From it the Oxus, or Amu, flows off to the west, and the Jaxartes, or Syr, to the north, through the Turki state of Khokand, while to the east the waters run down past Kashgar to the central desert of the Gobi, uniting with the streams from the northern slope of the Tibetan plateau that traverse the principalities of Yarkand and Khotan, which are also Turki.
West of the Indus the dialects approach more to Persian, which language meets Arabic and Turki west of the Tigris, and along the Turkoman desert and the Caspian.
The language of the Kirghiz is Turki and their religion that of Mahomet.
300) India was invaded from the north by tribes partly of Parthian and partly of Turki (Yue-chi, &c.) origin.
Two periods may be distinguished, namely the Turki (120o-1526) and the Mogul empire.
The former comprised several dynasties of mixed Turki and Iranian race, but was wanting in coherency.
The mainstay of the Ottoman dynasty is the Asiatic portion of the empire, where the Mahommedan religion is absolutely predominant, and where the naturally vigorous and robust Turki race forms in Asia Minor a compact mass of many millions, far outnumbering any other single ethnical element and probably equalling all taken collectively.
Badakshan proper is peopled by Tajiks, Turks and Arabs, who speak the Persian and Turki languages, and profess the orthodox doctrines of the Mahommedan law adopted by the Sunnite sect; while the mountainous districts are inhabited by Tajiks, professing the Shiite creed and speaking distinct dialects in different districts.
In 1824 Turki, son of the unfortunate Abdallah, headed a rising which resulted in the re-establishment of the Wahhabi state with Riad as its new capital; and during the next ten years he consolidated his power, paying tribute to and under the nominal suzerainty of Egypt till his murder in 1834.
Driven into exile owing to a feud between his family and the Ibn Ali, the leading family of the Shammar, Abdallah came to Riad in 1830, and was favourably received by the amir Turki.
He was assassinated in 1866, and his successor, Seyyid Turki, reigned till 1888.
KHAN (from the Turki, hence Persian and Arabic Khan), a title of respect in Mahommedan countries.
Sabuktagin, a Turki slave of Alptagin, governor of Khorasan under Abdalmalik I.
In the 11th century the Pala empire, which, according to the Tibetan historian Taranath, extended in the 9th century from the Bay of Bengal to Delhi and Jalandhar (Jullundur) in the north and the Vindhyan range in the south, was partly dismembered by the rise of the "Sena" dynasty in Bengal; and at the close of the 12th century both Palas and Senas were swept away by the Mahommedan conquerors, the city of Behar itself being captured by the Turki free-lance Mahommed-i-Bakhtyar Khilji in 1193, by surprise, with a party of 200 horsemen.
Turki is spoken in Afghan Turkestan.
Their ethnical affinities have been much discussed; but it is most probable that they were of the Turki stock, as were the Huns, their later western representatives.
A theory which seems plausible is that which assumes them to have been a heterogenous collection of Mongol, Tungus, Turki and perhaps even Finnish hordes under a Mongol military caste, though the Mongolo-Tungus element probably predominated.
The Siberian Tatars are estimated (1895) at 80,000 of Turki stock and about 40,000 of mixed Finnic stock.
Kazak; plural, Kazaki, from the Turki quzzdq, " adventurer, free-booter "), the name given to considerable portions of the population of the Russian empire, endowed with certain special privileges, and bound in return to give military service, all at a certain age, under special conditions.
They speak a marked Persian dialect, but a Turki idion closely akin to the Turkoman is still current amongst the tribes, although they have mostly already passed from the nomad to the settled state.
Of these tribes the most numerous are the Modaunlu, Khojehvand and Abdul Maleki, originally of Lek or Kurd stock, besides branches of the royal Afshar and Kajar tribes of Turki descent.
The inhabitants call themselves Jagatais, a Turki race, though now generally mixed with Tajiks and speaking Persian.
The Turki tribes, occupying western Mongolia, are among the least civilized of human beings, and it is chiefly to their extreme barbarity and cruelty that our ignorance of central Asia is due.
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