram demonstrating that there are an indefinite number of combinations of various adaptive types of limbs and feet with various adaptive types of teeth, and that there is no fixed law of correlation between the two series of adaptations.
Thus we observe persistent organs and persistent types of animals, analogous organs and analogous types of animals, and this analogy applies still further to the rival and more or less contradictory hypotheses of the sudden as distinguished from the gradual appearance of new parts or organs of animals, and the sudden appearance of new types of animals.
The first exponent of the theory of sudden appearance of new parts and new types, to our knowledge, was Geoffroy St Hilaire, who suggested saltatory evolution through the direct action of the environment on development, as explaining the abrupt transitions in the Mesozoic Crocodilia and the origin of the birds from the reptiles.
It was early perceived by Huxley, Cope and many others that Cuvier's broad belief in a universal progression was erroneous, and there developed the distinction between " persistent primitive types " (Huxley) and " progressive types."
In certain cases the character stem forms actually survive in unspecialized types.
Great waves of extinction have followed the long periods of the slow evolution of relatively inadaptive types of tooth and foot structure, as first demonstrated by Waldemar Kowalevsky; thus mammals are repeatedly observed in a cul-de-sac of structure from which there is no escape in an adaptive direction.
- The types of animal and vegetable life found in Mexico belong, in a general sense, to those of the northern temper ate region, and those of the tropical regions of Central and South America.
The great central plateau and its bordering lowlands form an intermediate territory in which these dissimilar types are found side by side, the tropical species extending northward along the coast to the United States, while the northern species have found their way to the southern limits of the plateau.
This intermingling of types does not apply to south-eastern Mexico, where animal life is represented by many of the genera and species found in the forested lowlands of the great Amazon basin.
The insect fauna of Mexico covers a very wide range of genera and species which, like the other forms of animal life, is largely made up of migratory types.