SAN GIMIGNANO, a town of Tuscany, Italy, in the province of Siena, 24 m.
The number of scholars in the elementary schools for1901-1902was 59.09 per loon (Calabria 42.27, Tuscany 67 09, Piedmont 118.00); the teachers are 1.34 per woo, a total of 1084 of both sexes (among whom only one priest) (Calabria 1.18, Tuscany I 29, Piedmont 2.
For Tuscany; lasted until the formation of the kingdom of Italy.
GIUSEPPE MONTANELLI (1813-1862), Italian statesman and author, was born at Fucecchio in Tuscany, and in 1840 was appointed law professor at Pisa.
On being liberated he returned to Tuscany, and the grand duke Leopold II, knowing that he was popular with the masses, sent him to Leghorn to quell the disturbances.
But Leopold, alarmed at the turn affairs were taking, fled from Florence, and Montanelli, Guerrazzi and Mazzini were elected "triumvirs" of Tuscany.
Like Mazzini, Montanelli advocated the union of Tuscany with Rome.
On the formation of the kingdom of Italy he returned to Tuscany and was elected member of parliament; he died in 1862.
Frederick landed in Calabria, where he seized several towns, encouraged revolt in Naples, negotiated with the Ghibellines of Tuscany and Lombardy, and assisted the house of Colonna against Pope Bonif ace.
After his fall it was restored to Tuscany, and passed with it to Italy in 1860.
Savoy, Genoa, Tuscany and Naples, wishing to avoid a rupture, yielded; but Venice resisted.
This is the highest point in the northern Apennines, and belongs to a group of summits of nearly equal altitude; the range which is continued thence between Tuscany and what are now known as the Emilian provinces presents a continuous ridge from the mountains at the head of the Val di Mugello (due north of Florence) to the point where they are traversed by the celebrated Furlo Pass.
Until the union of Italy they were comprised in Tuscany and the southern Papal States.
The northern part of Tuscany is indeed occupied to a considerable extent by the underfalls and offshoots of the Apennines, which, besides the slopes and spurs of the main range that constitutes its northern frontier towards the plain of the Po, throw off several outlying ranges or groups.
South of this the country between the frontier of Tuscany and the Tiber is in great part of volcanic origin, forming hills with distinct crater-shaped basins, in several instances occupied by small lakes (the Lake of Bolsena, Lake of Vico and Lake of Bracciano).
Besides these offshoots of the Apennines there are in this part of Central Italy several detached mountains, rising almost like islands on the seashore, of which the two most remarkable are the Monte Argentaro on the coast of Tuscany near Orbetello (2087 ft.) and the Monte Circello (1771 ft.) at the angle of the Pontine Marshes, by the whole breadth of which it is separated from the Volscian Apennines.
The most considerable rivers of Tuscany south of the Arno are the Cecina, which flows through the plain below Volterra, and the Ombrone, which rises in the hills near Siena, and enters the sea about 12 m.
North of this, and about midway between Corsica and Tuscany, is the small island of Capraia, steep and rocky, and only 4½ m.
On each side of that great chain are found extensive Tertiary deposits, sometimes, as in Tuscany, the district of Monferrat, &c., forming a broken, hilly country, at others spreading into broad plains or undulating downs, such as the Tavoliere of Puglia, and the tract that forms the spur of Italy from Bari to Otranto.
The Roman district, the largest of the four, extends from the hills of Albano to the frontier of Tuscany, and from the lower slopes of the Apennines to the Tyrrhenian Sea.
in Venetia, Emilia, the Marches, Umbria and Tuscany the proportion of concentrated population is only from 40 to 55%; in Piedmont, Liguria and Lombardy the proportion rises to from 70 to 76%; in southern Italy, Sicily and Sardinia it attains a maximum of from 76 to 93%.
Tuscany gives I20, Latium 1.14%, Apulia only I~02, while Sardinia with 0.34% occupies an exceptional position.
The hills of Tuscany, and of Monferrato in Piedmont, produce the most celebrated Italian vintages.
(4) The region of chestnuts extends from the valleys to the high plateaus of the Alps, along the northern slopes of the Apennines in Liguria, Modena, Tuscany, Romagna, Umbria, the Marches and along the southern Apennines to the Calabrian and Sicilian ranges, as well as to the mountains of Sardinia.
In Lombardy, Emilia, Romagna, Tuscany, the Marches, Umbria and the southern provinces, they are trained to trees which are either left in their natural state or subjected to pruning and pollarding.
Silkworm-rearinr establishments of importance now exist in the Marches, Umbria, in the Abruzzi, Tuscany, Piedmont and Venetia.
The fields of Tuscany for the most part bear wheat one year and maize the next, in perpetual interchanges, relieved to some extent by green crops.
Liguria is not much adapted for sheep-farming on a large scale; but a number of small flocks come down to thc plain of Tuscany in the winter.
In the Marches, Umbria and Tuscany, mezzadria prevails in its purest form.
Quicksilver and tin are found (the latter in small quantities) in Tuscany.
The industry is chiefly developed in Lombardy, Piedmont and Liguria; to some extent also in Campania, Venetia and Tuscany, and to a less extent in Lazio (Rome), Apulia, Emilia, the Marches, Umbria, the Abruzzi and Sicily.
The industry centres chiefly in Piedmont (province of Novara), Venetia (province of Vicenza), Tuscany (Florence), Lombardy (Brescia), Campania (Caserta), Genoa, Umbria, the Marches and Rome.
The greatest quantity is produced in Lombardy, Piedmont, Venetia and Tuscany.
Each region produces a special type, Venetia turning out imitations of 16th- and I 7th-century styles, Tuscany the 15th-century or cinquecento style, and the Neapolitan provinces the Pompeian style.
A characteristic Italian industry is that of straw-plaiting for hat-making, which is carried on principally in Tuscany, in the district of Fermo, in the Alpine villages of the province of Vicenza, and in some communes of the province of Messina.
The finest glass is made in Tuscany and Venetia; Venetian glass is often colored and of artistic form.
In Tuscany, however, the prevalence of mezzadria, properly so called, has raised the laborers position.
Distributive co-operation is confined almost entirely to Piedmont, Liguria, Lombardy, Venetia, Emilia and Tuscany, and is practically unknown in Basilicata, the Abruzzi and Sardinia.
Tuscany and Sicily had been untouched.
per 1000; Tuscany has 39; Venetia, 42; Calabria, 144; Rome, 146; Apulia, 153; and Sardinia, 360 per 1000.
At that time four limited companies were authorized to issue bank notes, namely, the National Bank, the National Bank of Tuscany, the Roman Bank and the Tuscan Credit Bank; and two banking corporations, the Bank of Naples and the Bank of Sicily.
Up to that year some of the regions of the kingdom, such as Tuscany, continued to have a kind of autonomy; but by the laws of the 20th of March the whole country was divided into 69 provinces and 8545 communes.
The discords which followed on the break-up of the Carolingian power, and the weakness of the so-called Italian emperors, who were unable to control the feudatories (marquises of Ivrea and Tuscany, dukes of Friuli and Spoleto), from whose ranks they sprang, exposed Italy to ever-increasing misrule.
She escaped to the castle of Canossa, where the great count of Tuscany espoused her cause, and appealed in her behalf to Otto the Saxon.
In his singlehanded duel with the strength of Germany, Gregory received material assistance from the Countess Matilda of Tuscany.
The privileges confirmed to the Lombard cities by the peace of Constance were extended to Tuscany, where Florence, having War of ruined Fiesole, had begun her career of freedom and clues prosperity.
This is the meaning of the three leagues, in the March, in the duchy of Spoleto and in Tuscany, which now combined the chief cities of the papal territory into allies of the holy see.
in the Ghibelline capital of Tuscany.
While the former faction gained in Lombardy by the massacre of Ezzelino, the latter revived in Tuscany after the battle of Montaperti, which in 1260 placed Florence at the discretion of the Ghibellines.
They made him senator of Rome and vicar of Tuscany, and promised him the investiture of the regno provided he stipulated that it should not be held in combination with the empire.
Charles was forced to resigr the senatorship of Rome and the signoria of Lombardy and Tuscany.
The Mediterranean was left to be fought for by Genoa and Venice, while Guelph Florence grew still more powerful in Tuscany.
In Tuscany, where the Guelph party was very strongly organized, and the commercial constitution of Florence kept the nobility in check, the communes remained as yet free from hereditary masters.
The Scaligers in Verona and the Carraresi in Padua were strengthened; and in Tuscany Castruccio Castracane, Ugucciones successor at Lucca, became formidable.
Castruccio dominated Tuscany, where the Guelph cause, in the weakness of King Robert, languished.
Gian Galeazzo, partly by force and partly by intrigue, discredited these minor despots, pushed his dominion to the very verge of Venice, and, having subjected Lombardy to his sway, proceeded to attack Tuscany.
He crossed the Alps in 1495, passed through Lombardy, entered Tuscany, freed Pisa from the yoke of Florence, witnessed the expulsion of the Medici, marched to Naples and was crowned tliereall this without striking a blow.
chastised the Roman nobles, subdued Romagna and the March, threatened Tuscany, and seemed to be upon the point of creating a Central Italian state in favor of his progeny, when he died suddenly in 1503.
Acting as lieutenant for the Spaniards, he subsequently (1555) subdued Siena, and bequeathed to his descendants the grand-duchy of Tuscany.
He hoped to secure this duchy for his son, Don Carlos; and Elisabetta further brought with her a claim to the grand-duchy of Tuscany, which would soon become vacant by the death of Gian Gaston.e de Medici.
The War of the Polish Succession which now disturbed Europe is only important in Italian history because the treaty of Vienna in 1738 settled the disputed affairs of the duchies Polish of Parma and Tuscany.
But he was now transferred to the Two Sicilies, while Francis of Lorraine, the husband of Maria Theresa, took Tuscany and Parma.
The Austrians kept Milan and Tuscany.
ruled the grand-duchy of Tuscany by lieutenants until his death in 1765, when it was given, as an.
In 1790 he succeeded to the empire, and left Tuscany to his son Ferdinand.
The European ferment of ideas which preceded the French Revolution expressed itself in men like Alfieri, the fierce denouncer of tyrants, Beccaria, the philosopher of criminal jurisprudence, Volta, the physicist, and numerous political economists of Tuscany.
The former possessed the rich duchies Frecch of Milan (including Mantua) and Tuscany; while Revolu through a marriage alliance with the house of Este UoI, of Modena (the Archduke Ferdinand had married the heiress of Modena) its influence over that duchy was supreme.
The grand-duke of Tuscany was the first of the European sovereigns who made peace with, and recognized the French republic, early in 1795.
over the Papal States was admitted; and Italian affairs were arranged much as they were at Campo Formio: Modena and Tuscany now reverted to French control, their former rulers being promised compensation in Germany.
Naples, easily worsted by the French, under Miollis, left the British alliance, and made peace by the treaty of Florence (March 1801), agreeing to withdraw her troops from the Papal States, to cede Piombino and the Presidii (in Tuscany) to France and to close her ports to British ships and commerce.
By complex and secret bargaining with the court of Madrid, Bonaparte procured the cession to France Napoleons of Louisiana, in North America, and Parma; while reorganthe duke of Parma (husband of an infanta of Spain) 1zat1o~ of was promoted by him to the duchy of Tuscany, now 1t8tV.
Elisa Bonaparte and her husband, Bacciocchi, rulers of Lucca and Piombino, became the heads of the administration in Tuscany, Elisa showing decided governing capacity.
This aim prompted the annexation of Tuscany, and his intervention in the affairs of the Papal States.
Thereupon the French general, Miollis, who still occupied Rome, caused the pope to be arrested and carried him away northwards into Tuscany, thence to Savona; finally he was taken, at Napoleons orders, to Fontainebleau.
Tuscany was restored to the grand-duke Ferdinand III.
The duchy of Lucca was given to Marie Louise of BourbonParma, who, at the death of Marie Louise of Austria, would return to Parma, when Lucca would be handed over to Tuscany.
The reaction, which was dull and heavy in the dominions of the pope and of Victor Emmanuel, systematically harsh in the Austrian states of the north, and comparatively mild in Parma and Tuscany, excited the greatest loathing in southern Italy and Sicily, because there it was directed by a dynasty which had aroused feelings of hatred mingled with contempt.
Not only did she govern Lombardy and Venetia directly, but Austrian princes ruled in Modena, Parma and Tuscany; Piacenza, Ferrara and Comacchio had Austrian garrisons; Prince Metternich, the Austrian chancellor, believed that he could always secure the election of an Austrophil pope, and Ferdinand of Naples, reinstated by an Austrian army, had bound himself, by a secret article of the treaty of June 12, 1815, not to introduce methods of government incompatible with those adopted in Austrias Italian possessions.
Austria also concluded offensive and defensive alliancqs with Sardinia Tuscany and Naples; and Metternichs ambition was to make Austrian predominance over Italy still more absolute, by placing an Austrian archduke on the Sardinian throne.
The latter immediately proclaimed the constitution, but the new king, Charles Felix, who was at Modena at the time, repudiated the regents acts and exiled him to Tuscany; and, with his consent, an Austrian army invaded Piedmont and crushed the constitutionalists at Novara.
But the movement collapsed without result, and the leaders fled to Tuscany.
In September 1847, Leopold gave way to .the popular agitation for a national guard, n spite of Metternichs threats, and allowed greater freedom of Lhe press; every concession made by the pope was followed by Semands for a similar measure in Tuscany.
Tuscany and Naples had both joined the Italian league; a Tuscan army started for Lombardy on the 3oth of April, and 17,000 Neapolitans commanded by Pepe (who had returned after 28 years of exile) went to assist Durando in intercepting the Austrian reinforce1irnts under Nugent.
Tuscany the government drifted from the moderates to the extreme democrats; the Ridolfi ministry was succeeded after Custozza by that of Ricasoli, and the latter by that of Capponi.
Leopold of Tuscany suspended the constitution, and in 1852 formally abolished it by order from Vienna; he also concluded atreatyof semi-subjection with Austria and a Concordat with the pope for granting fresh privileges to the Church.
The Sardinian government had formally invited that of Tuscany to participate in Unionist the war of liberation, and on the grand-dtike rejecting movethe proposal, moderates and democrats combined to ments in present an ultimatum to Leopold demanding that he ~~-~ should abdicate in favor of his son, grant a constitu- ~~ tion and take part in the campaign.
On his refusal Florence rose as one man, and he, feeling that he could not rely on his troops, abandoned Tuscany on.
Victor Emmanuel, at the request of the people, assumed the protectorate over Tuscany, where he was represented by the Sardinian minister Boncompagni.
In August Marco Minghetti succeeded in forming a military league and a customs union between Tuscany, Romagna and the duchies, and in procuring the adoption of the Piedmontese codes; and envoys were sent to Paris to mollify Napoleon.
The negotiations were long drawn out; for Cavour struggled to save Nice and Napoleon was anxious to make conditions, especially as regards Tuscany.
The king having formally accepted the voluntary annexation of the duchies, Tuscany and Romagna, appointed the prince of Carignano viceroy with Ricasoli as governor-general (22nd of March), and was immediately afterwards excommunicated by the pope.
VIAREGGIO, a maritime town and sea-bathing resort of Tuscany, Italy, in the province of Lucca, on the Mediterranean, 13 m.
After an unsuccessful embassy in Tuscany, he was imprisoned as a suspect during the Terror, but freed after the 9th Thermidor.
Matilda Of Tuscany >>
He was now one of the most powerful sovereigns of Europe, for besides ruling over Provence and Anjou and the kingdom of the Two Sicilies, he was imperial vicar of Tuscany, lord of many cities of Lombardy and Piedmont, and as the pope's favourite practically arbiter of the papal states, especially during the interregnum between the death of Clement IV.
of Germany at once forced the pontiff to crown him emperor, and three or four years later took possession of the Norman kingdom of Sicily; he refused tribute and the oath of allegiance, and even appointed bishops subject to his own jurisdiction; moreover, he gave his brother in fief the estates which had belonged to the countess Matilda of Tuscany.
BAGNI DI LUCCA (Baths of Lucca, formerly Bagno a Corsena), a commune of Tuscany, Italy, in the province of Lucca, containing a number of famous watering-places.
MONTEPULCIANO, a town and episcopal see of the province of Siena, Tuscany, Italy, 44 m.
MONTECATINI, two much-frequented mineral baths of Tuscany, Italy.
On the 12th of February 1736 she was married to her cousin Francis of Lorraine, then grand duke of Tuscany, and afterwards emperor.
In 1858 the representatives of Austria, Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Piedmont, Russia, the Holy See, Sweden, Tuscany and Turkey appropriated the sum of 400,000 francs in recognition of the use of his instruments in those countries.
by the grand-duchy of Tuscany and the duchy of Modena.
to surrender all the possessions and royalties of the Church; but this treaty was soon afterwards repudiated, and by the will of Matilda, countess of Tuscany, the papal see was enabled to lay claim to new territories of great value.
recognized the papal authority over the whole tract from Radicofani in Tuscany to the pass of Ceperano on the Neapolitan frontier - the exarchate of Ravenna, the Pentapolis, the March of Ancona, the bishopric of Spoleto, Matilda's personal estates, and the countship of Brittenoro; but a good deal of the territory thus described remained for centuries an object of ambition only on the part of the popes.
Those with France were also renewed (July 6, 1581); and capitulations were signed for the first time with the grand duke of Tuscany (1578) and with England (1580).
This was the signal for a general coalition against Turkey; Venice, Poland and the pope allied themselves with the Austrians; Russia, Tuscany and Malta joined in the attack.
Prince Matthias of Tuscany employed Courtois on some striking works in his villa, Lappeggio, representing with much historical accuracy the prince's military exploits.
In 1756 he was appointed by Leopold, grand-duke of Tuscany, to the professorship of mathematics in the university of Pisa, a post which he held for eight years.
He left for Rome, where, after a short imprisonment on suspicion of being a spy, he gained the favour of Pope Paul V., through whose influence with Cosimo II., grand duke of Tuscany, he was appointed to the professorship of the Pandects at Pisa.
SIENA, a city and archiepiscopal see of Tuscany, Italy, capital of the province of Siena, 59 m.
But in a second and more important campaign, in which the militia of the other Guelf towns of Tuscany took part, the Florentines were signally defeated at Montaperti on the 4th of September 1260.
But the battle of Benevento (1266) and the establishment of the dynasty of Charles of Anjou on the Neapolitan throne put an end to the Ghibelline predominance in Tuscany.
The rival claims to the Neapolitan kingdom of Carlo di Durazzo and Louis of Anjou caused fresh disturbances in Tuscany.
In 1453 hostilities against Florence were again resumed, on account of the invasions and ravages of Sienese territory committed by Florentine troops in their conflicts with Alphonso of Naples, who since 1447 had made Tuscany his battleground.
Thereupon Alphonso, duke of Calabria, who was fighting in Tuscany on the side of his father Ferdinand, came to an agreement with Siena and, in the same way as his grandfather Alphonso, tried to obtain the lordship of the city and the recall of the exiled rebels in 1456.
From 1527 to 1545 the city was torn by faction fights and violent revolts against the noveschi, and was the scene of frequent bloodshed, while the quarrelsomeness and bad government of the Sienese gave great dissatisfaction in Tuscany.
Thus Siena was annexed to the Florentine state under the same ruler and became an integral part of the grand-duchy of Tuscany.
The most valuable straw for plaits is grown in Tuscany, and from it the well-known Tuscan plaits and Leghorn hats are made.
The straw of Tuscany, specially grown for plaiting, is distinguished into three qualities - Pontederas Semone being the finest, Mazzuolo the second quality, from which the bulk of the plaits are made, while from the third quality, Santa Fioro, only "Tuscan pedals" and braids are plaited.
Straw-plaiting is a domestic industry among the women and young children of Tuscany and some parts of Emilia.
After studying law in Tuscany, he became an avocat at the upper council of Bastia, and was elected deputy of the Third Estate to the French states-general in 1789.
Exiled from Naples in consequence of the movement of 1848, he took refuge in Tuscany, whence he was compelled to flee to Turin on account of a pungent article against the Bourbons.
CERTALDO, a town of Tuscany, Italy, in the province of Florence, 35 m.
Invited to Tuscany by the Countess Matilda, he convoked a council at Piacenza in March 1095, attended by so vast a number of prelates and laymen that its sessions were held in the open air, and addressed by ambassadors of Alexis, the Byzantine emperor, who sought aid against the Mussulmans.
Florentia), formerly the capital of Tuscany, now the capital of a province of the kingdom of Italy, and the sixth largest city in the country.
right, shared by the Vittorio Emanuele library of Rome, of receiving a copy of every work printed in Italy, since 1870 (since 1848 it had enjoyed a similar privilege with regard to works printed in Tuscany).
In 1859 after the annexation of Tuscany to the Italian kingdom it was revived and reorganized; since then it has become to some extent a national centre of learning and culture, attracting students from other parts of Italy, partly on account of the fact that it is in Florence that the purest Italian is spoken.
We find the Longobards in Tuscany in 570, and mention is made of one Gudibrandus Dux civitatis Florentinorum, which suggests that Florence was the capital of a duchy (one of the regular divisions of the Longobard empire).
Florence is the capital of a province of the same name, and the central government is represented by a prefect (prefetto), while local government is carried on by a mayor (sindaco) Under the Carolingian emperors Tuscany was a March or margraviate, and the marquises became so powerful as to be even a danger to the Empire.
(elected in 1024) appointed Boniface of Canossa marquis of Tuscany, a territory then extending from the Po to the borders of the Roman state.
It is at this Ghibel- time that the people of Florence first began to acquire influence, and while the countess presided at the courts of justice in the name of the Empire, she was assisted by a group of great feudal nobles, judges, lawyers, &c., who formed, as elsewhere in Tuscany, the boni homines or sapientes.
Frederick Barbarossa, however, elected emperor in 1152, made his authority felt in Tuscany, and appointed one Welf of Bavaria as margrave.
In the end the Alberti, though not victorious, succeeded in getting occasionally admitted to the consulship. Florence now formed a league with the chief cities of Tuscany, made peace with the Guidi, and humbled the Alberti whose castle of Semifonte was destroyed (1202).
the Ghibelline cause revived in Tuscany and imperial authority was re-established.
The tumults against the Paterine heretics (1244-1245), among whom were many Ghibelline nobles favoured by the podestd Pace di Pesamigola, indicate a successful Guelphic reaction; but Frederick II., having defeated his enemies both in Lombardy and in the Two Sicilies, appointed his natural son, Frederick of Antioch, imperial vicar in Tuscany, who, when civil war broke out, entered the city with 1600 German knights.
Rudolph of Habsburg, elected king of the Romans in 1273, having come to terms with Pope Nicholas III., Charles was obliged in 1278 to give up his title of imperial vicar in Tuscany, which he had held during the interregnum following on the death of Frederick II.
(elected 1294), who aimed at extending his authority in Tuscany.
A brave general Uguccione and an ambitious man, he captured Lucca and defeated the Florentines and their allies from Naples at Montecatini in 1315, but the following year he lost both Pisa and Lucca and had to fly from Tuscany.
Florence was now a thoroughly democratic and commercial republic, and its whole policy was mainly dominated by commercial considerations: its rivalry with Pisa was due to an ambition to gain secure access to the sea; its strong Guelphism was the outcome of its determination to secure the bank-business of the papacy, and its desire to extend its territory in Tuscany to the necessity for keeping open the land trade routes.
In 1351 Giovanni Visconti, lord and archbishop of Milan, having purchased Bologna and allied himself with sundry Ghibelline houses of Tuscany with a view to dominating Florence, the city made war on him, and in violation of its Guelph traditions placed itself under the protection of the emperor Charles IV.
The first of these bands with whom Florence came into contact was the Great Company, commanded by the count of Lando, which twice entered Tuscany Y but was expelled both times by the Florentine troops (1358-1359).
In 1397-1398 Florence had two more wars with Gian Galeazzo Visconti, who, aspiring to the conquest of Tuscany, acquired the lordship of Pisa, Siena and Perugia.
In 1437 Florence and Venice were again at war with the Visconti, whose chief captain, Niccolo Piccinino, on entering Tuscany with many Florentine exiles in his train, was signally defeated at Anghiari by the Florentines under Francesco Sforza (1440); peace was made the following year.
The death of Sforza led to a war for the succession of Milan, and the Venetians, instigated by Florentine exiles, invaded Tuscany.
For the period from 1530 to 1860 see also under Tuscany.
Thus Florence lost her liberty, and came to be the capital of the duchy (afterwards grand-duchy) of Tuscany (see Tuscany).
The Medici dynasty ruled in Tuscany until the death of Gian Gastone in 1737, when the grand-duchy was assigned to Francis, duke of Lorraine.
of Habsburg-Lorraine was driven from the throne, and Tuscany was annexed to the French empire in 1808.
In 1859, after the Franco-Italian victories over the Austrians in Lombardy, by a bloodless revolution in Florence Leopold was expelled and Tuscany annexed to the Sardinian kingdom.
See also the bibliographies in MEDICI, MACHIAVELLI, SAVONAROLA, TUSCANY, &c. (L.
The name is the Latin equivalent of the Greek Tupprivia or Tupojvia, which is used by Latin writers also in the forms Tyrrhenia, Tyrrhenii; the Romans also spoke of Tusci, whence the modern Tuscany.
Having gained another victory in 542, this time in the valley of Mugello, he left Tuscany for Naples, captured that city and then received the submission of the provinces of Lucania, Apulia and Calabria.
PISA, a town, archiepiscopal see and capital of a province of the same name, Tuscany, Italy, on the Arno, 7 m.
It again began to flourish under the marquises of Tuscany, who governed it in the name of the emperor.
Thus, while the commune of Pisa was still under the rule of the marquises of Tuscany, all negotiations with it were carried on as with an independent state officially represented by the archbishop and consuls.
The new or common style was adopted throughout Tuscany in the year 1750.
But meanwhile Florence had made alliance with Genoa, Lucca and all the Guelph cities of Tuscany against its Ghibelline rival.
made his descent into Italy in 1494, and came to Sarzana on his way to Tuscany, he was welcomed by the Pisans with the greatest demonstrations of joy.
Under the house of Lorraine, or more correctly during the reign of that enlightened reformer the grand duke Peter Leopold (1765-1790), Pisa shared in the general prosperity of Tuscany, and its population constantly increased.
FIESOLE (anc. Faesulae, q.v.), a town and episcopal see of Tuscany, Italy, in the province of Florence, from which it is 3 m.
MAREMMA (a corruption of Marittima, " situated on the sea"), a marshy region of Tuscany, Italy, extending from the mouth of the Cecina to Orbetello and varying in breadth from 15 to 20 m.
of Tuscany (1822-1844) made the first successful efforts to counteract the malaria which has affected the district, by drainage, the filling up of swamps, and the establishment of new farms, and since his time continuous efforts have been made with considerable success.
The Piedmont, Lombardy, mainland of Venetia, Tuscany and the interior of Naples belonged to the Lombards.
(1797-1870), of Habsburg-Lorraine, grand-duke of Tuscany, was born on the 3rd of October 1797, the son of the grand-duke Ferdinand III., whom he succeeded in 1824.
His was the mildest and least reactionary of all the Italian despotisms of the day, and although always subject to Austrian influence he refused to adopt the Austrian methods of government, allowed a fair measure of liberty to the press, and permitted many political exiles from other states to dwell in Tuscany undisturbed.
But when in the early 'forties a feeling of unrest spread throughout Italy, even in Tuscany demands for a constitution and other political reforms were advanced; in1845-1846riots broke out in various parts of the country, and Leopold granted a number of administrative reforms. But Austrian influence prevented him from going further, even had he wished to do so.
The granting of the Neapolitan and Piedmontese constitutions was followed (17th February 1848) by that of Tuscany, drawn up by Gino Capponi.
The revolution in Milan and Vienna aroused a fever of patriotic enthusiasm in Tuscany, where war against Austria was demanded; Leopold, giving way to popular pressure, sent a force of regulars and volunteers to co-operate with Piedmont in the Lombard campaign.
The utmost confusion prevailed in Florence and other parts of Tuscany.
Leopold accepted, although he said nothing about the foreign invasion, and on the 1st of May sent Count Luigi Serristori to Tuscany with full powers.
Political trials were held, Guerrazzi and many others being condemned to long terms of imprisonment, and although in 1855 the Austrian troops left Tuscany, Leopold's popularity was gone.
The popular demands presented by Corsini were for the abdication of Leopold in favour of his son, an alliance with Piedmont and the reorganization of Tuscany in accordance with the eventual and definite reorganization of Italy.
Thus the revolution was accomplished without a drop of blood being shed, and after a period of provisional government Tuscany was incorporated in the kingdom of Italy.
Leopold of Tuscany was a well-meaning, not unkindly man, and fonder of his subjects than were the other Italian despots; but he was weak, and too closely bound by family ties and Habsburg traditions ever to become a real Liberal.
The cardinal Giovanni de' Medici, who was present at the battle of Ravenna, brought a Spanish army into Tuscany.
VALLOMBROSA, a summer resort of Tuscany, Italy, in the province of Florence, reached by a cable railway 5 m.
Caesium is found in the mineral springs of Frankenhausen, Montecatini, di Val di Nievole, Tuscany, and Wheal Clifford near Redruth, Cornwall (W.
He negotiated an alliance with Parma, Romagna and Tuscany, when other provisional governments had been established, and entrusted the task of organizing an army for this central Italian league to General Fanti.
But the king was piqued by Austria's interference, and as both the grand-duke of Tuscany and the duke of Wellington supported him, Charles Albert's claims were respected.
He then received as papal fiefs the vast estates of Matilda, marchioness of Tuscany, thus securing for his daughter and her Welf husband lands which might otherwise have passed to the Hohenstaufen.
His baptismal name was Frederick, and he was a younger brother of Godfrey, duke of Upper Lorraine, marquis of Tuscany (by his marriage with Beatrice, widow of Boniface, marquis of Tuscany).
AREZZO (anc. Arretium), a town and episcopal see of Tuscany, Italy, the capital of the province of Arezzo, 54 m.
PESCIA, a town of Tuscany, Italy, in the province of Lucca, from which it is 15 m.
In 1805, after the foundation of the French empire, Napoleon bestowed upon her the principality of Piombino and shortly afterwards Lucca; in 1808 her importunities gained for her the grand duchy of Tuscany.
In this war Prince Napoleon commanded the French corps that occupied Tuscany, and it was expected that he would become ruler of the principality, but he refused to exert any pressure upon the inhabitants, who preferred union with the Italian kingdom.
VOLTERRA (anc. Volaterrae), a town and episcopal see of Tuscany, Italy, in the province of Pisa, from which it is 51 m.
Begun by the Countess Matilda of Tuscany in 1099, after the designs of Lanfranc, and consecrated in 1184, the Romanesque cathedral (S Geminiano) is a low but handsome building, with a lofty crypt, under the choir (characteristic of the Tuscan Romanesque architecture), three eastern apses, and a façade still preserving some curious sculptures of the 12th century.
1099) the city was part of the possessions of the Countess Matilda of Tuscany; but when, in 1184, the edifice was consecrated by Lucius III., it was a free community.
A branch of the Cadolingi di Borgonuovo family, lords of Fucecchio in Tuscany from the 10th century onwards, which had acquired the name of Bonaparte, had settled near Sarzana before 1264; in 1512 a member of the family took up his residence in Ajaccio, and hence, according to some authorities, was descended the emperor Napoleon I.
In 1814 it was assigned to the kingdom of Sardinia, the frontier between Liguria and Tuscany being now made to run between it and Carrara.
(1769-1824), grand duke of Tuscany, and archduke of Austria, second son of the emperor Leopold II., was born on the 6th of May 1769.
On his father becoming emperor in 1790, he succeeded him as grand duke of Tuscany.
Shortly afterwards the French arms suffered severe reverses in Italy, and Ferdinand was restored to his territories; but in 1801, by the peace of Luneville, Tuscany was converted into the kingdom of Etruria, and he was again compelled to return to Vienna.
In lieu of the sovereignty of Tuscany, he obtained in 1802 the electorship of Salzburg, which he exchanged by the peace of Pressburg in 1805 for that of Wiirzburg.
He was restored to the throne of Tuscany after the abdication of Napoleon in 1814 and was received with enthusiasm by the people, but had again to vacate his capital for a short time in 1815, when Murat proclaimed war against Austria.
The restoration in Tuscany was not accompanied by the reactionary excesses which characterized it elsewhere, and a large part of the French legislation was retained.
It was only with reluctance that he supported the ambitious projects of Elizabeth Farnese, queen of Spain, in Italy by guaranteeing in 1729 the succession of Don Carlos to the duchies of Parma and Tuscany.
PRATO, a town and episcopal see of Tuscany, Italy, in the province of Florence, 1 r m.
After the peace of Villafranca he was sent to organize the army of the Central Italian League (composed of the provisional governments of Tuscany, Modena, Parma and Romagna), and converted it in a few months into a well-drilled body of 45, 000 men, whose function was to be ready to intervene in the papal states on the outbreak of a revolution.
PIENZA, a town of Tuscany, Italy, in the province of Siena, 9 m.
He began life at the bar, where he obtained considerable practice; but the loss of an important suit, in which he was counsel for a Neapolitan noble against the grand duke of Tuscany, and in which he had entirely mistaken the force of a leading document, so mortified him that he withdrew from the legal world.
As pope he established peace between the republics of Lucca and Pisa, and confirmed Charles of Anjou in his office of imperial vicar of Tuscany.
Livourne), a city of Tuscany, Italy, chief town of the province of the same name, which consists of the commune of Leghorn and the islands of Elba and Gorgona.
PISTOIA, or Pistoja (anc. Pistoriae), a town and episcopal see of Tuscany, Italy, in the province of Florence, from which it is 21 m.
In the early development of architecture and sculpture Pistoia played a very important part; these arts, as they existed in Tuscany before the time of Niccola Pisano, can perhaps be better studied in Pistoia than anywhere else; nor is the city less rich in the later works produced by the school of sculptors founded by Niccola.
The free acid is found native in certain volcanic districts such as Tuscany, the Lipari Islands and Nevada, issuing mixed with steam from fissures in the ground; it is also found as a constituent of many minerals (borax, boracite, boronatrocalcite and colemanite).
By Marie he left a daughter, Anne Marie, duchesse de Montpensier; and by Marguerite he left three daughters, Marguerite Louise (1645-1721), wife of Cosimo III., grand duke of Tuscany; Elizabeth (1646-1696), wife of Louis Joseph, duke of Guise; and Francoise Madeleine (1648-1664), wife of Charles Emmanuel II., duke of Savoy.
A synod was held at Sutri, at which the powerful Godfrey, duke of Lorraine and Spoleto, and margrave of Tuscany, and the chancellor Wibert were present.
Though remaining leagued with the Angevins in southern Italy, they dared to look to Germany and Rudolph of Habsburg to help them in their efforts to add to the papal dominion a part of northern Italy and, in particular, Tuscany.
In prosecution of this design the king appeared in Italy in the autumn of 1494, pursued his triumphant march through Lombardy and Tuscany, and, on the 31st of December, entered Rome.
He is said to have rejoiced privately over Swedish victories, and certainly it was unerring instinct which told him that the great European conflict was no longer religious but dynastic. Anti-Spanish to the core, he became the greatest papal militarist since Julius II.; but Tuscany, Modena and Venice checkmated him in his ambitious attempt to conquer the duchy of Parma.
Besides the government of the pope there were three kingdoms: Sardinia, Lombardo-Venetia and Naples; and three duchies: Parma, Modena, Tuscany.
Having occupied Tuscany he marched into Apulia, part of the kingdom of Frederick of Hohenstaufen, afterwards the emperor Frederick II., and on the 18th of November 1210 was excommunicated by the pope.
GIOVANNI DELLA CASA (1503-1556), Italian poet, was born at Mugillo, in Tuscany, in 1503.
The distinction with which he was received on his journey, the royal honours paid to him in Venice, and the jealous interference of the English ambassador in regard to his reception by the grandduke of Tuscany, show how great was the respect in which the exiled house was held at this period by foreign Catholic powers, as well as the watchful policy of England in regard to its fortunes.
drew him in 1588 from Tuscany to Rome; and at Rome he hoped to make a permanent settlement as lecturer.
(Antonio Pignatelli), pope from 1691 to 1700 in succession to Alexander VIII., was born in Naples on the 13th of March 1615, was educated at the Jesuit College in Rome, entered upon his official career at the age of twenty, and became vice-legate of Urbino, governor of Perugia, and nuncio to Tuscany, to Poland and to Austria.
Three years later he brought his three great achievements together in compendious form, Quadratura circuli, Cubatio sphaerae, Duplicatio cubi, and as soon as they were once more refuted by Wallis, reprinted them with an answer to the objections, in compliment to the grand-duke of Tuscany, who paid him attentions on a visit to England in 1669 (L.W.
Among these was the grand-duke of Tuscany (Ferdinand II.), who took away some works and a portrait to adorn the Medicean library.
At last, on the 17th of July 1048, the marquis of Tuscany drove him from Rome, where he was never seen again.
and also the investiture of the extensive territories left by Matilda, marchioness of Tuscany; and at this time the pope seems to have claimed the emperor as his vassal, a statement to this effect (post homo fit papac, sumit quo dante coronam) being inscribed in the audience hall of the Lateran at Rome.
After the death of CharlesVll., Francis, grand duke of Tuscany, Maria Theresas husband, was elected emperor.
Francis, the dispossessed duke of Lorraine, was to be compensated with Tuscany.
In Italy the influence of the House of Austria had been strengthened by the marriage of the archduke Ferdinand with the heiress of the d'Estes of Modena, and the establishment of the archduke Leopold in the grand-duchy of Tuscany.
As grand-duke of Tuscany Leopold had won the reputation lI.
Criminal statistics, though slowly diminishing, are still high - murders, which are the most frequent crimes, having been 27 per 100,000 inhabitants in1897-1898and 25'23 per 100,000 in 1903, as against 2.57 in Lombardy, 2.00 in the district of Venetia, 4.50 in Tuscany and 5.24 in Piedmont.
In 1827 a combined expedition led by Champollion and Rosellini was despatched by the governments of France and Tuscany, and accomplished a great deal of valuable work in copying scenes and inscriptions.
ASCIANO, a town of Tuscany, in the province of Siena, 19 m.
Spain has salt works at the Bay of Cadiz, the Balearic Islands, &c.; Italy at Sicily, Naples, Tuscany and Sardinia.
While this siege was in progress Alboin was also engaged in other parts of Italy, and at its close he was probably master of Lombardy, Piedmont and Tuscany, as well as of the regions which afterwards went by the name of the duchies of Spoleto and Benevento.
FRANCISCUS GRATIANUS, compiler of the Concordia di,s cordantium canonum or Decretum Gratiani, and founder of the science of canon law, was born about the end of the filth century at Chiusi in Tuscany or, according to another account, at Carraria near Orvieto.
In 1828 he was commissioned to undertake the conduct of a scientific expedition to Egypt in company with Rosellini, who had received a similar appointment from Leopold II., grand duke of Tuscany.
The rest of the western bishops, however, still held aloof, and the episcopate of Tuscany caused his name to be removed from the diptychs.
The king was at Gaeta, whither the grand-duke of Tuscany and Pius IX.
and Anacletus II., both declared against him; the Romans repudiated him; and after failing to seize the extensive possessions left by Matilda, marchioness of Tuscany, he returned to Germany in 1132.
The king was unable to make much headway, in spite of the death of Duke Henry, which occurred in October 1139; and his half-brother Leopold IV., margrave of Austria, to whom Bavaria had been entrusted, was defeated by Henry's brother Welf, afterwards duke of Spoleto and margrave of Tuscany.
He kept them as long as he could north of the Apennines, while he completed the reduction of the fortresses of Tuscany.
In Tuscany, the historic role of the cities, with the exception of Pisa, begins at a later date, largely owing to the overlordship of the powerful margraves of the house of Canossa and their successors, who here represented the emperor.
Meanwhile communes with consuls at their head were formed in Tuscany much as elsewhere.
The history of the other Tuscan towns was equally tumultuous, all of them save Lucca, after many fitful changes finally passing under the sway of Florence, or the grand-duchy of Tuscany, as the state was now called.
It passed to Rome, but there was much less fatal, making 14,000 victims only - a result attributed by some to the precautions and sanitary measures introduced by Cardinal Gastaldi, whose work, a splendid folio, written on this occasion (Tractatus de avertenda et profliganda peste politicolegalis, Bologna, 1684) is historically one of the most important on the subject of quarantine, &c. Genoa lost 60,000 inhabitants from the same disease, but Tuscany remained untouched.
Count Welf was made duke of Spoleto and margrave of Tuscany; Berthold VI., duke of Zahringen, was entrusted with extensive rights in Burgundy; and the king's nephew, Frederick, received.
The possession of the vast estates left by Matilda, marchioness of Tuscany, and claimed by both pope and emperor, was to be decided by arbitration, and in October 1178 the emperor was again in Germany.
Still, Joseph only touched the surface; his brother, the grand-duke Leopold of Tuscany, aspired to cut deeper, and provoke a religious revival on the lines of Jansenism.
Petrarch's lyrics continue the Provencal tradition as it had been reformed in Tuscany, with a subtler and more modern analysis of emotion, a purer and more chastened style, than his masters could boast.
The German dialects were too rough to receive that artistic elaboration under antique influences which had been so facile in Tuscany.
MONTE SAN SAVINO, a town, of Tuscany, Italy, in the province of Arezzo, from which it is 12 m.
Tuscany produces the greater part of these wines, which are of good but not excessive alcoholic strength, containing as a rule some 101% to I12% of alcohol.
Like other Florentine nobles the Corsini had at first no titles, but in more recent times they received many from foreign potentates and from the later grand dukes of Tuscany.
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