How to use Turner-syndrome in a sentence
A few women with Turner syndrome have normal ovulatory menstrual cycles during a short time in their life and so are potentially fertile.
Girls with Turner syndrome are usually between 4.5 and 5 feet (137-152 cm) tall.
The prevalence of Turner syndrome is widely reported as being approximately one per 2,500 live female births.
Most commonly, an individual with Turner syndrome will be born with 45 chromosomes in each cell rather than 46.
Some individuals with Turner syndrome may only have a few symptoms while others may have many.Advertisement
Almost all girls with Turner syndrome have short stature and loss of ovarian function, but the severity of the symptoms varies among individuals.
The prevalence of Turner syndrome is widely reported as being approximately one per 2,500 live female births, although researchers have reported prevalence rates that range from one in 3,125 to one in 5,000 live female births.
In rare cases, a parent may carry rearranged chromosomes that can result in Turner syndrome in a daughter, which is the only situation in which the Turner syndrome is inherited.
More than half of all girls with Turner syndrome are mosaics, which means that the mutation occurs in some but not all cells of their body.
Therefore, Turner syndrome can vary in severity.Advertisement
Normal pubertal development and spontaneous menstrual periods do not occur in the majority of children with Turner syndrome.
Most girls with Turner syndrome do not have ovaries with healthy oocytes capable of fertilization and embryo formation.
A few pregnancies have been reported in women with Turner syndrome.
Individuals with Turner syndrome report an increased incidence of fractures in childhood and osteoporotic fractures in adulthood.
The muscles of many persons with Turner syndrome fail to use glucose efficiently, which may contribute to the development of high blood sugar.Advertisement
Many women with Turner syndrome have high blood pressure, which may even occur during childhood.
Kidney problems are present in about one third of girls with Turner syndrome and may contribute to high blood pressure.
From 5 to 10 percent of girls with Turner syndrome have a severe constriction of the major blood vessel coming from the heart (coarctation of the aorta).
As many as 15 percent of children with Turner syndrome have bicuspid aortic valves, where the major blood vessel from the heart has only two rather than three components to the valve regulating blood flow.
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, an autoimmune condition, has been associated with Turner syndrome.Advertisement
Girls with Turner syndrome have an elevated prevalence rate of dental caries and such other periodontal conditions as gum disease and plaque.
Approximately one-third of girls with Turner syndrome have a thyroid disorder, usually hypothyroidism.
Contrary to earlier reports, most individuals with Turner syndrome are not mentally retarded.
The verbal skills of girls with Turner syndrome are usually normal.
Some girls with Turner syndrome may also have difficulties with memory and motor coordination, which may be related to estrogen deficiency.Advertisement
Hands and feet of infants with Turner syndrome may be swollen or puffy at birth; there may be swelling at the nape of the neck.
However, the predictive value of amniocentesis in diagnosing Turner syndrome varies from 21 to 67 percent.
There is no significant relation between the mother's age and risk of Turner syndrome.
Most individuals with Turner syndrome require female hormone therapy to promote development of secondary sexual characteristics and menstruation.
Girls and women with Turner syndrome should be treated with estrogen/progesterone to maintain their secondary sexual development and to protect their bones from osteoporosis until at the least the usual age of menopause (50 years).Advertisement
Assisted reproductive technology may allow for women with Turner syndrome to become pregnant with donated ooctyes.
Because it is so dangerous, experts suggest early screening and surgery for aortic coarctation of the artery in girls with Turner syndrome.
Bicuspid aortic valves can deteriorate or become infected, so it is advised that all girls with Turner syndrome undergo annual cardiac evaluations.
Plastic surgery to correct webbing of the neck should be considered at an early age (before entering school) for girls with Turner syndrome.
Final adult height in individuals with Turner syndrome can be increased if growth hormone (GH) treatment is given relatively early in childhood.Advertisement
Most children with Turner syndrome can live relatively normal lives.
The prognosis for a person with Turner syndrome is dependent on the other associated conditions that may be present.
Care must be taken to regularly monitor patients for the health problems that are associated with Turner syndrome.