Probably the most important application of turbines to the generation of power on a great scale is that at Niagara Falls.
Where water power is available, turbines of a variety of types are in use.
Though no radical changes have been made in the design of turbines for some years, an immense amount of skill and ingenuity has been shown in perfecting and improving details, and such machines of great size and power are now constantly being made, and give every satisfaction when in use.
The most important naval station of the United 1 Small masses of water made to fall great distances and the use of turbines are important features of such plants.
An elementary presentation of the problem from a practical point of view will be found in Steam Turbines, by Dr A.
In this scheme large turbines were placed at the bottom of hydraulic fall tubes 150 ft.
Deep, the turbines being coupled by long shafts with 5000 H.P. alternating, current dynamos on the surface.
In addition to cash registers, the city's manufactured products include agricultural implements, clay-working machinery, cotton-seed and linseed oil machinery, filters, turbines, railway cars (the large Barney-Smith car works employed 1800 men in 1905), carriages and wagons, sewingmachines (the Davis Sewing Machine Co.), automobiles, clothing, flour, malt liquors, paper, furniture, tobacco and soap. The total value of the manufactured product, under the "factory system," was $31,015,293 in 1900 and $39,596,773 in 1905.
Geneva is well supplied with charitable institutions, hospitals, &c. Among other remarkable sights of the city may be mentioned the great hydraulic establishment (built 1882-1899) of the Forces Motrices du Rhone (turbines), the singular monument set up to the memory of the late duke of Brunswick who left his fortune to the city in 1873, and the tie Jean-Jacques Rousseau now connected with the Pont des Bergues.
In 1890 also the Hall process operated by steam power was installed at Patricroft, Lancashire, where the plant had a capacity of 300 lb per day, but by 1894 the turbines of the Swiss and French works ruined the enterprise.
Machine-making on a large scale is carried on by firms widely celebrated for the construction of locomotives, railway trucks and carriages, steamboilers and motors, turbines, pumps, metal bridges and roofs.
2 The following statistics of turbine construction in Switzerland are taken from Schweizerische Bauzeitung (1901), p. 128, which, in the same volume at p. 53, contains a valuable article on the most important improvements in turbines and their regulation shown in the Paris Exhibition of 1901: - of one of these, which gave an efficiency of 87% at full load and 70% at about three-fifths full load.
Turbines of this type may also be used on horizontal shafts, and are very useful in the case of low falls where there is a large amount of water and the head is fairly constant.
At Massena, in New York State, 75, 000 H.P. is to be developed from fifteen sets of these turbines working under a head of 40 ft.
Each generator can develop 5000 H.P. at a potential of 2200 volts, and is driven by three horizontal double turbines on the same shaft; when working under a minimum head of 32 ft.
The original turbines were of the " Fourneyron type, and a pair were mounted on each vertical shaft, the two being capable of giving out 5000 H.P. with a fall of 136 ft.
In dry seasons this will supply 6000 H.P., and for quite ten months in an ordinary year 14,000 H.P. The plant in 1902 consisted of five turbines, having horizontal axles, and each developing woo H.P. when running at 300 revolutions a minute.
- Wood, Theory of Turbines; Bovey, Hydraulics; BjOrling, Hydraulic Motors; Blaine, Hydraulic Machinery; Bodmer, Hydraulic Motors; Unwin, " Water Motors " (Lectures on Hydro-Mechanics, Inst.
When turbines, as often happens in land practice, are directly coupled to electrical generators, their horse-power can be deduced from the electrical output.
Developed 430 H.P., when the older turbines only gave 260 H.P., the FIG.
The electric power required fcir the tramways and the illuminatiQn of Rome is entirely supplied by turbines situated at Tivoli, and this is the case elsewhere, and the harnessing of this waterpower is capable of very considerable extension.
C. 19, where the word turbines is the Latin term.