Turkish Sentence Examples
Gladys waddled downstairs, strung in more beads than the draped back room doorway of a Turkish dope den.
It was formerly a Turkish military centre and most of the people were of Turkish blood.
On the 10th of December the sultan opened the Turkish parliament with a speech from the throne in which he said that the first parliament had been "temporarily dissolved until the education of the people had been brought to a sufficiently high level by the extension of instruction throughout the empire."
The public buildings of chief interest are the kasbah, the government offices (formerly the British consulate), the palaces of the governor-general and the archbishop - all these are fine Moorish houses; the "Grand" and the "New" Mosques, the Roman Catholic cathedral of St Philippe, the church of the Holy Trinity (Church of England), and the Bibliotheque Nationale d'Alger - a Turkish palace built in 1799-1800.
He maintained close relations with Poland because of the Turkish advance and the Polish contest with the Teutonic Knights.Advertisement
In 1402 a great battle was fought in the vicinity of Angora, in which the Turkish sultan Bayezid was defeated and made prisoner by the Tatar conqueror Timur.
Selim determined on war with Persia, where the heresy was the prevalent religion, and in order that the Shiites in Turkey should give no trouble during the war, "measures were taken," as the Turkish historian states, which may be explained as the reader desires, and which proved fully efficacious.
After the Turks were driven from the city in 1878, it was in many respects modernized; but something of its former character is preserved in the ancient Turkish palace, mosque and fountain, the maze of winding alleys and picturesque houses in the older quarters, and, on market days, by the medley of peasant costumes - Bulgarian, Albanian and Rumanian, as well as Servian.
The remnants of this monument are still kept up. It stands half a mile to the east from Nish, and is called to this day by the Turkish name "Tyele-Koula," "the Tower of Skulls."
Two lines of steamers, an English and a Turkish, furnish an inadequate service between Basra and Bagdad, but there is no steam navigation on the river above the latter city.Advertisement
A considerable portion of the Turkish population emigrated in 1881; a further exodus took place in 1898.
The people of the interior are mostly of the old Iranian stock, and there are also a few nomads of the Turkish Baharlu tribe which came to Persia in the lath century when the province was subdued by a Turkish chief.
Laristan remained an independent state under a Turkish ruler until 1602, when Shah Ibrahim Khan was deposed and put to death by Shah `Abbas the Great.
The wild and inaccessible character of the country, the fierce and lawless disposition of the people, the difficulties presented by their language and their complex social institutions, and the inability of the Turkish authorities to afford a safe conduct in the remoter districts, combine to render Albania almost unknown to the foreign traveller, and many of its geographical problems still remain unsolved.
North-eastern Albania forms part of the Turkish vilayet of Kossovo; the northern highlands are included in the vilayet of Shkodra (Scutari), the eastern portion of central Albania belongs to the vilayet of Monastir, and the southern districts are comprised in the vilayet of Iannina.Advertisement
A proposal to confine the Drin to its former course by means of a dyke, and to ease the downflow of the Boyana by a canal opening navigation to Lake Scutari, has long been considered by the Turkish authorities.
The maritime traffic is largely conducted by the steamers of the subsidized Austrian-Lloyd company, Trieste being the principal commercial centre; the coasting trade is carried on by small Greek and Turkish sailing vessels.
Some Turkish colonies are also found in the south-eastern districts.
Their only obligation to the Turkish government is to furnish a contingent in time of war; the only law they recognize is either traditional custom(adet) or the unwritten Kanun-i Leks Dukajinit, a civil and criminal code, so called from its author, Leka Dukajini, who is supposed to have lived in the 13th or 14th century.
There is also a considerable admixture of Turkish and Slavonic words.Advertisement
The Turkish fleet which had come up from Cyprus and Crete anchored in the Gulf of Patras.
Cervantes was undoubtedly present, and had his left hand shattered by a Turkish bullet.
He early developed a gift for languages, becoming familiar not only with Latin and Greek but also with Hebrew, Syriac, Persian, Turkish and other Eastern tongues.
In 1804 Rich went to Constantinople, where, and at Smyrna, he stayed some time, perfecting himself in Turkish.
On returning home he was crowned with the holy crown on the 29th of March 1464, and, after driving the Czechs out of his northern counties, turned southwards again, this time recovering all the parts of Bosnia which still remained in Turkish hands.Advertisement
Thus, in 1480, when a Turkish fleet seized Otranto, Matthias, at the earnest solicitation of the pope, sent Balasz Magyar to recover the fortress, which surrendered to him on the 10th of May 1481.
The outset of his administration was marked by Franco-Italian fetes at Toulon (10th to I4th April 1901), when the Italian fleet returned a visit paid by the French Mediterranean squadron to Cagliari in April 1899; and by the despatch of three Italian warships to Prevesa to obtain satisfaction for damage done to Italian subjects by Turkish officials.
The archbishopric was soon removed to Ipek, in Old Servia; but after the Turkish garrison had been expelled in 1862 the city became once more the head of a diocese.
In 1681, reinforced by 10,000 Transylvanians and a Turkish army under the pasha of Nagyvarad, he compelled the emperor to grant an armistice.
At the two Diets held by him, at Kassa and Talya, in 1683, the estates, though not uninfluenced by his personal charm, showed some want of confidence in him, fearing lest he might sacrifice the national independence to the Turkish alliance.
ThOkOly materially assisted the Turks in the Vienna campaign of 1683, and shared the fate of the gigantic Turkish army.
He led the Turkish cavalry at the battle of Slankamen, and in fact served valiantly but vainly against Austria during the remainder of the war, especially distinguishing himself at Zenta.
In 1552 Eger resisted the repeated assaults of a large Turkish force; in 1596, however, it was given up to the Turks by the Austrian party in the garrison, and remained in their possession until 1687.
The Turkish government also levies taxes on the inhabitants of the river valley, and for this purpose, and to maintain a caravan route from the Mediterranean coast to Bagdad, maintains stations of a few zaptiehs or gens d'armes, at intervals of about 8 hours (caravan time), occupying in general the stations of the old Persian post road.
The inhabitants of this region are wild and inhospitable and utterly beyond the control of the Turkish authorities, and navigation of the river between Korna and Suk-esh-Sheiukh is unsafe owing to the attacks of armed pirates.
Under Midhat Pasha, governor-general of Bagdad from 1866 to 1871, an attempt was made by the Turkish authorities to establish regular steam navigation on the Euphrates.
All these schemes, however, fell through either on the financial question, or on the unwillingness of the Turkish government to sanction any line not connected directly with Constantinople.
Though still half oriental, and wholly beautiful, with its Turkish bazaar, its hundred mosques, wooden houses and cypress groves, it was largely rebuilt, after 1878, in western fashion.
It is the centre of Bosnian education, containing the celebrated orphanage founded in 1869 by Miss Irby and Miss Mackenzie (afterwards Lady Sebright); the Scheriat-Schule, which derives its name from the Turkish code or scheri, and is maintained by the state for Moslem law-students; a gymnasium, a technical institute and a teachers' training-college.
Turkish baths and cafes are numerous.
Founded, in 1262, by the Hungarian General Cotroman, under the name of Bosnavar or Vrhbosna, Serajevo was enlarged by Husref Bey two centuries later, and takes its name from the palace (Turkish, serai), which he founded.
It was chosen as the seat of Turkish government in 1850, instead of Travnik.
Alexander Ivanovich (1769-1825) served with distinction under his relative Suvarov in the Turkish Wars, and took part as a general officer in the Italian and Swiss operations of 1799, and in the war against Napoleon in Poland in 1806-1807 (battle of Heilsberg).
The tower, of Frankish or Turkish date, that stood on the south wing, was pulled down in 1874.
He was Turkish delegate at the Paris conference of 1856; was charged with a mission to Syria in 1860; grand vizier in 1860 and 1861, and also minister of war.
Since 1880 the city has been almost entirely renovated in the " European " style; the narrow tortuous lanes and mean houses of the Turkish epoch have almost disappeared, and a new town with straight parallel streets has been constructed in the eastern suburb.
The palace of the prince, occupying the site of the Turkish konak was built by Prince Alexander in 1880-1882; it has been greatly enlarged by King Ferdinand.
During this period the population increased and became mainly Turkish; in 1553 the town possessed eleven large and one hundred small mosques.
On the 4th of January 1878 a Russian army again entered Sofia after the passage of the Balkans by Gourko; the bulk of the Turkish population had previously taken flight.
The primary distinctions between these branches have been increased during the last nine centuries by their contact with different nationalities - the Great Russians absorbing Finnish elements, the Little Russians undergoing an admixture of Turkish blood, and the White Russians submitting to Lithuanian influence.
Accompanied by these so-called Oprichniki, who have been compared to the Turkish Janissaries of the worst period, he ruthlessly devastated large districts - with no other object apparently than that of terrorizing the population and rewarding his myrmidons - and during a residence of six weeks in Novgorod, lest the old turbulent spirit of the municipal republic should revive, he massacred, it is said, no less than 60,000 of the inhabitants, including many women and children.
Having annihilated at Poltava the army of Charles XII., Peter was not at all indisposed to renew the struggle with Turkey, and began the campaign in the confident hope of making extensive conquests; but he had only got as far as the Pruth when he found himself surrounded by a great Turkish army, and, in order to extricate himself from his critical position, he had to sign a humiliating treaty by which Azov and other conquests were restored to the sultan.
It was intended that Russia should take what remained of the northern coast of the Black Sea, Austria should annex the Turkish provinces contiguous to her territory, the Danubian principalities and Bessarabia should be formed into an independent kingdom called Dacia, the Turks should be expelled from Europe, the Byzantine empire should be resuscitated, and the grand-duke Constantine, second son of the Russian heir-apparent, should be placed on the throne of the Palaeologi.
The result of the war was to make Russia supreme at Constantinople; and before long an opportunity of further increasing her influence was created by Mehemet Ali, the ambitious pasha of Egypt, who in November 1831 began a war with his sovereign in Syria, gained a series of victories over the Turkish forces in Asia Minor and threatened Constantinople.
Nicholas immediately sent his Black Sea fleet into the Bosphorus, landed on the Asiatic shore a force of 10,000 men, and advanced another large force towards the Turkish frontier in Bessarabia.
Had the tsar been satisfied with this important success, which enabled him to rebuild Sevastopol and construct a Black Sea fleet, his reign might have been a peaceful and prosperous one, but he tried to recover the remainder of what - had been lost by the Crimean War, the province of Turkish Bessarabia and predominant influence in Turkey.
War of To effect this, he embarked on the Turkish War of 1877-78.
In Turkish cemeteries the cypress "Dark tree, still sad when others' grief is fled, The only constant mourner o'er the dead" is the most striking feature, the rule being to plant one for each interment.
The author designates the story of the later empire at Constantinople (after Heraclius) as " a uniform tale of weakness and misery," a judgment which is entirely false; and in accordance with this doctrine, he makes the empire, which is his proper subject, merely a string for connecting great movements which affected it, such as the Saracen conquests, the Crusades, the Mongol invasions, the Turkish conquests.
Originally a Turkish fortified post, Izmail had by the end of the 18th century grown into a place of 30,000 inhabitants.
Thus the confederation of Bar, and the Turkish War thereupon ensuing, took him completely by surprise and considerably weakened his position.
Such incidents as the rise of Joseph Nasi to high position under the Turkish government as duke of Naxos mark the coming change.
After the Turkish conquest it greatly diminished, but afterwards gradually rose, till it was supposed to have attained to about 260,000, of whom about half were Mahommedans, at the time of the outbreak of the Greek revolution in 1821.
According to the census taken in 1881, the complete publication of which was interdicted by the Turkish authorities, the population of the island was 279,165, or 35.78 to the square kilometre.
According to a law published in 1899, Turkish merchandise became subjected to the same rates as that of foreign nations.
A long series of insurrections - those of 1821, 1833, 1841, 1858, 1866-1868, 1878, 1889 and 1896 may be especially mentioned - culminated in the general rebellion of 1897, which led to the interference of Greece, the intervention of the great powers, the expulsion of the Turkish authorities, and the establishment of an autonomous Cretan government under the suzerainty of the sultan.
For administrative purposes the departmental divisions existing under the Turkish government have been retained.
Very little of all this, however, has escaped the Turkish conquest and the ravages caused by the incessant insurrections of the last two centuries.
Pashley (Travels in Crete, 1837) Crete was the worst governed province of the Turkish empire.
Hostilities continued with no decisive result till 1824, when the arrival of further reinforcements enabled the Turkish commander to reduce the island to submission.
This change of masters brought some relief to the unfortunate Cretans, who at least exchanged the licence of local misrule for the oppression of an organized despotism; and the government of Mustafa Pasha, an Albanian like Mehemet Ali, the ruler of the island for a considerable period (1832-1852), was more enlightened and intelligent than that of most Turkish governors.
The mode of election to the assembly was altered, the number of its members reduced, and the customs revenue, which had hitherto been shared with the island, was appropriated by the Turkish treasury.
The Epitrope was at first nothing more than a handful of discontented politicians who had failed to find places in the administration, but some slight reverses which it succeeded in inflicting on the Turkish troops brought thousands of armed Christians to its side, and in April 1896 it found itself strong enough to invest the important garrison town of Vamos.
The advance of a Turkish detachment through the western districts, where other garrisons were besieged, was marked by pillage and devastation, and 5000 Christian peasants took refuge on the desolate promontory of Spada, where they suffered extreme privations.
Affairs were brought to a climax by a series of conflicts which took place at Canea on the 4th of February; the Turkish troops fired on the Christians, a conflagration broke out in the town, and many thousands of Christians took refuge on the foreign warships in the bay.
These measures were followed by the presentation of collective notes to the Greek and Turkish governments (2nd March), announcing the decision of the powers that (1) Crete could in no case in present circumstances be annexed to Greece; (2) in view of the delays caused by Turkey in the application of the reforms Crete should now, be endowed with an effective autonomous administration, intended to secure to it a separate government, under the suzerainty of the sultan.
Greece was at the same time summoned to remove its army and fleet from the island, while the Turkish troops were to be concentrated in the fortresses and eventually withdrawn.
The pacification of the island, however, was delayed by the presence of the Turkish troops and the inability of the powers to agree in the choice of a new governorgeneral.
The prospect of a final settlement was improved by the withdrawal of Germany and Austria, which had favoured Turkish pretensions, from the European concert (April 1898); the remaining powers divided the island into four departments, which they severally undertook to administer.
An attack made by the Moslems of Candia on the British garrison of that town, with the connivance of the Turkish authorities, brought home to the powers the necessity of removing the Ottoman troops, and the last Turkish soldiers quitted the island on the 14th of November 1898.
The western part of the area falls within the Turkish empire.
The predatory habits of the Turkish, Mongolian and Manchu population of northern Asia, and their irruptions into other parts of the continent and into Europe, have produced very remarkable results in the history of the world.
Through the whole of this tract the letters are used which are common to Persian, Arabic and Turkish, written from right to left.
They have been for the most part dispossessed of their country by Turkish immigration and conquests, but they still retain their original intellectual superiority over the Turkish and other mixed tribes by which they are surrounded.
They are the representatives of those countless Turkish irruptions which have taken place through all history.
Of the two divisions (Kara Kirghiz and Kassak Kirghiz) into which the Kirghiz tribes are divided by Russian authorities, the Kassak Kirghiz is the more closely allied to the Mongol type; the Kara Kirghiz, who are found principally in the valleys of the Tian-shan and Altai mountains, being unmistakably Turkish.
The Turkoman is the purest form of the Turk element, and his language is the purest form of the Turkish tongue, which is represented at Constantinople by a comparatively mongrel, or mixed, dialect.
Turks and Mongols alike were doubtless included under the term Scyth by the ancients, and as Tatars by more modern writers, insomuch that the Turkish dynasty at Delhi, founded by Baber, is usually termed the Mogul dynasty, although there can be no distinction traced between the terms Mogul and Mongol.
The Urals indicate no real division of races, and in both Greek and Turkish times Asia Minor has been connected with the opposite shores of Europe rather than with the lands lying to the east.
Persian, after being itself transformed by Arabic, has in its turn largely influenced all west Asiatic Moslem literature from Hindustani to Turkish.
Though Greek and Slavonic almost ceased to be written languages under Turkish rule, Europeans showed no disposition to replace them by Ottoman or Arabic literature.
The movement was maritime and affected the nations in the extreme west of Europe rather than those nearer Asia, who were under the Turkish yoke.
In 1768 he quitted the Guards and was attached to the court as a Kammerherr, but in 1769 he volunteered for the Turkish War and distinguished himself at Khotin, Focshani and Larga, besides routing the Turks at Olta.
He was deeply interested in the question of the southern boundaries of Russia and consequently ij1 the fate of the Turkish Empire.
After he became field marshal, in 1784, he introduced many reforms into the army, and built a fleet in' the Black Sea, which, though constructed of very bad materials, did excellent service in Catherine's second Turkish War (1787-92).
The same year the second Turkish War began, and the founder of New Russia took upon himself the responsibilities of commanderin-chief.
But this was followed, during the next fourteen years, by the wholesale emigration of thousands upon thousands of Circassians, who sought an asylum in Turkish territory, leaving their native region almost uninhabited and desolate, a condition from which it has not recovered even at the present day.
Evidently then the Spanish dockyards and warships (when vigorously organized) were to count for much in the schemes for assuring complete supremacy in the Mediterranean and the ultimate overthrow of the British and Turkish empires, which he then had closely at heart.
This now stretched from Lubeck to the Pyrenees, from Brest to Rome; while another arm (only nominally severed from the empire by the Napoleonic kingdom of Italy) extended down the eastern shore of the Adriatic to Ragusa and Cattaro, threatening the Turkish empire with schemes of partition always imminent but never achieved.
Charles himself with 1500 horsemen took refuge in Turkish territory.
Procopius says that they were far more civilized than the Huns of Attila, and the Turkish ambassador who was received by Justin is said to have described them as av-rucoi, which may merely mean that they lived in the cities which they conquered.
Nothing whatever is known of their language, but some scholars explain the names Toramana and Jauvla as Turkish.
The material, brick and terra-cotta, is the determining cause of the characteristics of north Italian Gothic 1 This palace was originally the property of the Pesaro family, and afterwards of the duke of Este, and finally of the republic, which used it as a dwelling-place for royal guests before letting it to Turkish merchants.
Exhausting as the Turkish wars were to the Venetian treasury, her trade was still so flourishing that she might have survived the strain had not the discovery of the Cape route to the Indies cut the tap-root of her commercial prosperity by diverting the stream of traffic from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic. When Diaz rounded the Cape in 1486 a fatal blow was struck at Venetian commercial supremacy.
But the republic never recovered from the blow, coming as it did on the top of the Turkish wars and the loss of her trade by the discovery of the Cape route.
The fourth Turkish war (1570-1573) was signalized by the glorious victory of Lepanto (1571), due chiefly to the prowess of the Venetians under their doge Sebastian Venier.
The fifth Turkish war (1645-1668) entailed the loss of Crete; and though Morosini reconquered the Morea for a brief space in 1685, that province was finally lost to Venice in 1716.
In 1480 it was utterly destroyed by the Turkish fleet, and has never since recovered its importance.
With the hope of acquiring immense booty in the rich church of St Basil in Caesarea, the capital of Cappadocia, he placed himself at the head of the Turkish cavalry, crossed the Euphrates and entered and plundered that city.
In 1071 Romanus again took the field and advanced with ioo,000 men, including a contingent of the Turkish tribe of the Uzes and of the French and Normans, under Ursel of Baliol, into Armenia.
Nisibis (Nezib) appeared for the last time in history in 1839, when the Egyptians under Ibrahim Pasha defeated the Turkish army under Hafiz Pasha on the 24th of June in a battle at which von Moltke was present.
The Shiite caliphs of Egypt were by this time the playthings of contending viziers, as the Sunnite caliphs of Bagdad had long been the puppets of Turkish sultans or amirs; and in 1164 Amalric I.
From the upper Sajur northwards Turkish prevails, even among the Armenians; but many Kurdish communities retain their own tongue.
Railways run from Beirut to Homs, Hamah, Aleppo and Damascus (French), and to the latter also from Haifa (Turkish).
At the conclusion of the Greek War of Independence, Athens was little more than a village of the Turkish type, the poorly built houses clustering on the northern and eastern slopes of the Acropolis.
The Propylaea served as the residence of the Turkish commandant and the Erechtheum as his harem.
There he remained for nearly 15 years, creating a commanding position for himself and a growing ascendancy in Turkish affairs for his Government.
In remembrance of these victims of popular wrath Jalal-uddin founded the order of the Maulawi (in Turkish Mevlevi) dervishes, famous for their piety as well as for their peculiar garb of mourning, their music and their mystic dance (sama), which is the outward representation of the circling movement of the spheres, and the inward symbol of the circling movement of the soul caused by the vibrations of a Sufi's fervent love to God.
The establishment of this order, which still possesses numerous cloisters throughout the Turkish empire, and the leadership of which has been kept in Jalaluddin's family in Iconium uninterruptedly for the last six hundred years, gave a new stimulus to his zeal and poetical inspiration.
The reforms proved a failure, mainly owing to the tacit opposition of the Turkish authorities, the insufficient powers attributed to the European officials, the racial feuds and the deplorable financial situation.
The Bulgars of the Volga were of Turkish origin, but may have assimilated Finnish and, later, Slavonian elements.
Marco Polo mentions such charts; Vasco da Gama (1498) found them in the hands of his Indian pilot, and their nature is fully explained in the Mohit or encyclopaedia of the sea compiled from ancient sources by the Turkish admiral Sidi Ali Ben Hosein in 1554.1 These charts are covered with a close network of lines intersecting each other at right angles.
It became Turkish (Seljuk) in the Ilth century.
Zaila became a dependency of Yemen and thus nominally part of the Turkish empire.
He became a professor at the Turkish naval college; then entered the legal branch of the Turkish service, rising to the post of procureur imperial at the court of cassation.
The destruction of game, recklessly carried out under Turkish rule, is prevented by the laws of 1880, 1883 and 1893, which enforced a close time, and rendered shooting-licences necessary.
At the time of the Austrian occupation (1878) it was regulated by a Turkish enactment of the 12th of September 1859.
The Turkish land-system remained in force during the entire period of the occupation (1878-1908).
The "Turkish" women have in some districts abandoned the veil; but in others they even cover the eyes when they leave home.
As far as possible, the Turkish law was retained during the period of occupation; all cases between Moslems were settled in separate courts by Moslem judges, against whom there was an appeal to the supreme court, aided by assessors.
Under Turkish rule the communes chose their own parish priests, but this right is now vested in the government.
In the Moslem schools, which, in 1905, comprised 855 mektebs or primary schools, and 41 madrasas or high schools, instruction is usually given in Turkish or Arabic; while in Orthodox schools the books are printed in Cyrillic characters.
For higher education there were in 1908 three gymnasia, a realschool at Banjaluka, a technical college and a teachers' trainingcollege at Serajevo, where, also, is the state school for Moslem law-students, called scheriatschule from the sheri or Turkish code; and various theological, commercial and art institutes.
During this period Bosnia became the generally accepted name for the valley of the Bosna (ancient Basanius); and subsequently for several outlying and tributary principalities, notably those of Soli, afterwards Tuzla; Usora, along the south-eastern bank of the Save; Donji Kraj, the later Krajina, Kraina or Turkish Croatia, in the north-west; and Rama, the modern district of Livno.
In 1528 Jajce surrendered, after repelling every attack by the Turkish armies for 65 years.
Judged by its influence on Bosnian politics, the Orthodox community was relatively unimportant at the Turkish conquest; and its subsequent growth is perhaps due to the official recognition of the Greek Church, as the representative of Christianity in Turkey.
This toleration of religious orders, though it did not prevent occasional outrages, remained to the last characteristic of Turkish policy in Bosnia; and even in 1868 a colony of Trappist monks was permitted to settle in Banjaluka.
The Turkish triumph was the opportunity of the Bogomils, who thenceforth, assuming a new character, controlled the destinies of their country for more than three centuries.
Bosnia was regarded by successive sultans as the Turkish gateway into Hungary; hatred of the Hungarians and their religion was hereditary among the Bogomils.
The nominal governor of the country was the Turkish vali, who resided at Banjaluka or Travnik, and rarely interfered in local affairs, if the taxes were duly paid.
Below him ranked the newly converted Moslem aristocracy, who adopted the dress, titles and etiquette of the Turkish court, without relinquishing their language or many of their old customs. They dwelt in fortified towns or castles, where the vali was only admitted on sufferance for a few days; and, at the outset, they formed a separate military caste, headed by 48 kapetans - landholders exercising unfettered authority over their retainers and Christian serfs, but bound, in return, to provide a company of mounted troops for the service of their sovereign.
In every important campaign of the Turkish armies, these descendants of the Bogomils were represented; they amassed considerable wealth from the spoils of war, and frequently rose to high military and administrative positions.
He sent large bribes to influential persons at Constantinople; he aided the Turkish vali to repress the Christians, who had again revolted; and he supported the Bosnian nobles against reforms imposed by the vali.
At last, in 1850, a Turkish army was despatched to restore quiet.
Zvornik fell before the Austro-Hungarian army in 1688, and the Turkish vali, who was still officially styled the "vali of Hungary," removed his headquarters from Banjaluka to Travnik, a more southerly, and therefore a safer capital.
Haji Loja, the native leader, was supported by a body of Albanians and mutinous Turkish troops, while the whole Moslem population bitterly resented the proposed change.
The treaty had contemplated the evacuation of the occupied provinces after the restoration of order and prosperity; and this had been expressly stipulated in an agreement signed by the AustroHungarian and Ottoman plenipotentiaries at Berlin, as a condition of Turkish assent to the provisions of the treaty.
But the Turkish reform movement of 1908 seemed to promise a revival of Ottoman power, which might in time have enabled the Turks to demand the promised evacuation, and thus to reap all the ultimate benefits of the Austrian administration.
After a cordial reception by their commander Omer or Omar Pasha, Ali was imprisoned; he was shortly afterwards assassinated, lest his lavish bribery of Turkish officials should restore him to favour, and bring disgrace on his captor (March 1851).
It is regularly visited by steamers from Trieste, Fiume, Brindisi, and other Austro-Hungarian and Italian ports, as well as by many small Greek and Turkish coasters.
The Turkish or Ottoman Empire comprises Turkey in Europe, Turkey in Asia, and the vilayets of Tripoli and Barca, or Bengazi, in North Africa; and in addition to those provinces under immediate Turkish rule, it embraces also certain tributary states and certain others under foreign administration.
So far as geographical description is concerned, the separate articles on Asia Minor, Albania, Armenia, and other areas mentioned below - constituting the Turkish Empire - may be consulted.
To these must be added the Turkish islands in the Aegean usually reckoned to Europe, that is, Thasos, Samothrace, Imbros and, in the extreme south, Crete or Candia.
Here also, with the unimportant exception of the islands of Samos and Cyprus and the somewhat privileged district of Lebanon, all the Turkish possessions constitute vilayets directly controlled by the Porte.
Egypt, though nominally under Turkish suzerainty, has formed a practically independent principality since 1841, and has been de facto under British protection since 1881.
The total population of the Turkish Empire in 1910, including Egypt and other regions nominally under the sultan's suzerainty, was 36,323,539, averaging 25 to the square mile; in the provinces directly under Turkish government, 25,926,000.
Of the Semitic races the Arabs - over whom, however, the Turkish rule is little more than nominal - number scme 7 millions, and in addition to about 300,000 Jews there is a large number of Syrians.
The table on the following page, for which the writer is indebted to the kindness of Carolidi Effendi, formerly professor of history in the university of Athens, and in 1910 deputy for Smyrna in the Turkish parliament, shows the various races of the Ottoman Empire, the regions which they inhabit, and the religions which they profess.
Owing principally to the fact that the system of the caliph Omar came to be treated as an immutable dogma which was clearly not intended by its originator, and to the peculiar relations which developed therefrom between the Mussulman Turkish conquerors and the peoples (principally Christian) which fell under their sway, no such thing as an Ottoman nation has ever been created.
In temporal matters the sultan is a constitutional monarch, advised by a cabinet formed of executive ministers who are the heads of the various departments of state, and who are responsible to the elected Turkish parliament.
All Turkish subjects, of whatever race or religion, have equal juridical and political rights and obligations, and all discrimination as to military service has been abolished.
From ancient times the artillery has formed an altogether independent command in the Turkish army.
Under the " new regime " the Turkish government displayed commendable energy in reconstructing and reorganizing the seapower of the empire.
It may be said to be an absolutely autocthonous enterprise, no recourse having been had to foreign capital to find the means requisite for construction and equipment, which were provided by means of a " national subscription " - not entirely voluntary - and from other sources which, although the financial methods were not strictly orthodox, were strictly Turkish.
The line was designed, surveyed and constructed by Turkish engineers - employing Ottoman navvies and labourers - in a highly efficient and economical manner, the average cost per mile having been £3230, although considerable engineering difficulties had to be overcome, especially in the construction of the Haifa branch.
In Palestine and elsewhere there is a large orange trade, and Basra, in Turkish Arabia, has the largest export of dates in the world.
The vine is largely cultivated both in Europe and Asia, and much Turkish wine is exported to France and Italy for mixing purposes.
In1890-1891the number of steamers that entered and cleared Turkish ports was 38,601, and of sailing vessels 140,726, the total tonnage of both classes of vessels being 30,509,861.
The number of steamships belonging to Turkey in1899-1900was 1 77 of 55,93 8 tons, as compared with 87 of 46,498 tons in 1897-1898, the number of sailing Value of Goods Imported into, and Exported from, together with Number vessels in the same years being respectively 2205 of 141,055 tons and Tonnage of Vessels cleared at, Principal Ports of Turkish Empire.
The Turkish historian, Kutchi Bey, attributes the origin of the decline of the empire to the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566), when the conversion of many emiriye lands into vakufs was effected, and the system of farming out revenues first introduced.
The budget of Ali Aga is almost identical with that of Eyubi Effendi, and is worthy of special note for the conclusions which accompanied it, and which although drawn up 250 years ago, described with striking accuracy some of the very ills from which Turkish finance was suffering throughout the reign of Abd-ul-Hamid.
The gold coins issued were 500, 250, 100, 50, and 25 piastres in value, the weight of the loo-piastre piece (Turkish pound), 7 .
Laurent, the financial adviser to the Turkish government, stated in a lecture on Turkish Finance, delivered in Paris on the 22nd of April 1910, that the Ministry of Finance has now been largely reorganized.
Under the old commercial treaties which lapsed about 1890 - but which have been maintained " provisionally " in force until one or other of the great powers consents to set a term to the negotiation of fresh treaties - an ad valorem duty of 8% was imposed on all articles imported into the Turkish empire.
By the provisions of the " Annex Decree," also described below, three-quarters of the additional revenue is assigned to the Turkish government, and one-quarter to the Public Debt Administration to swell the sinking-fund.
This is really an accretion of undetermined liabilities which has been indefinitely, and probably alternately, advancing and receding for a great number of years, and which no previous minister of finance, or Turkish government, had the courage to face.
No other items in the budget call for special remark, but in order that the information given may be complete, each head of expenditure is shown separately below, and the budget for 1910-1911, as first placed before the Turkish parliament, presents the following picture, from which it may be observed that the public debt absorbs 26% of the revenue, war service 38% and civil services 36%.
The outcome of the negotiations was the issue of an imperial decree, known as the " Decree of AIuharrem," owing to its bearing the date (Turkish style) of the 28th of Muharrem (Dec. 20) 1881.
On this council the Turkish government has the right of naming an imperial commissioner with " consultative voice," i.e.
In order to assist the young kingdom of Bulgaria, which could only with great difficulty and with much damage to its resources have found means to indemnify Turkey for this serious breach of treaty engagements, the Russian government intervened, and proposed as compensation to the Turkish government the deferment for forty years of the annual payment (£T350,000) of the 1877 war indemnity.
This proposal was accepted by the Turkish government, which undertook to continue the annual payment of £T114,000 to the public debt administration until the extinction of the debt.
The public debt council consented with good grace, although the minister of finance, by omitting to consult that council during the progress of negotiations, lost sight of the fact that a sum of £T87,823 was due to the public debt administration on account of arrears of the Eastern Rumelian annuity up to December 1887, and that a further sum of £T430,741 was due by the Bulgarian to the Turkish government itself in compensation Tor the Rustchuk-Varna railway under the Treaty of Berlin.
When the net product of the ceded revenues amounts to £T2,157,375, the surplus is divisible as to 75% to the Turkish government and 25% to the public debt administration.
The unified bonds and coupons are exempt from all Turkish taxation existing or to come.
Further special stipulations regarding the Turkish lottery bonds were made, but these are, as before, omitted.
The want of railways in Asia Minor was urgently felt, but no capitalists were willing to risk their money in Turkish railways without a substantial guarantee, and a guarantee of the Turkish government alone was not considered substantial enough.
The financial advantages, however, granted by the Turkish government were singularly favourable to thq concessionnaires and onerous to itself.
It should be mentioned that the Bagdad Railway Company has sublet the working of the line to the Anatolian Railway Company at the rate of £148 per kilometre, as against the £180 per kilometre guaranteed by the Turkish government The line from Mustafa-Pasha to Vakarel now lies in the kingdom of Bulgaria.
At the close of the Crimean War a British bank was opened in 1856 at Constantinople under the name of the Ottoman Bank, with a capital of £500,000 fully paid up. In 1863 this was merged in an Anglo-French bank, under a concession from the Turkish government, as a state bank under the name of the Imperial Ottoman Bank, with a capital of £2,700,000, increased in 1865 to £4,050,000 and in 1875 to £10,000,000, one-half of which is paid up. The original concession to the year 1893 was in 1875 extended to 1913, and in 1895 to 1925.
The parity thus working out at;102.60, gold continued to be held away from the treasury, and in 1909 the government decided to accept the Turkish pound at the last named rate.
The amounts of Turkish gold, silver and debased coinage in circulation are approximately £T16,500,000, in gold, £T8,70o,000 (940,000,000 piastres at 108) in silver mejidies and fractions, and 200,000,000 piastres in beshlik and metallik.
Eton (Survey of the Turkish Empire, 3rd ed., 1801) are storehouses of information on Turkey from the 16th century to the end of the 18th.
In 1355 Suleiman crossed over from Aidinjik and captured the fortress of Gallipoli, which was at once converted into a Turkish stronghold; from this base Bulair, Malgara, Ipsala and Rodosto were added to the Turkish possessions.
Three years later, in 1364, Philippopolis fell to Lala Shahin, the Turkish commander in.
By the aid of these auxiliaries the fort of Ala Shehr was captured (1392), Manuel Palaeologus, son of the emperor, being allowed, in common with many other princes, the privilege of serving in the Turkish army, then the best organized and disciplined force extant.
On the death of John Palaeologus in 1391 his son Manuel, who was serving in the Turkish army, fled, without asking leave, to Constantinople, and assumed the imperial dignity.
An army of crusaders marched upon the Turkish borders; believing Bayezid to be engaged in the siege of Constantinople, they crossed the Danube without precaution and invested Nicopolis.
The first onslaught of the Knights of the Cross did indeed rout the weak irregulars placed in the van of the Turkish army, but their mad pursuit was checked by the steady ranks of the Janissaries, by whom they were completely defeated (1396).
Prodigies of valour on the part of Bayezid's troops could not make up for the defection of the newly-absorbed levies from Aidin, Sarukhan and Menteshe who went over to their former princes in Timur's camp. The rout of the Turkish army was complete.
Most of the latter were reinstated, with the object of reducing the Turkish power.
The Turkish dominions in Asia Minor were extended, Amasia, Samsun and Janik being captured, and an insurrection of dervishes was quelled.
His services in the regeneration of the Turkish power can hardly be over-estimated; all agree in recognizing his great qualities and the charm of his character; even Timur is said to have admired him so much as to offer him his daughter in marriage.
But these treaties, each of which marked a fresh Turkish advance, were short-lived.
In 1432 the Turkish troops plundered in Hungary as far as Temesvar and Hermannstadt, while in Servia Semendria was captured and Belgrade invested.
In Transylvania, however, the common peril evoked by the Turkish incursion and a simultaneous rising of the Vlach peasantry had knit together the jarring interests of Magyars, Saxons and Szeklers, a union which, under the national hero, the voivode Janos Hunyadi, was destined for a while to turn the tide of war.
In 1442 Hunyadi drove the Turks from Hermannstadt and, at the head of an army of Hungarians, Poles, Servians, Walachians and German crusaders, succeeded in the ensuing year in expelling them from Semendria, penetrating as far as the Balkans, where he inflicted heavy losses on the Turkish general.
In 1446 Corinth, Patras and the north of the Morea were added to the Turkish dominions.
The independent princes of Asia Minor were now completely subjugated and their territories finally absorbed into the Turkish dominions; Walachia was next reduced to the state of a tributary province.
His reign of eight years had almost doubled the extent of the Turkish dominions.
The attempt of the imperialists, under Joachim of Brandenburg, to retake Budapest (September 15 4 2), failed ignominiously; and in the following year Suleiman in person conducted a campaign which led to the conquest of Siklos, Gran, Szekesf ehervar and Visegrad (1544) Everywhere the churches were turned into mosques; and the greater part of Hungary, divided into twelve sanjaks, became definitively a Turkish province.
A year passed before the Latin and Turkish texts of the treaty were harmonized; and meanwhile irregular fighting continued on all the borders.
The new emperor attacked Tokaj, which was in Turkish possession; the tribute had been allowed again to fall into arrears; and to all this was added that Mahommed Sokolli, the new grand vizier (1565), pressed for new war to wipe out the disgrace of the failure of the Ottoman attack on Malta (May-September 1565).
At the time of his death the Turkish Empire extended from near the frontiers of Germany to the frontiers of Persia.
The Black Sea was practically a Turkish lake, only the Circassians on the east coast retaining their independence; and as a result of the wars with Persia the whole Euphrates valley, with Bagdad, had fallen into the sultan's power, now established on the Persian Gulf.
Other captains carried the Turkish arms down the Arabian and Persian gulfs far out into the Indian Ocean.
At the close of Suleiman's reign the Turkish army numbered nearly 200,000 men, including the Janissaries, whose total he almost doubled, raising them to 20,000.
The new sultan, Mahommed III., Murad's son, succeeded to the throne at a moment when the Turkish arms were suffering reverses in Hungary and in the revolted Danubian provinces; Mahom- the Janissaries, too, were ill-content and mutinous, med IJI., and to put an end to their murmurings Mahommed 1595-4603.
In Constantinople, early in 1603, there was, moreover, a serious rising of the spahis; and, finally, in September Shah Abbas of Persia took advantage of what is known in Turkish history as " the year of insurrections " to declare war and reconquer Tabriz.
By this treaty the annual tribute payable by Austria was abolished, but an indemnity of 200,000 florins was paid "once for all " by the emperor, who was henceforth to be given his proper imperial title (padishah) in Turkish official documents.
In his reign the Cossacks were driven from Azov and the expedition against Crete was begun, the immediate cause being the plunder of a Turkish vessel by Maltese corsairs who took their capture to Crete.
Doroshenko now deserted the Turkish alliance for the Russian; in consequence an expedition was sent into the Ukraine which was both costly and useless.
The war is blamed by Turkish historians as unjustifiable and untimely, the country needing reform.
A vast Turkish army marched to the walls of Vienna and closely beleaguered the imperial city, from which the emperor and his court fled.
The Russians pursued him into Turkish territory; which led to a Turkish declaration of war (1710).
The Turks succeeded in surrounding Peter the Great near the Pruth, and his army was menaced with total destruction, when the Turkish commander, the grand vizier Baltaji Mahommed Pasha, was induced by the presents and entreaties of the empress Catherine to sign the preliminary treaty of the Pruth (July 21, 1711), granting terms of peace far more favourable than were justified by the situation of the Russians.
Russia having thus lost all the advantage gained by the peace of Karlowitz, Venice was next taken in hand, she having invaded the Bosnian frontier and incited the Montenegrins to revolt, besides capturing Turkish ships in the Mediterranean.
From the committee of patriots at Warsaw complaints and warnings were carried to Constantinople; and the cession of Podolia was offered as the price of a Turkish attack on Russia.
The Porte, unable to resist, was obliged to consent to the convention of Ainali Ka y ak (March 10, 1779) whereby the Russian partisan, Shahin Girai, was recognized as khan of the Crimea, the admission of Russian vessels to navigate Turkish waters was reaffirmed and Russia's right of intervention in the affairs of the Danubian principalities was formally recognized.
The Russian and Turkish fleets attacked and took the Ionian Islands, which had become French by the treaty of Campo Formio, and certain towns, hitherto unconquered, on the Albanian coast.
An ultimatum was presented ordering Turkey within twenty-four hours to dismiss the French ambassador, hand over the Turkish fleet, and make peace with Russia.
The vagueness of these latter provisions at once gave rise to disputes, and in 1813 the Turkish troops occupied the country.
But the sultan refused to ratify these articles, and the relations between Russia and Turkey were therefore determined by the patent treaty only, which positively stipulated for the evacuation by the Russians of every spot occupied by them on Turkish soil in Asia.
By his action during Napoleon Bonaparte's invasion, and later when the British fleet after leaving Constantinople in 1807 proceeded to Egypt, he had to some extent acquired the goodwill of the Turkish government.
The first hope of emancipation from the Turkish yoke had been founded by the Greeks on Peter the Great, who had planned the expulsion of the Turks from Europe and had caused the inscription " Petrus I., Russo-Graecorum Monarcha " to be placed beneath his portrait engraved at Amsterdam.
The Greeks, having put themselves in the right with the powers, were free to continue the war; and the destruction of a Turkish flotilla off Salona on the 23rd of September followed.
An account of the collapse of the Turkish power before Mehemet Ali, and of the complicated diplomatic developments that followed, is given in the article Mehemet Ali.
Concessions were made to one side and the other; and the question of the right of " protection " was solved by the Turkish government itself undertaking the duty.
On the 30th of November the Russian fleet attacked and destroyed a Turkish squadron in the harbour of Sinope; on the 3rd of January the combined French and British fleets entered the Black Sea, commissioned to " invite " the Russians to return to their harbours.
The Syrian disturbances brought about a French occupation, which Fuad Pasha, ably seconded by Ahmed Vefyk Effendi, the Turkish ambassador in Paris, contrived to restrict, and to terminate as soon as possible.
Servia had long resented the occupation of her fortresses by Turkish troops; frequent collisions arising from this source resulted in June 1862 in the bombardment of Belgrade; some slight concessions were then made to Servia, but it was not until 1867 that, through the mediation of England and other powers, she succeeded in obtaining the withdrawal of the Turkish garrisons.
On the 24th of April 1877 Russia declared war and her troops crossed the Turkish frontiers.
The repression of these revolts in the Sassun district in the autumn of 1894 was effected under circumstances of great severity by Turkish troops and Kurdish irregulars.
The Young Turkish party had long been preparing for the overthrow of the old regime.
By midsummer the Albanian leaders and the greater part of the Turkish army in Europe had sworn fidelity to the constitution.
AustriaHungary had from the first undertaken to withdraw its garrisons from the sanjak of Novibazar - an important concession; after prolonged negotiations and a boycott of all Austrian goods exported to Turkey, it also agreed to pay £ 2,200,000 as compensation for the Turkish crown lands seized in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
In Arabia Ratib Pasha, the Turkish commander-in-chief, joined the enemies of the new regime; he was defeated and captured in the autumn of 1908, but in the following year frequent raids upon the Hejaz railway were made by Bedouin tribesmen, while a Mandist rebellion broke out and was crushed in Yemen.
The nocturnal expedition across the Hellespont by which Suleiman, the son of Orkhan, won Galipoli and therewith a foothold in Europe for his race, was shared in and celebrated in verse by a Turkish noble or chieftain named Ghazi Fazil.
His work is unhappily for the greater part in the Persian language; the excellence of what he has done in Turkish makes us regret that he did so little.
His contemporary, Mesihi, whose beautiful verses on spring are perhaps better known in Europe than any other Turkish poem, deserves a passing mention.
His language, which is very peculiar, seems to be a sort of mixture of the Ottoman and Azerbaijan dialects of Turkish, and was most probably that of the Persian Turks of those days.
An intense and passionate ardour breathes in his verses, and forms one of the most remarkable as well as one of the most attractive characteristics of his style; for, while few even among Turkish poets are more artificial than he, few seem to write with greater earnestness and sincerity.
This prolific author copied, and so imported into Ottoman literature, a didactic style of ghazel-writing which was then being introduced in Persia by the poet Sa'ib; but so closely did the pupil follow in the footsteps of his master that it is not always easy to know that his lines are intended to be Turkish.
There is in his poetry a joyousness and sprightliness which at once distinguish it from the work of any other Turkish author.
The first printing-press in Turkey was established by an Hungarian who had assumed the name of Ibrahim, and in 1728 (1141) appeared the first book printed in that country; it was Vanlpuli's Turkish translation of Jevheri's Arabic dictionary.
The most distinguished prose writers of this period are perhaps Rashid, the imperial historio grapher, 'Asim, who translated into Turkish two great lexicons, the Arabic Itamus and the Persian Burhan-i and Kani, the only humorous writer of merit belonging to the old school.
Information about the Russians was very indifferent; it was only known that Prince Bagration with about 33,000 men lay grouped about Wolkowysk; Barclay de Tolly with 40,000 about Vilna; and on the Austrian frontier lay a small corps under Tormassov in process of formation, while far away on the Turkish frontiers hostilities with the sultan retained Tschitschagov with 50,000 more.
Cyr, who had relieved Macdonald on his extreme left, had only 17,000 men left under arms against upwards of 40,000 Russians under Witgenstein; and to the south Tschitschagov's army, being no longer detained on the Turkish frontier, peace having been made, was marching to join Tormassov about Brest-Litewski with forces which would bring the total of the two well over ioo,000 men.
To the south of this, also on the Tigris, is the serai or palace of the Turkish governor, distinguished rather for extent than grandeur.
The more numerous vessels of the Turkish service are so small, so inadequately equipped and so poorly handled, that they are used for either passenger or freight transport only by those who cannot secure the services of the British steamers.
Bagdad is in communication with Europe by means of two lines of telegraph, one British and one Turkish, and two postal services.
The financial arrangement as finally agreed upon was that German financiers should control 40% of the capital of the line; French (through the Imperial Ottoman Bank), 30%; Austrian, Swiss, Italian and Turkish, 20%; and the Anatolian Railway Company, io %.
The, pasha and the higher officials in general come from Constantinople, but a very large portion of the other Turkish officials seem to come from the town of Kerkuk.
With the rise of the Turkish body-guard under Mamun's successor, Mo`tassim, began the downfall of the Abbasid dynasty, and with it of the Abbasid capital, Bagdad.
With the capture of the city by the Mongols, under Hulagu (Hulaku), the grandson of Jenghiz Khan, in 1258, and the extinction of the Abbasid caliphate of Bagdad, its importance as the religious centre of Islam passed away, and it ceased to be a city of the first rank, although the glamour of its former grandeur still clung to it, so that even to-day in Turkish official documents it is called the "glorious city."
Since that period it has remained nominally a part of the Turkish empire; but with the decline of Turkish power, and the general disintegration of the empire, in the first half of the 18th century, a then governor-general, Ahmed Pasha, made it an independent pashalic. Nadir Shah, the able and energetic usurper of the Persian throne, attempting to annex the province once more to Persia, besieged the city, but Ahmed defended it with such courage that the invader was compelled to raise the siege, after suffering great loss.
Turkish authority over the pashalic was again restored in the first part of the 19th century.
The surname Miaoulis, which was added to his family name of Vokos, or Bokos, is said to be derived from the Turkish word miaoul, a felucca.
The islanders had enjoyed some measure of exemption from the worst excesses of the Turkish officials, but suffered severely from the conscription raised to man the Turkish ships; and though they seemed to be peculiarly open to attack by the Sultan's forces from the sea, they took an early and active part in the rising.
In the course of the middle ages the northern parts of Thrace and some other districts of that country were occupied by a Bulgarian population; and in 1361 the Turks made themselves masters of Adrianople, which for a time became the Turkish capital.
Originally occupying the site of the ancient Toryne (or Palaeo-Parga), a short distance to the west, Parga was removed to its present position after the Turkish invasion in the 15th century.
The Turkish government was constrained to pay them £142,425 by way of compensation.
The town was formerly divided into three parts, namely, the Old town, the Russian town (Sava-Makhala or Save district), and the Turkish town (Dorcol, or Cross-road).
A few old Turkish houses, built of plaster, with red-tiled roofs, are left among the ill-paved and insanitary districts bordering upon the rivers, but as the royal residence, the seat of government, and the centre of the import trade, Belgrade was, after 1869, III.
There is a fine monument to Prince Michael (1860-1868) who succeeded in removing the Turkish garrison from the Belgrade citadel and obtaining other Turkish fortresses in Servia by skilful diplomacy.
Farther south is the park of Topchider, with an old Turkish kiosk built for Prince Milosh (1818-1839) in the beautifully laid-out grounds.
In 1521 Sultan Suleiman took it from the Hungarians, and from that year it remained in Turkish possession until 1688, when the Austrians captured it, only to lose it again in 1690.
In 1807 the Servians, having risen for their independence, forced the Turkish garrison to capitulate, and became masters of Belgrade, which they kept until the end of September 1813, when they abandoned it to the Turks.
Up to the year 1862 not only was the fortress of Belgrade garrisoned by Turkish troops, but the Danubian slope of the town was inhabited by Turks, living under a special Turkish administration, while the modern part of the town (the plateau of the ridge and the western slope) was inhabited by Servians living under their own authorities.
This dual government was a constant cause of friction between the Servians and the Turks, and on the occasion of one conflict between the two parties the Turkish commander of the fortress bombarded the Servian part of the town (June 1862).
The indirect consequence of this incident was that in 1866, on the categoric demand of Prince Michael of Servia, and under the diplomatic pressure of the great powers, the sultan withdrew the Turkish garrison from the citadel and delivered it to the Servians.
His instructions were to demand an armistice, to intercept all supplies coming to the Turkish forces in the Morea from Africa or Turkey in general, and to look for directions to Stratford Canning (Lord Stratford de Redcliffe), the British ambassador at Constantinople.
Admiral de Rigny left for a cruise in the Levant, and Sir Edward Codrington, hearing that an Egyptian armament was on its way from Alexandria, and believing that it was bound for Hydra, steered for that island, which he reached on the 3rd of September, but on the 12th of September found the Egyptians at anchor with a Turkish squadron at Navarino.
The Turkish government refused to accept the armistice.
On the 19th of September, seeing a movement among the Egyptian and Turkish ships in the bay, Codrington informed the Ottoman admiral, Tahir Pasha, that he had orders to prevent hostile movements against the Greeks.
On the 29th of September a Greek naval force, commanded by an English Philhellene, Captain Frank Abney Hastings, had destroyed some Turkish vessels in Salona Bay, on the north side of the Gulf of Corinth.
From the 3rd to the 5th of October Codrington, who had with him only his flagship the "Asia" (84) and some smaller vessels, was engaged in turning back the Egyptian and Turkish vessels, a task in which he was aided by a violent gale.
The admirals, therefore, decided to stand into the bay and anchor among the Egyptian and Turkish ships.
A French officer in the Egyptian service, of the name of Letellier, had anchored the vessels of Ibrahim and the Turkish admiral in a horseshoe formation, of which the points touched the entrance to the bay, and there were forts on the lands at both sides of the entry.
The officer commanding the British frigate "Dartmouth" (42), Captain Fellowes, seeing a Turkish fireship close to windward of him, sent a boat with a demand that she should be removed.
Three-fourths of the Turkish and Egyptian vessels were sunk by the assailants, or fired by their own crews.
They threw in their lot (c. 1530) with the pirate Khair-ed-Din, and subsequently received a Turkish garrison.
Survivals of Turkish blood, once much more numerous, are scattered all over south Siberia as far as Lake Baikal.
Most of these Turkish tribes live by pastoral pursuits and some by agriculture, and are a most laborious and honest population.
This Turkish empire of the Khagases must have lasted until the 13th century, when the Mongols, under Jenghiz Khan, subdued them and destroyed their civilization.
During the reign of Sultan Sanjar or Sinjar of the same house, in the middle of the 11th century, Mer y was overrun by the Turkish tribes of the Ghuzz from beyond the Oxus.
About threefourths of the inhabitants are Christian Serbs, and the remainder are chiefly Moslem Albanians, with a few gipsies, Turkish officials and about 3000 Austro-Hungarian soldiers.
In the middle ages it fell into the hands of the Venetians, who fortified it so strongly that in 1477 it successfully resisted a four months' siege by a Turkish army thirty thousand strong; in 1499, however, it was taken by Bayezid II.
The place was modernized about a generation ago by Zia Pasha, the poet, when governor, and is now an unusually well built Turkish town with good bazaar and khans and a fine clock-tower.
Bocskay refused the royal dignity, but made skilful use of the Turkish alliance.
It consists of Mongols - Eastern Mongols and Kalmucks in the west - various Turkish tribes, Chinese and Tunguses.
In 1715 and 1720, when the land was again free from Turkish hordes and peace was restored, the population did not exceed three millions.
During the long reign of Sigismund (1387-1437) Hungary was brought face to face with the Turkish peril in its most threatening shape, and all the efforts of the king were directed Turkish Turks crossed the Hellespont from Asia Minor and p began that career of conquest which made them the terror of Europe for the next three centuries.
But by this time the Turkish 3 Though elected king of the Romans in 1411, he cannot be regarded as the legal emperor till his coronation at Rome in 1.423, and if he was titular king of Bohemia as early as 1419, he was not acknowledged as king by the Czechs themselves till 1436.
Moreover, river fleets, built by Genoese masters and manned by Servians, were constructed to patrol and defend the great rivers of Hungary, especially on the Turkish frontier.
It was with a small force of mercenaries, raised at his own expense, that the young king won his first Turkish victories, and expelled the Czechs from his northern and the Habsburgs from his western provinces.
He never, indeed, jeopardized the position of the Moslems in Europe as his father had done, and thus the peace of Szeged (1444), which regained the line of the Danube and drove the Turk behind the Balkans, must always be reckoned as the high-water mark of Hungary's Turkish triumphs.
Stephen Bathory, voivode of Transylvania and count of the Szeklers, for instance, ruled Transylvania like a Turkish pasha, and threatened to behead all who dared to complain of his exactions; " Stinking carrion," he said, was better than living Szeklers.
By the end of October the last Turkish regular had quitted Magyar soil, and, to use the words of a contemporary observer, one quarter of Hungary was as utterly destroyed as if a flood had passed over it.
During the last six years (1534-1540) of John's reign, his kingdom, beneath the guidance of the Paulician monk, Frater Gyorgy, or George Martinuzzi, the last great statesman of old Hungary, enjoyed a stability and prosperity marvellous in the difficult circumstances of the period, Martinuzzi holding the balance exactly between the emperor and the Porte with 3 I was kept secret for some years for fear of Turkish intervention.
During the six following years the sultan still further improved his position, capturing, amongst many other places, Pecs, and the primatial city of Esztergom; but, in 1547, the exigencies of the Persian war induced him to sell a truce of five years to Ferdinand for £100,000, on a uti possidetis basis, Ferdinand holding thirty-five counties (including Croatia and Slavonia) for which he was to pay an annual tribute of £60,000; John Sigismund retaining Transylvania and sixteen adjacent counties with the title of prince, while the rest of the land, comprising most of the central counties, was annexed to the Turkish empire.
The attempts of the Habsburgs to conquer Transylvania drew down upon them two fresh Turkish invasions, the first in 1552, when the sultan's generals captured Temesvar and fifty-four lesser forts or fortresses, and the second in 1566, memorable as Suleiman's last descent upon Hungary, and also for the heroic defence of Szigetvar by Miklos Zrinyi, one of the classical sieges of history.
The Magyar nobles were now systematically spoliated on trumped-up charges of treason; 1 In contradistinction to Turkish Hungary and Transylvanian Hungary.
In Turkish Hungary all the confessions enjoyed liberty of worship, though the Catholics, as possible partisans of the " king of Vienna," were liked the least.
George Rakoczy II., who succeeded his father in 1648, the Turkish empire, misruled by a series of incompetent sultans and distracted by internal dissensions, was unable to intervene in Hungarian politics.
When, at the end of 1661, a more stable administration was set up with Michael Apaffy (1661-1690) as prince, Transylvania had descended to the rank of a feudatory of the Turkish empire.
In 1663 he invaded royal Hungary, with the intention of uniting all the Magyars against the emperor, but, the Magyars steadily refusing to attend any diet summoned under Turkish influence, his plan fell through, and his only notable military success was the capture of the fortress of Ersekujvar (Neuhausel).
On the other hand the treaty of Vasvar gave Hungary a respite from regular Turkish invasions for twenty years, though the border raiding continued uninterruptedly.
Moreover, a neo-acquisita commissio was constituted to inquire into the title-deeds of the Magyar landowners in the old Turkish provinces, and hundreds of estates were transferred, on the flimsiest of pretexts, to naturalized foreigners.
Moreover, the next century and a half was a period of domestic tranquillity, during which Hungary was able to repair the ruin of the long Turkish wars, nurse her material resources, and take the first steps in the direction of social and political reform.
Kossuth and his associates, who had quitted Arad on the 10th of August, took refuge in Turkish territory.
The Uralian travels of Anthony Reguly (1843-1845), and the philological labours of Paul Hunfalvy and Joseph Budenz, may be said to have established it, and no doubt has been thrown on it by recent research, though most authorities regard the Magyars as of mixed origin physically and combining Turkish with Finno-Ugric elements.
The grammatical forms are expressed, as in Turkish, by means of affixes modulated according to the high or low vowel power of the root or chief syllables of the word to which they are appended-the former being represented by e, o, S, ii, i l l, the latter by a, d, o, 6, u, it; the sounds e, i, i are regarded as neutral.
It was used as a church in Christian times, and under Turkish rule as the harem of the governor of Athens.
His father was Turkish, his mother Albanian, and he had a Circassian grandmother.
He entered the Turkish army as a subaltern with - out money or influence but gained admission to the staff college at Constantinople, and from there went to Salonika, the head - quarters of the Young Turk movement.
At one time the Turkish script was altered, with the result that officers were unable to read their reports or orders; then the Enverie, a highly unpractical head-covering, reminiscent of a child's paper hat, was invented and introduced; in March 1914 he demanded and obtained the hand of Princess Nadjie, the Sultan's niece, made himself general of a division, and began, moreover, to take thought for his financial future.
In the winter of 1914-5 he led an entire Turkish army in the disastrous offensive in the snow-covered mountains on the Russo-Turkish border.