He died in Turin on the 20th of March 1894; his body was taken to Pesth, where he was buried amid the mourning of the whole.
Relics of the saint are preserved here and at Brieg and Turin.
Sergi, La Sardegna, Turin, 1907).
Strafforello, Sardegna (Turin, 1895); F.
Sergi, La Sardegna (Turin, 1907); Archivco storico Sardo from 1905; D.
(Turin, 18 53); he also wrote Il Partito nazionale italiano (Turin, 1856), L'Impero, it papato, e la democrazia in Italia (Florence, 1859): and Dell' ordinamento nazionale in Italia (Florence, 1862).
it enters the plain at Saluzzo, between which and Turin, a distance of only 30 m., it receives three considerable tributaries—the Chisone on its left bank, bringing down the waters from the valley of Fenestrelle, and the Varaita and Maira on the south, contributing those of two valleys of the Alps immediately south of that of the Po itself.
Of these the Dora (called for distinctions sake Dora Riparia), which unites with the greater river just below Turin, has its source in the Mont GenÃ¨vre, and flows past Susa at the foot of the Mont Cenis.
Hence this part of the country has a cold winter climate, so that while the mean summer temperature of Milan is higher than that of Sassari, and equal to that of Naples, and the extremes reached at Milan and Bologna are a good deal higher than those of Naples, the mean winter temperature of Turin is actually lower than that of Copenhagen.
Hemp is largely cultivated in the provinces of Turin, Ferrara, Bologna, Foril, Ascoli Piceno and Caserta.
At Turin the manufacture of motor-cars has attained great importance and the F.I.A.T.
There are several public assay offices in Italy for silk; the first in the world was established in Turin in 1750.
Milan and Genoa are the principal centres, and also the government military pharmaceutical factory at Turin.
Paper-making is highly developed in the provinces of Novara, Caserta, Milan, Vicenza, Turin, Como, Lucca, Ancona, Genoa, Brescia, Cuneo, Macerata and Salerno.
Other cities where the ceramic industries keep their ground are Pesaro, Gubbio, Faenza (whose name long ago became the distinctive term for the finer kind of potters work in France, falence), Savona and Albissola, Turin, Mondovi, Cuneo, Castellamonte, Milan, Brescia, Sassuolo, Imola, Rimini, Perugia, Castelli, &c. In all these the older styles, by which these places became famous in the IthI8th centuries, have been revived.
In 1902 the state took up the sale of quinine at a low price, manufacturing it at the central military pharmaceutical laboratory at Turin.
Milan 4s the most important railway centre in the country, and is followed by Turin, Genoa, Verona, Bologna, Rome, Naples.
The northern frontier is crossed by the railway from Turin to Ventimiglia by the Col di Tenda, the Mont Cenis line from Turin to Modane (the tunnel is 7 m.
Besides these international lines the most important are those from Milan to Turin (via Vercelli and via Alessandria), to Genoa via Tortona, to Bologna via Parma and Modena, to V~rona, and the shorter lines to the district of the lakes of Lombardy; from Turin to Genoa via Savona and via Alessandria; from Genoa to Savona and Ventimiglia along the Riviera, and along the south-west coast of Italy, via Sarzana (whence a line runs to Parma) to Pisa (whence lines run to Pistoia and Florence) and Rome; from Verona to Modena, and to Venice via Padua; from Bologna to Padtia, to Rimini (and thence along the north-east coast via Ancona, Castellammare Adriatico and Foggia to Brindisi and Otranto), and to Florence and Rome; from Rome to Ancona, to Castellammare Adriatico and to Naples; from Naples to Foggia, via Metaponto (with a junction for Reggio di Calabria), to Brindisi and to Reggio di Calabria.
These lines exist principally in Lombardy (especially in the province of Milan), in Piedmont, especially in the province of Turin, and in other regions of northern and central Italy.
The P0 is itself navigable from Turin downwards, but through its delta it is so sandy that canals are preferred, the P0 di Volano ~.nd the P0 di Primaro on the right, and the Canale Bianco on the left.
For instance, the number of bridegrooms unable to write their names in 1872 was in the province of Turin 26%, and in the Calabrian province of Cosenza 90%; in 1899 the percentage in the province of Turin had fallen to 5%, while in that of Cosenza it was still 76%.
There are 21 universitiesBologna, Cagliari, Camerino, Catania, Ferrara,Genoa,Macerata, Messina, Modena, Naples, Padua, Palermo, Parma, Pavia, Perugia, Pisa, Rome, Sassari, Siena, Turin, Urbino, of which Camerino, Ferrara, Perugia and Urbino are not state institutions; university courses are also given at Aquila, Ban and Catanzaro.
Of these the most frequented in 1904-1905 were: Naples (4745), Turin (3451), Rome (2630), Bologna (1711), Pavia (1559), Padua (1364), Genoa (1276), and the least frequented, Cagliari (254), Siena (235) and Sassari (200).
The institutions which co-operate with the universities are the special schools for engineers at Turin, Naples, Rome and Bologna (and others attached to some of the universities), the higher technical institute at Milan, the higher veterinary schools of Milan, Naples and Turin, the institute for higher studies at Florence (Istituto di studi superiori, pratici e di perfezionamento), the literary and scientific academy of Milan, the higher institutes for the training of female teachers at Florence and Rome, the Institute of Social Studies at Florence, the higher commercial schools at Venice, Ban and Genoa, the commercial university founded by L.
Turin Acqul, Alba, Aosta, Asti, Cuneo, Fossano, Ivrea, Mondovi,Pinerolo, Saluzzo,Susa.
There are in Italy six clearing houses, namely, the ancient one at Leghorn, and those of Genoa, Milan, Rome, Florence and Turin, founded since 1882.
Strafforello, Geografia dellItalia (Turin, I89o19o2).
Farther west came the roads over the higher Alpine passes the Brenner from Verona, the Septimer and the Splugen from Clavenna (Chiavenna), the Great and the Little St Bernard from Augusta Praetoria (Aosta), and the Mont Genvre from Augusta Taurinorum (Turin).
Strafforello, Geografia deli Italia (Turin, 1890-1892); H.
By removing the capital from Chambry to Turin, he completed the transformation of the dukes of Savoy from Burgundian into Italian sovereigns.
Repenting of this step, he subsequently attempted to regain Turin, but was imprisoned in.
Further, at the close of 1798 they virtually compelled the young king of Sardinia, Charles Emmanuel IV., to abdicate at Turin.
Milan and Turin fell before the allies, and Moreau, who took over the command, had much difficulty in making his way to the Genoese coast-line.
But although welcomed with enthusiasm Reaction on his return to Turin, he introduced a system of in the reaction which, if less brutal, was no less uncom- Italian promising than that of Austrian archdukes or Bourbon States.
On the 10th of March the garrison of Alessandria mutinied, and its example was followed on the 12th by that of Turin, where the Spanish constitution was demanded, and the black, red and blue flag of the Carbonari paraded the Streets.
The mission of Gaetano Castiglia and Marquis Giorgio Pallavicini to Turin, where they had interviewed Charles Albert, although without any definite resultfor Confalonieri had warned the prince that Lombardy was not ready to risewas accidentally discovered, and Confalonieri was himself arrested.
Then came the news of the Five Days of Milan, which produced the wildest excitement in Turin; unless First war the army were sent to assist the struggling Lombards of Italy at once the dynasty was in jeopardy.
When the terms of the Austro-Piedmontese armistice were announced in the Chamber at Turin they aroused great indignation, but the king succeeded in convincing the deputies Piedmont that they were inevitable.
The attempt failed and its author was caught and executed, but while t appeared at first to destroy Napoleons Italian sympathies and led to a sharp interchange of notes between Paris and Turin, the emperor was really impressed by the attempt and by Orsinis letter from prison exhorting him to intervene in Italy.
Yet after these warlike declarations and after the signing of a military convention at Turin, the king agreeing to all the conditions proposed by Napoleon, the latter suddenly became pacific again, and adopted the Russian suggestion that Italian affairs should be settled by a congress.
At Vienna the war party was in the ascendant; the convention for disarmament had been signed, but so far from its being carried out, the reserves were actually called out on the 12th of April; and on the 23rd, before Cavours decision was known at Vienna, an Austrian ultimatum reached Turin, summoning Piedmont to disarm within three days on pain of invasion.
But to Napoleons statement that he could not agree to the unification of Italy, as he was bound by his promises to Austria at Villafranca, Victor Emmanuel replied that he himself, after Magenta and Solferino, was bound in honor to link his fate with that of the Italian people; and Genetal Manfredo Fanti was sent by the Turin government to organize the army of the Central League, with Garibaldi under him.
On the 2nd of April 1860 the new Italian parliament, including members from central Italy, assembled at Turin.
Three weeks later the treaty of Turin ceding Savoy and Nice to France was ratified, though not without much opposition, and Cavour was fiercely reviled for his share in the transaction, especially by Garibaldi, who even contemplated an expedition to Nice, but was induced to desist by the king.
His rapid success, meanwhile, inspired both the French emperor and the government of Turin with misgivings.
On the 18th of February the first Italian at~ ~liament met at Turin, and Victor Emmanuel was proclaimed shi~ g of Italy.
m Turin to some other city within six months.
The convention was kept secret, pital but the last clause leaked out and caused the bitterest arr as- feeling among the people of Turin, who would have asf red to been resigned to losing the capital provided it were La ~rence, transferred to Rome, but resented the fact that it was un to be established in any other city, and that the conntion was made without consulting parliament.
(Turin, 1888-1897), based on a diligent stud of the original authorities and containing a large amount of informa tion; the author is a Mazzinian, which fact should be taken mt account, but he generally quotes the opinions of those who disagree with him as well.
Chialas Lettere del Conte di Cavour (~ vols., Turin, 1883 1887) and D.
Bianchis Storia della diplomazza euro pea in Italsa (8 vols., Turin, 1865) is an invaluable and thoroughly reliable work.
Farinas Sloria dIlalia dcl 1815 at 1849 (5 vols., Turin, 1851); ~V.
Bersezio, Ii Regno di Vittorio Emanuele II (8 vols., Turin, 1889, &c.).
On the 4th of January 1902, the employees of the Mediterranean railway advanced these demands at a meeting at Turin, and threatened to strike if they were not satisfied.
Then the Turin gas men struck, and a general sympathy strike broke out in that city in consequence, which resulted in scenes of violence, lasting two days.
The municipal elections in several of the larger cities, which had hitherto been regarded as strongholds of socialism, marked an overwhelming triumph for tJic constitutional parties, notably in Milan, Turin and Genoa, for the strikes had wrought as much harm to the working classe1 as to the bourgeoisie.
Carutti, Storia delta corte di Savoic durante la rivoluzione e 1 impero francese (2 vols., Turin, 1892); G.
Cibranios Stone della monarchic pieniontese (Turin, I84o), and P. Caruttis .Sloria della diplomazia delta corte di Savoia (Rome, 1875).
The young lady's relatives ultimately became reconciled to the match, and procured him an appointment as attache to the British legation at Turin.
Aichino, of the Geological Survey of Italy, will be found in the Enciclopedia delle arte e industrie (Turin, 1898).
ii.; Jules Brunfaut, De l'Exploitation des soufres (2nd ed., 1874); Georgio Spezia, Sull' origine del solfo nei giacementi solfiferi della Sicilia (Turin, 1892).
Morselli, Psicologia e spiritismo (Turin, 1908); cf.
In the autumn of 1901 he was appointed to the command of the Turin army corps.
He has recorded one or two interesting notes on Turin, Genoa, Florence and other towns at which halt was made on his route; but Rome was the great object of his pilgrimage, and the words in which he has alluded to the feelings with which he Her letters to Walpole about Gibbon contain some interesting remarks by this ' ` aveugle clairvoyante," as Voltaire calls her; but they belong to a later period (1777).
COUNT OF MONTFERRAT, a title derived from a territory south of the Po and east of Turin, and held by a family who were in the 12th century one of the most considerable in Lombardy.
di Monferrato (Turin, 1885); Ilgen, Markgraf Konrad von Montferrat (1880); and also the works of Cerrato (Turin, 1884) and Desimoni (Genoa, 1886).
He was successively minister plenipotentiary at Cassel and Stuttgart (1852), at Turin (1853), ambassador at Rome (1857) and at Vienna (1861).
Pizzi (8 vols., Turin, 1886-1888), also the author of a history of Persian poetry.
Already at Cherasco and Leoben he had dictated the preliminaries of peace to the courts of Turin and Vienna quite independently of the French Directory.
(For the campaigns of 1796-1800, 1805-7, 1808-9, 1812-15, see French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Campaigns.) The chief works on civil, diplomatic and personal affairs in the life of Napoleon for the period1796-1799are: P. Gaffarel, Bonaparte et les republiques italiennes, 1796-1799 (Paris, 1895); C. Tivaroni, Storia critica del risorgimento italiano (3 vols., Turin, 1899 - (in progress)); E.
In 1816 Vieillot published at Paris an Analyse d'une nouvelle ornithologie elementaire, containing a method of classification which he had tried in vain to get printed before, both in Turin and in London.
4 The method was communicated to the Turin Academy, on 10th January 1814, and was ordered to be printed (Mem.
Ac. Sc. Turin, ideas in this are said to have been taken from Illiger; but the two systems seem to be wholly distinct.
In the Turin Museum are preserved two papyri with rough drawings of gold mines established by Sesostris in the Nubian Desert.'
In spite of this opposition, he held chairs of philosophy at Turin, Milan and Rome in succession, and during several administrations represented the college of Gavirate in the chamber.
Formulaire mathematique (Turin, ed.
Peano (with various collaborators of the Italian school), Formulaire de mathematiques (Turin, various editions, 1894-1908; the earlier editions are the more interesting philosophically); Felix Klein, Lectures on Mathematics (New York, 1894); W.
of Turin, 1722 ft.
Cuneo lies on the railway from Turin to Ventimiglia, which farther on passes under the Col di Tenda (tunnel 5 m.
Minister and envoy extraordinary of France at Genoa in 1790-1791, he was instructed by Dumouriez to go to Turin to detach Victor Amadeo III.
of Turin by rail.
Lines diverge from it to Turin via Asti, to Valenza (and thence to Vercelli, Mortara - for Novara or Milan - and Pavia), to Tortona, to Novi, to Acqui and to Bra.
Clebsch, Theorie der bindren Algebraischen Formen (Leipzig, 1872); Vorlesungen fiber Geometrie (Leipzig, 1875); Faa de Bruno, Theorie des formes binaires (Turin, 1876); P. Gordan, Vorlesungen fiber Invariantentheorie, Bd.
JOSEPH LOUIS LAGRANGE (1736-1813), French mathematician, was born at Turin, on the 25th of January 1736.
He was of French extraction, his great grandfather, a cavalry captain, having passed from the service of France to that of Sardinia, and settled in Turin under Emmanuel II.
His earliest tastes were literary rather than scientific, and he learned the rudiments of geometry during his first year at the college of Turin, without difficulty, but without distinction.
Cigna, he founded in 1758 a society which became the Turin Academy of Sciences.
Euler's eulogium was enhanced by his desire to quit Berlin, d'Alembert's by his dread of a royal command to repair thither; and the result was that an invitation, conveying the wish of the "greatest king in Europe" to have the "greatest mathematician" at his court, was sent to Turin.
By direction of Talleyrand, then minister for foreign affairs, the French commissary repaired in state to the old man's residence in Turin, to congratulate him on the merits of his son, whom they declared "to have done honour to mankind by his genius, and whom Piedmont was proud to have produced, and France to possess."
In analytical invention, and mastery over the calculus, the Turin mathematician was admittedly unrivalled.
The first, second and third sections of this publication comprise respectively the papers communicated by him to the Academies of Sciences of Turin, Berlin and Paris; the fourth includes his miscellaneous contributions to other scientific collections, together with his additions to Euler's Algebra, and his Lecons elementaires at the Ecole Normale in 1795.
When the spring had come, being still very poor and in feeble health, he started homewards on foot by Florence, across the Apennines, through Bologna, Parma, Piacenza, Turin, over the Alps, through Savoy and Dauphine to Lyons, andfinally to Paris, where he arrived in excellent health.
In 1759, after completing with his pupils a tour of two years' duration through Gottingen, Utrecht, Paris, Marseilles and Turin, he resigned his tutorship and settled at Augsburg.
de Turin (1766-1769).
of Spain, and had taken Turin and forced Savoy to allow French troops on the borders of the Milanese.
In 1816 he was sent as ambassador to Turin.
Exiled from Naples in consequence of the movement of 1848, he took refuge in Tuscany, whence he was compelled to flee to Turin on account of a pungent article against the Bourbons.
At Turin he resumed his philosophic studies and his translation of Plato, but in 1858 refused a professorship of Greek at Pavia, under the Austrian government, only to accept it in 1859 from the Italian government after the liberation of Lombardy.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.