From 1594 to 1641 the duchy remained vested in the French family of La Tour d'Auvergne, one of whom (Henry, viscount of Turenne and marshal of France) had married in 1591 Charlotte de la Marck, the last of her race.
The town was captured by the Swabian League in 1519, by Turenne in 1647, and again in 1688 by the French, who destroyed the walls.
The most important are those on Madame de Montausier (1672), which gained him the membership of the Academy, the duchesse d'Aiguillon (1675), and, above all, Marshal Turenne (1676).
Manning (1693), and the "Funeral Oration of Marshal Turenne" in H.
The second Fronde was largely her work, and in it she played the most prominent part in attracting to the rebels first Conde and later Turenne.
As a military commander Cromwell was as prompt as Gustavus, as ardent as Conde, as exact as Turenne.
Conde's fame Crom= was established in his twenty-second year, Gustavus was twenty-seven and Turenne thirty-three at the military beginning of their careers as commanders-in-chief, Cromwell, on the other hand, was forty-three when he fought in his first battle.
The contrast between a campaign of Cromwell's and one of Turenne's is far more than remarkable, and the observation of a military critic who maintains that Cromwell's art of war was two centuries in advance of its time, finds universal acceptance.
Cromwell's strategic manoeuvres, if less adroit than those of Turenne or Montecucculi, were, in accordance with his own genius and the temper of his army, directed always to forcing a decisive battle.
The greatest feat of Turenne was the rescue of one province in 1674-1675; Cromwell, in 1648 and again in 1651, had two-thirds of England and half of Scotland for his theatre of war.
Turenne levelled down his methods to suit the ends which he had in view.
Above the town are the ruins of the castle of Engelburg, destroyed by Turenne in 1675.
The military and historical works comprise precis of the wars of Julius Caesar, Turenne and Frederick the Great.
In 1658 Turenne's victory of the Dunes gave it into the hands of the French and it was ceded to England.
A panegyric on Turenne, delivered in 1675, is considered his masterpiece.
Subsequently he served in the French army under Turenne, and in the Spanish under Conde, and was applauded by both commanders for his brilliant personal courage.
The duel of Sherman and Johnston is almost as personal a contest between two great captains as were the campaigns of Turenne and Montecucculi.
In 1674 it was captured and devastated by the French under Turenne, and after the death of the elector Charles (1685) it was claimed by the French as a dependency of Alsace.
But the last of these was part of a much wider struggle by land, known to Continental historians as the Dutch War of 1672-78, and the second part of this article deals with their struggle on the various frontiers of France, which was illustrated by the genius of Turenne and Conde.
Operations On Land The contemporary military history of Europe included, first, the war between France and Spain, 1654-59, usually called the Spanish Fronde, of which the most notable incident was the great battle of the Dunes fought on the 14th of June 1658 between the French and English under Turenne and the Spaniards under Conde, in which a contingent of Cromwell's soldiers bore a conspicuous part.
Between the second and third wars of England and the United Provinces came the short War of Devolution (1667-68) - a war of sieges in the Low Countries in which the French were commanded chiefly by Turenne.
In the electorate of Cologne they were in friendly country, and the main army soon moved down the Rhine from Dusseldorf, the corps of Turenne on the left bank, that of Conde on the right.
The Rhine fortresses offered but little resistance to the advance of Turenne and Conde.
Turenne was therefore despatched to Westphalia and Conde to Alsace, while a corps of observation was formed on the Meuse to watch the Spanish Netherlands.
But the coalition had not yet developed its full strength, and Turenne's skill checked the advance of the Imperialists under Montecucculi and of the Brandenburgers under the Great Elector.
The allies in Germany were now not merely checked but driven from point to point by Turenne, who on this occasion displayed a degree of energy rare in the military history of the period.
Turenne then turned his attention to the Imperialists who were assembling in Bohemia, and made ready to meet them at Wetzlar.
But nothing of importance was gained, and Turenne's summer campaign was wholly unsuccessful.
Marching via Eger and Nuremberg (September 3rd) on the Main, Montecucculi drew Turenne to the valley of the Tauber; then, having persuaded the bishop of Wurzburg to surrender the bridge of that place, he passed to the right bank of the Main before Turenne could intervene.
Turenne's Rhine campaign began with an invasion of Germany, undertaken to prevent interference with Louis in Franche-Comte.
Turenne determined to attack the southern army under the duke of Lorraine and Count Caprara before the junction could be effected.
Turenne then laid waste the Palatinate, in order that it should no longer support an army, and fell back over the Rhine, ignoring the reproaches of the elector palatine, who vainly challenged him to a duel.
This devastation has usually been considered as a grave stain on the character of the commander who ordered it, but Turenne's conception of duty did not differ in this respect from that of Cromwell, Marlborough, Wellington and the generals of the American Civil War.
After a slight attempt to invade Lorraine, which Turenne easily stopped, the Imperialists suddenly recrossed the Rhine and marched rapidly into the neighbourhood of the Strassburg bridge.
Bournonville obtained a free passage, and Turenne was too late to oppose him.
Turenne steadily retired to his camp of Dettweiler, unable for the moment to do more, and the Germans took up winter quarters in all the towns from Belfort to Strassburg (OctoberNovember 1674).
But Turenne was preparing for another winter campaign, the most brilliant in the great commander's career.
Bournonville stood to fight at Miilhausen with such forces as he could collect (29th December 1674) but Turenne's men carried all before them.
The advance continued to Colmar, where the elector, who was now in command of the Germans, stood on the defensive with forces equal to Turenne's own.
The battle of Tiirkheim (5th of January 1675) nevertheless resulted in another and this time a decisive victory for the French; a few days after the battle Turenne could report that there was not a soldier of the enemy left in Alsace.
On the Rhine was fought the last campaign of Turenne and Montecucculi.
At last Turenne prevailed and had the Imperialists at a disadvantage on the Sasbach, where, in opening the action, he was killed by a cannon-shot (July 27th).
At the same time the duke of Lorraine defeated Marshal Crequi (August 11th) at Conzer Briicke on the Moselle, and recaptured Trier (September 6th), which, as a set-off against Bonn, Turenne had taken in the autumn of 1673.
Luxemburg was left in charge in Flanders, and the prince took command of the remnant of Turenne's old army and of the fugitives of Crequi's.
Conde and Montecucculi retired from their commands at the close of the year, Turenne was dead, and a younger generation of commanders henceforward carried on the war.
Vauban was unique amongst the officers of his time, and Crequi and Luxemburg were not unworthy successors of Turenne and Conde.
There were great commanders before Turenne and Conde.
In the second battle, fought eleven years later (3rd August 1645), Conde (then duke of Enghien) and Turenne were the leaders on the one side, and Mercy and Johann von Weert, the dashing cavalry commander whose onset had decided the battle of 1634, on the other.
On the French left, meanwhile, Turenne saved the day.
Owing to its proximity to the French frontier it has undergone many sieges, the last of which was in 1640, when Turenne gave orders that it should be reduced to such ruin that it could never stand another.
Turenne, Moliere, Bossuet, Maintenon (Louvre), La Valliere, Sevigne, Montespan, Descartes (Castle Howard), all the beauties and celebrities of his day, sat to him.
This roused the jealousy of the United Provinces, and they made a separate peace with Spain in January 1648; but the valour of the French generals made the skill of the Spanish diplomatists of no avail, for Turenne's victory at Zusmarshausen, and Conde's at Lens, caused the peace of Westphalia to be definitely signed in October 1648.
Turenne had now become the royal general, and out-manoeuvred Conde, while the royal party at last grew to such strength in Paris that Conde had to leave the capital and France.
With regard to France he played a more patriotic part than Conde or Turenne, for he never treated with the Spaniards, and his letters show that in the midst of his difficulties he followed with intense eagerness every movement on the frontiers.
It was captured by the Swedes in 1632, 1634 and 1638; and in 1644 it was seized by the Bavarians, who shortly after, under General Mercy, defeated in the neighbourhood the French forces under Enghien and Turenne.
- During the Thirty Years' War the neighbourhood of Freiburg was the scene of a series of engagements between the French under Louis de Bourbon, duc d'Enghien (afterwards called the great Conde), and Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne, vicomte de Turenne, and the Bavarians and Austrians commanded by Franz, Freiherr von Mercy.
At the close of the campaign of 1643 the French "Army of Weimar," having been defeated and driven into Alsace by the Bavarians, had there been reorganized under the command of Turenne, then a young general of thirty-two and newly promoted to the marshalate.
The Bavarian commander, however, revenged himself by besieging Freiburg (June 27th), and Turenne's first attempt to relieve the place failed.
During July, as the siege progressed, the French government sent the duc d'Enghien, who was ten years younger still than Turenne, but had just gained his great victory of Rocroy, to take over the command.
Enghien brought with him a veteran army, called the "Army of France," Turenne remaining in command of the Army of Weimar.
Enghien and Turenne had arranged that the Army of France was to move direct upon Freiburg by Wolfenweiter, while the Army of Weimar was to make its way by hillside tracks to Wittnau and thence to attack the rear of Mercy's lines while Enghien assaulted them in front.
Turenne's march (August 3rd, 1644) was slow and painful, as had been anticipated, and late in the afternoon, on passing Wittnau, he encountered the enemy.
Turenne's force was little more than 6000, and these were wearied with a long day of marching and fighting on the steep and wooded hillsides of the Black Forest.
Thus the turning movement came to a standstill far short of Uffingen, the village on Mercy's line of retreat that Turenne was to have seized, nor was a flank attack possible against Mercy's main line, from which he was separated by the crest of the Schonberg.
The situation was grave in the extreme, but Enghien resolved on Turenne's account to renew the attack, although only a quarter of his original force was still capable of making an effort.
He himself and all the young nobles of his staff dismounted and led the infantry forward again, the prince threw his baton into the enemy's lines for the soldiers to retrieve, and in the end, after a bitter struggle, the Bavarians, whose reserves had been taken away to oppose Turenne in the Merzhausen defile, abandoned the entrenchments and disappeared into the woods of the adjoining spur.
The French bivouacked in the rain, Turenne making his way across the mountain to confer with the prince, and meanwhile Mercy quietly drew off his army in the dark to a new set of entrenchments on the ridge on which stood the Loretto Chapel.
Before dawn on the 10th the advance guard of Turenne's army was ascending the Glotter Tal.
Turenne's advanced guard appeared from the Glotter Tal only to find a stubborn rearguard of cavalry in front of the abbey.
Enghien and Turenne did not continue the chase farther than Graben, and Mercy fell back unmolested to Rothenburg on the Tauber.
This, which was carried out by the united armies and by reinforcements from France, while Turenne's cavalry screened them by bold demonstrations on the Tauber, led to nothing less than the conquest of the Rhine Valley from Basel to Coblenz, a task which was achieved so rapidly that the Army of France and its victorious young leader were free to return to France in two months from the time of their appearance in Turenne's quarters at Breisach.
Having been successful in the Rhineland, where he had captured Philippsburg and Worms, Turenne joined his forces to those of Sweden under Wrangel and advanced into Bavaria.
Again he joined the emperor, but his punishment was swift and sure, as Turenne and Wrangel again marched into the electorate and defeated the Bavarians at Zusmarshausen, near Augsburg, in May 1648.
The imperialists again took Worms in 1635, and it admitted the French under Turenne in 1644.
In 1672 he entered the army, and in the two following years served in Germany under Turenne.
By his vast expenditure, ascribable not only to his wars in Italy, his incessant embassies, and the necessity of defending himself in the Comtat Venaissin against the incursions of the adventurous Raymond of Turenne, but also to his luxurious tastes and princely habits, as well as by his persistent refusal to refer the question of the schism to a council, he incurred general reproach.
during the war of the Fronde it suffered severely at the hands of the royal troops under Turenne.
Thanks to him, the duke of Enghien (Louis de Bourbon, afterwards prince of Cond), appointed commander-in-chief at the age of twentytwo, caused the downfall of the renowned Spanish infantry at Rocroi; and he discovered Turenne, whose prudence tempered Conds overbold ideas.
With Turenne dominating the Eiser and the Inn, Cond victorious at Lens, and the Swedes before the gates of Prague~the emperor, left without a single ally, finally authorized his pienipotentiaries to sign on the 24th of October 1648 the peace about which negotiations had been going on for seven years.
Cond resumed civil war with the support of Spain, because he was not given Mazarins place; but though he defeated the royal army at Blneau, he was surprised at Etampes, and nearly crushed by Turenne at the gate of SaintAntoine.
A victory in the Dunes by Turenne, now reinstalled in honor, and above all the conquest of the Flemish seaboard, were the results (June 1658); but when, in order to prevent the emperors intervention in the Netherlands, Mazarin attempted, on the death of Ferdinand III., to wrest the Empire from the Habsburgs, he was foiled by the gold of the Spanish envoy Peflaranda (1657).
Under his orders Turenne conquered Flanders (June-August 1667); and as the queen-mother of Spain would not give in, Cond occupied Franche Comt in fourteen days The tilpie (February 1668).
The brothers de Witt, in consequence of their fresh offer to treat at any price, were assassinated; the broken dykes of Muiden arrested the victorious march of Cond and Turenne; while the popular and military party, directed by the stadtholder William of Orange, took the upper hand and preached resistance to the death.
After fighting for five years against the whole of Europe by land and by sea, the efforts of Turenne, Cond and Duquesne culminated at Nijmwegen.
The French armies, notwithstanding the disappearance of Cond and Turenne, had still glorious days before them with Luxembourg at Fleurus, at Steenkirk and at Neerwinden (1690*1693), and with Catinat in Piedmont, at Staffarda, and at Marsaglia; but these successes alternated with reverses.
When reading Moliere and Racine, Bossuet and Fnelon, the campaigns of Turenne, or Colberts ordinances; when enumerating the countless literary and ~cientific institutions of the great century; when considering the port of Brest, the Canal du Midi, Perraults cOlonnade of th~ Louvre, Mansarts Invalides and the palace of Versailles, and Vaubans fine fortificationsadmiration is kindled for the radiant splendour of Louis XIV.s period.
Little is known of his career for the next fifteen years beyond the fact that he held a high position at court; but in the year 1669, when France sent a contingent to assist the Venetians in the defence of Crete against the Turks, Frontenac was placed in command of the troops on the recommendation of Turenne.
On the 2nd of July 1652, the day of the battle of the Faubourg Saint Antoine, between the Frondeurs under Conde and the royal troops under Turenne, Mademoiselle saved Conde and his beaten troops by giving orders for the gates under her control to be opened and for the cannon of the Bastille to fire on the royalists.
Turenne followed, unable to do more than conform to his opponent's movements, and took post to defend Trier and Alsace.
The castle, which before Turenne's order to demolish it possessed seven towers; has now only one in ruins, and a modern chÃ¢teau was built in the Tudor style in the 18th century.
The great men of his time - Conde, Turenne, the marechal de Grammont, the knight-errant duc de Guise - were his fervent admirers.
To defend Cond the great conspiracy of women was formed: Madame de Chevreuse, the subtle and impassioned princess palatine, and the princess of Cond vainly attempted to arouse Normandy, Burgundy and the mob of Bordeaux; while Turenne, bewitched by Madame de Longueville, allowed himself to become involved with Spain and was defeated at Rethel (December15, 1650).
The Comte de Turenne showed him into a big reception room where many generals, gentlemen-in-waiting, and Polish magnates--several of whom Balashev had seen at the court of the Emperor of Russia--were waiting.
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