How to use Turpentine in a sentence
He began his experimental work in 1841 with investigations of oil of turpentine and tolu balsam, in the course of which he discovered toluene.
Other subjects on which he published papers were the inflammation of turpentine and other essential oils by nitric acid, and the methods of embalmment practised by the Egyptians.
The leased convicts are employed in the turpentine and lumber industries and in the phosphate works.
It thus possesses the same composition as the hydrocarbon of gutta-percha and as that of oil of turpentine and other terpenes which are the chief components of essential oils.
The timbers in the second class are obtained from non-coniferous trees, containing no turpentine or resin, and are given the general name of hard woods.Advertisement
Less known turpentines are obtained from the mountain pine, P. Pumilio, the stone pine, P. Cembra, the Aleppo pine, P. halepensis, &c. The so-called Canada balsam, from Abies balsamea, is also a true turpentine.
Oil of turpentine is a colourless liquid of oily consistence, with a strong characteristic odour and a hot disagreeable taste.
Chemically, oil of turpentine is a more or less complex mixture of hydrocarbons generically named terpenes.
Oil of turpentine is largely used in the preparation of varnishes and as a medium by painters in their "flat" colours.
Oil of turpentine (Oleum terebinthinae) is administered internally as an anthelmintic to kill tapeworm.Advertisement
In large doses oil of turpentine causes purging and may induce much haemorrhage from the bowel; it should be combined with some trustworthy aperient, such as castor oil, when given as an anthelmintic. It is readily absorbed unchanged and has a marked contractile action upon the blood vessels.
Perhaps the most valuable of all the medicinal applications of turpentine, and one which is rarely, if ever, mentioned in therapeutic textbooks - owing to the fact that gynaecology has been so extremely specialized - is in inoperable cancer of the uterus.
The exhausting pain, the serious haemorrhages, and the abdominal septicity associated with a repulsive odour and the absorption of toxic products, which are the chief and ultimately fatal symptoms of that disease, are all directly combated by the administration of oil of turpentine.
So beneficial is the action that for years there prevailed the unfortunately erroneous belief that Chian turpentine is actually curative in this condition.
Old turpentine and French oil of turpentine are antidotes to phosphorus, forming turpentine-phosphoric acid, which is inert.Advertisement
The separation of the oleo-resin into the essential oil-spirit of turpentine and common rosin is effected by distillation in large copper stills.
Rosin varies in colour, according to the age of the tree whence the turpentine is drawn and the amount of heat applied in distillation, from an opaque almost pitchy black substance through grades of brown and yellow to an almost perfectly transparent colourless glassy mass.
American rosin is obtained from the turpentine of the swamp pine, Pinus australis, and of the loblolly pine, P. Taeda.
Among its manufactures are lumber (especially yellow-pine), wood-alcohol, turpentine, paper and pulp, fertilizers, wagons, mattresses and machine-shop products.
Some use is also made of the forest resources of the state in the manufacture of veneer, paper pulp, turpentine and other chemicals.Advertisement
The treatment consists in the use of enemata containing quassia, carbolic acid, vinegar or turpentine or even common salt.
Even so nearly related oils as the oils of turpentine, if obtained from different sources, rotate the plane of the polarized light in opposite directions.
One of the earliest triumphs of synthetical chemistry in this direction was the production of terpineol, the artificial lilac scent, from oil of turpentine.
In the arts, oil of turpentine is used on the largest scale in the manufacture of varnishes, and in smaller quantities for the production of terpineol and of artificial camphor.
The concreted turpentine obtained in the United States by making incisions in the trunk of a species of pine, Pinus australis, is also so designated.Advertisement
The best known of these are cloves, pimento (allspice), myrtle, eucalyptus, caraway, fennel, dill, coriander, rosemary, lavender, peppermint, spearmint, nutmeg, cinnamon, sandal-wood, turpentine, juniper berries, valerian and sumbul.
Using mediums and varnish thinners, turpentine and linseed oil all work much as they do with conventional tube oil paints.
You may be able to clip off the small areas of affected hair, but never use turpentine or paint remover on your cat.
The first thing Vera stressed when making polish of any sort was to use only genuine turpentine.
Portions most liable to destruction, those parts between the tide marks, were found perfectly sound, and showed no signs of the ravages of marine organisms. Other valuable timber trees of the eastern portion of the continent are the blackbutt, tallow-wood, spotted gum, red gum, mahogany, and blue gum, eucalyptus; and the turpentine (Syncarpialaurifolia), which has proved to be more resistant to the attacks of teredo than any other timber and is largely used in wharf construction in infested waters.Advertisement
The same authorities recommend a powder, composed of larvicide (an aniline substance), chrysanthemum flowers, and valerian root, to be burnt in bedrooms. Anointing the skin with strong-smelling substances is of little use in the open air, but more effective in the house; turpentine appears to be the best.
They are largely used in the arts, being separated by distillation into rosin or colophony (see RosiN), and oil or spirit of turpentine.
Using mediums and varnish Thinners, turpentine and linseed oil all work much as they do with conventional tube oil paints.
A painting more than fifty years old may be safely wiped over with turpentine substitute applied lightly with a soft pad.
To bring out the color in the tiles beeswax and turpentine polish can be used.Advertisement
The incidence of turpentine contact dermatitis has declined in countries where legislation has resulted in the substitution of other solvents.
S. terebinthinaceum has a strong turpentine odour.
It is insoluble in water,' but readily soluble in carbon bisulphide, sulphur chloride and oil of turpentine.
All the species exude resin, but no turpentine.
Pine stumps and waste limbs are utilized, notably at Hattiesburg, for the manufacture of charcoal, tar, creosote, turpentine, &c. Fisheries Fishing is a minor industry, confined for the most part to the Mississippi Sound and neighbouring waters and to the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers.Advertisement
In some localities, especially in the " Florida parishes," small quantities of rosin and turpentine are taken from the long-leaf pine, but this industry was unimportant in Louisiana before 1908.
Lubarsch succeeded in inducing it merely by the subcutaneous injection of turpentine, which produces its result, it is said, by exciting an abscess.
Nowak, however, found later that he could generate it where the turpentine failed to induce suppuration; he believes that it may arise quite apart from the influence of the organisms of suppuration, that it is not a biological product of the micro-organisms of disease, and also that it has nothing to do with emaciation.
Moulds for reproducing plates or art-work are often taken in plaster, beeswax mixed with Venice turpentine, fusible metal, or guttapercha, and the surface being rendered conductive by powdered black-lead, copper is deposited upon it evenly throughout.
The value of the turpentine and rosin products in 1905 was $2,434,365.Advertisement
In Tirol, a single hole is made near the root of the tree in the spring; this is stopped with a plug, and the turpentine is removed by a scoop in the autumn; but each tree yields only from a few ounces to z lb by this process.
Real larch turpentine is a thick tenacious fluid, of a deep yellow colour, and nearly transparent; it does not harden by time; it contains 15% of the essential oil of turpentine, also resin, succinic, pinic and sylvic acids, and a bitter extractive matter.
It is found in Kumaon and Bhotan and on some of the Nepal ranges, but does not grow in the moist climate of the Sikkim Himalayas; it is found at a height of 7000 to 12,000 ft., and attains large dimensions; the wood is highly resinous, and is said to be durable; great quantities of a white clear turpentine exude from the branches when injured.
In subsequent receipts saltpetre and turpentine make their appearance, and the modern "carcass composition," containing sulphur, tallow, rosin, turpentine, saltpetre and crude antimony, is a representative of the same class of mixtures, which became known to the Crusaders as Greek fire but were more usually called wildfire.
Phosphorus is nearly insoluble in water, but dissolves in carbon bisulphide, sulphur chloride, benzene and oil of turpentine.Advertisement
It is a dark red microcrystalline powder, insoluble in carbon bisulphide, oil of turpentine, &c., and having a density of 2.2.
Chian turpentine is a tenacious semi-fluid transparent body, yellow to dull brown in colour, with an agreeable resinous odour and little taste.
In their natural characters, turpentines are soft solids or semi-fluid bodies, consisting of resins dissolved in turpentine oil, the chief constituent of which is pinene.
The solvent we use is pure gum turpentine, a natural product itself - being distilled pine sap.
As early as 1804, Humboldt expressed the opinion that petroleum was produced by distillation from deep-seated strata, and Karl Reichenbach in 1834, suggested that it was derived from the action of heat on the turpentine of pine-trees, whilst Brunet, in 1838, adumbrated a similar theory of origin on the ground of certain laboratory experiments.
Lampblack is prepared by burning tar, resin, turpentine and other substances rich in carbon, with a limited supply of air; the products of combustion being conducted into condensing chambers in which cloths are suspended, on which the carbon collects.
By studying the dispersion of colours in water, turpentine and crown glass Newton was led to suppose that dispersion is proportional to refraction.
In the decade 1890-1900 the number of turpentine factories increased from 7 to 152, and their product in 1900 and in 1905 ranked Alabama third among the states in that industry.
A typical resin is a transparent or translucent mass, with a vitreous fracture and a faintly yellow or brown colour, inodorous or having only a slight turpentine odour and taste.
Tar, pitch and turpentine are obtained from the wood of th's tree, which weighs from 30 to 38 lb per cub.
A process devised by him for the manufacture of illuminating gas from turpentine and resin was in use in New York for a time.
Crude or common turpentine is the commercial name which embraces the oleo-resin yielded by several coniferous trees, both European and American.
The principal European product, sometimes distinguished as Bordeaux turpentine, is obtained from the cluster pine, Pinus Pinaster, in the Landes department of France.
Venice turpentine is yielded by the larch tree, Larix europaea, from which it is collected principally in Tirol.
Strassburg turpentine is obtained from the bark of the silver fir; but it is collected only in small quantities.
Oil of Turpentine, or Turps, as a commercial product is obtained from all or any of these oleo-resins, but on a large scale only from crude or common turpentine.
Soaking the seed in strong-smelling substances, such as paraffin and turpentine, has been found efficacious, and in some districts paraffin sprayed over the seedlings has been practised with decided success.
The bark contains a large amount of a fine, highly-resinous turpentine, which collects in tumours on the trunk during the heat of summer.
After purification by straining, it is sold as "Strasburg turpentine," much used in the preparation of some of the finer varnishes.
A fine oil of turpentine is distilled from the crude material; the residue forms a coarse resin.
The manufacture of turpentine and rosin, material for which is obtained from the pine forests, had increased greatly in importance between 1890 and 1900, the product in 1890 being valued at only $191,859, that of 1900 at $6,469,605, and from the latter sum it increased in 1905 to $9,901,905, an increase of more than one-half.
Several creeks and the upper Cape Fear river furnish considerable waterpower, and in or near Fayetteville are manufactories of cotton goods, silk, lumber, wooden-ware, turpentine, carriages, wagons, ploughs, edge tools and flour.
The Alexandrians prepared oil of turpentine by distilling pine-resin; Zosimus of Panopolis, a voluminous writer of the 5th century A.D., speaks of the distillation of a "divine water" or "panacea" (probably from the complex mixture of calcium polysulphides, thiosulphate, &c., and free sulphur, which is obtained by boiling sulphur with lime and water) and advises "the efficient luting of the apparatus, for otherwise the valuable properties would be lost."
In copying engraved plates for printing purposes, copper may be deposited upon the original plate, the surface of which is first rendered slightly dirty, by means of a weak solution of wax in turpentine or otherwise, to prevent adhesion.
Old trees are selected, from the bark of which it is observed to ooze in the early summer; holes are bored in the trunk, somewhat inclined upward towards the centre of the stem, in which, between the layers of wood, the turpentine is said to collect in small lacunae; wooden gutters placed in these holes convey the viscous fluid into little wooden pails hung on the end of each gutter; the secretion flows slowly all through the summer months, and a tree in proper condition yields from 6 to 8 Ib a year, and will continue to give an annual supply for thirty or forty years, being, however, rendered quite useless for timber by subjection to this process.
According to Pereira, much sold under the name of Venice turpentine is a mixture of common resin and oil of turpentine.
For use with wood which is exposed to moisture, as in the case of wooden cisterns, a mixture may be made of 4 parts of linseed oil boiled with litharge, and 8 parts of melted glue; other strong cements for the same purpose are prepared by softening gelatine in cold water and dissolving it by heat in linseed oil, or by mixing glue with one-fourth of its weight of turpentine, or with a little bichromate of potash.
Many compounds containing hydrogen are readily decomposed by the gas; for example, a piece of paper dipped in turpentine inflames in an atmosphere of chlorine, producing hydrochloric acid and a copious deposit of soot; a lighted taper burns in chlorine with a dull smoky flame.
Exports include timber, mine-props, turpentine, resinous material from the Pyrenees and Landes and zinc ore; leading imports are the coal and Spanish minerals which supply the large metallurgical works of Le Boucau at the mouth of the river, the raw material necessary for the chemical works of the same town, wine, and the cereals destined for the flour mills of Pau, Peyrehorade and Orthez.
Much damage is often caused by species of Peridermium, which often invade the cortex and cambium to such an extent as to " ring " the stem or branch, or to cause an abnormal formation of turpentine which soaks into the wood and stops the upward passage of water; this causes the parts above the diseased area to perish.
Large quantities of turpentine are extracted from this pine in Sweden and Russia by removing a strip of bark, terminating below in a deep notch cut in the wood, into which the turpentine runs, and from which it is scooped as it accumulates; but the product is not equal to that of the silver fir and other species.
These forests of pinaster, apart from the production of timber in a once treeless district, have a great economic value as a source of turpentine, which is largely obtained from the trees by a process analogous to that employed in its collection from P. sylvestris; the resin is yielded from May to the end of September, the cuts being renewed as the supply fails, until the tree is exhausted; the trunks are then felled and used in the manufacture of charcoal and lamp black; much tar and pitch is also obtained from these pinaster forests.
This tree yields an abundant supply of tar and turpentine of good quality, which products are collected and manufactured in the " pine-barrens " on a large scale.
The old French oil of turpentine is the best antidote to use in phosphorus poisoning, delaying the toxic effects; but ordinary oils are not only useless but harmful.
This oil is closely allied in composition to oil of turpentine and is given in doses of a half to three minims. The Spiritus juniperi of the British pharma copoeia is given in doses up to one drachm.
Certain of these oils consist very largely of hydrocarbons; for example, those of turpentine, citron, thyme, orange, pine-needle, goldenrod (from Solidago canadensis) and cypress, while others contain as their chief constituents various alcoholic and ketonic substances.
Crude turpentine is further yielded by the Scotch fir, P. sylvestris, throughout northern Europe, and by the Corsican pine, P. Laricio, in Austria and Corsica.
In Scandinavia a thick turpentine oozes from cracks or fissures in the bark, forming by its congelation a fine yellow resin, known commercially as "spruce rosin," or "frankincense"; it is also procured artificially by cutting off the ends of the lower branches, when it slowly exudes from the extremities.
The yellow pines of the southern part of the state, which have a stand of approximately 1 3,77 8, 000 ft., yielded in 1900 rosin and turpentine valued at $8,110,468 (more than the product of any other state in the Union) and in 1905 valued at $7,705,643 (second only to the product of Florida).
In the trunk of the larch, especially when growing in climates where the sun is powerful in summer, a fine clear turpentine exists in great abundance; in Savoy and the south of Switzerland, it is collected for sale, though not in such quantity as formerly, when, being taken to Venice for shipment, it was known in commerce as " Venice turpentine."
The hard transparent resins, such as the copals, dammars, mastic and sandarach, are principally used for varnishes and cement, while the softer odoriferous oleo-resins (frankincense, turpentine, copaiba) and gum-resins containing essential oils (ammoniacum, asafoetida, gamboge, myrrh, scammony) are more largely used for therapeutic purposes and incense.
The city is the see of a Protestant Episcopal bishop. Wilmington is chiefly a commercial city, and ships large quantities of cotton, lumber, naval stores, rice, marketgarden produce and turpentine; in 1909 the value of its exports was $23,310,070 and the value of its imports $1,282,724.
When solid caoutchouc is strongly heated it breaks down, without change in its ultimate composition, into a number of simpler liquid hydrocarbons of the terpene class (dipentene, di-isoprene, isoprene, &c.), of which one, isoprene (C5H8), is of simpler structure than oil of turpentine (C 10 H 16), from which it can also be obtained by the action of an intense heat.
The timber of this pine is indifferent, but the forests of it are of importance from the quantity of turpentine they yield; the trees also furnish much firewood of good quality.