• The varying direction of the inclining couple Pc may be realized by swinging the weight P from a crane on the ship, in a circle of radius c. But if the weight P was lowered on the ship from a crane on shore, the vessel would sink bodily a distance P/wA if P was deposited over F; but deposited anywhere else, say over Q on the water-line area, the ship would turn about a line the antipolar of Q with respect to the confocal ellipse, parallel to FF', at a distance FK from F FK= (k2-hV/A)/FQ sin QFF' (2) through an angle 0 or a slope of one in m, given by P sin B= m wA FK - W'Ak 2V hV FQ sin QFF', (3) where k denotes the radius of gyration about FF' of the water-line area.

• When the force acts on a body free to turn about a fixed axis only, it is convenient to express the work done by the transformed product TO, where T is the average turning moment or torque acting to produce the displacement 0 radians.

• If, therefore, the motor is mounted on a cradle free to turn about knife-edges, the reacting torque is the only torque tending to turn the cradle when it is in a vertical position, and may therefore be measured by adjusting weights to hold the cradle in a vertical position.

• In other words, if the system (considered as rigid) be made to turn about till the first factor coincides with i and the second with j, the product will coincide with k.

• We note further that if a body be free to turn about a fixed point 0, there are three mutually perpendicular lines through this point about which it can rotate steadily, without further constraint.