Tunisia is divided into the following four fairly distinct regions I.
Tunisia reaches farther north than any other part of Africa, Ras-al-Abiadh (Cape Blanc)' being in 37° 20' N.
The highest point which the mountains attain in this division of Tunisia is about 4125 ft., near Ain Draham in Kroumiria.
These central uplands of Tunisia in an uncultivated state are covered with alfa or esparto grass; but they also grow considerable amounts of cereals - wheat in the north, barley in the south.
It includes within its limits the once famous district of the "Kroumirs," 2 a tribe whose occasional thefts of cattle across the frontier gave the French an excuse to invade Tunisia in 1881.
On the north and north-west the Aures mountains of Algeria are prolonged into Tunisia, and constitute the mountainous region of the north, which lies between the Majerda river and the sea, and also includes the vicinity of the city of Tunis and the peninsula of the Dakhelat el Mawin, which terminates in Ras Addar (Cape Bon).
239,178 The Basques of Basses-PyrnCes go in considerable 442,777 numbers to the Argentine Republic, the inhabitants of 333,621 Basses Alpes to Mexico and the United States, and 429,812 there are important French colonies in Algeria and 315,199 Tunisia.
Besides the important harbours already referred to, the French fleet has naval bases at Oran in Algeria, Bizerta in Tunisia, Saigon in Cochin China and Hongaj in Tongking, DiegoSuarez in Madagascar, Dakar in Senegal, Fort de France in Martinique, Nouma in New Caledonia.
The only countries in which there is a considerable white population are Algeria, Tunisia and New Caledonia.
To this rule Tunisia presents an exception, Tunisians retaining their nationality and laws.
The oversight of all the colonies and protectorates save Algeria and Tunisia is confided to a minister of the colonies (law of March 20, 1894)1 whose powers correspond to those exercised in France by the minister of the interior.
~Colonial Finance.The cost of the extra-European possessions, other than Algeria and Tunisia, to the state is shown in the expenses of the colonial ministry.
Save for the small item of military expenditure Tunisia is no charge to the French exchequer.
The colonial budgets totalled in 1907 some 16,760,000, being divisible into six categories: Algeria 4,120,000; Tunisia 3,640,000; Indo-China3 about 5,000,ooo; West Africa 1,600,000; Madagascar 960,000; all other colonies combined 1,440,000.
The authorized colonial loans, omitting Algeria and Tunisia, during the period 1884f 904 amounted to 19,200,000, the sums paid for interest and sinking funds on loans varying from 600,000 to 800,000 a year.
Commerce.The value of the external trade of the French possessions, exclusive of Algeria and Tunisia, increased in the ten years 1896-1905 from 18,784,060 to 34,957,479.
In the last-named year the commerce of Algeria amounted to 24,506,020 and that of Tunisia to 5,969,248, making a grand total for French colonial trade in 1905 of 65,432,746 The figures were made up as follows:
Over three-fourths of the trade of Algeria and Tunisia is with France and other French possessions.
Fishing and trawling are carried on chiefly off the Italian (especially Ligurian, Austrian and Tunisian coasts; coral is found principally near Sardinia and Sicily, and sponges almost exclusively off Sicily arid Tunisia in tile neighborhood of Sfax.
Nemesis came in the spring of 1881, in the form of the French invasion of Tunisia.
Although Cairoli, upon learning of the Anglo-Ottoman convention in regard to Cyprus, had advised Count Corti of the possibility that Great Britain might seek to placate France by conniving at a French occupation of Tunisia, neither he nor Count Corti had any inkling of the verbal arrangement made between.
Lord Salisbury and Waddington at the instance of Bismarck, that, when convenient, France should occupy Tunisia, an agreement afterwn.rds confirmed (with a reserve as to the eventual attitude of Italy) in despatches exchanged in July and August 1878 between the Quai dOrsay and Downing Street.
Almost up to the moment of the French occupation of Tunisia the Italian government believed that Great Britain, if only out of gratitude for the bearing of Italy in connection with the Dulcigno demonstration.
The rivalry between these two officials in Tunisia contributed not a little to strain FrancoItalian relations, but it is doubtful whether France would have precipitated her action had not General Menabrea, Italian ambassador in London, urged his government to purchase the Tunis-Goletta railway from the English company by which it had been constructed.
This pertinacity engendered a belief in France that Italy was about to undertake in Tunisia a more aggressive policy than necessary for the protection of her commercial interests.
France undertook, the maintenance of order in the Regency, and assumed the representation of Tunisia in all dealings with other countries.
Documents subsequently published have somewhat attenuated the responsibility of Ferry and Saint Hilaire for this breach of faith, and have shown that the French forces in Tunisia acted upon secret instructions from General Farre, minister of war in the Ferry cabinet, who pursued a policy diametrically opposed to the official declarations made by the premier and the foreign minister.
Had the blow thus struck at Italian influence in the Mediterranean induced politicians to sink for a while their personal differences and to unite in presenting a firm front to foreign nations, the crisis in regard to Tunisia might not have been wholly unproductive of good.
While excitement over Tunisia was at its height, but before the situation was irretrievably compromised to the disadvantage of Italy, Cairoli had been compelled to resign by a vote of want of confidence in the Chamber.
Apart from resentment against France on account of Tunisia there remained the question of the temporal power of the pope to turn the scale in favor of Austria and Germany.
concluding with France a treaty with regard to Tunisia in place of the old Italo-Tunisian treaty, denounced by the French Government a year previously.
That agreement also served to clear up the situation in Tripoli; while Italian aspirations towards Tunisia had been ended by the French occupation of that territory, Tripoli and Bengazi were now recognized as coming within the Italian sphere of influence.
The next important mosque is that of Kairawan in Tunisia, which was founded by Sidi Okba in A.D.
Catacombs have also been recently discovered on the site of Hadrumetum near Sousse in Tunisia.
south of Susa in Tunisia, and made this the centre of his piracies till, during his absence raiding the Spanish coasts, it was bombarded and destroyed by an expedition sent by Charles V.
They extend from Cape Nun on the west to the Gulf of Gabes on the east, a distance of some i 50o m., traversing Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia.
The maritime Atlas and the inner ranges in Algeria and Tunisia are then treated under the heading Eastern Ranges.
It has an average height of over 1 i,000 ft., whereas the loftiest peaks in Algeria do not exceed 8000 ft., and the highest in Tunisia are under 6000 ft.
The eastern division of the Atlas, which forms the backbone of Algeria and Tunisia, is adequately known with the exception of the small portion in Morocco forming the province of Er-Rif.
Here Mount Sidi Ali bu Musin reaches a height of 5700 ft., the highest point in Tunisia.
Bizerte), a seaport of Tunisia, in 37° 17' N., 9° 50' E.
Its strategical importance was one of the causes which led to the occupation of Tunisia by the French in 1881.
Gulf of Hammamet) on the east coast of Tunisia.
From 1881 to 1884 his activity in Tunisia so raised the prestige of France that it drew from Gambetta the celebrated declaration, L'Anticldricalisme n'est pas un article d'exportation, and led to the e .?mption of Algeria from the application of the decrees concerning the religious orders.
It is widely distributed in the United States, and occurs in Mexico and Brazil; it is found in Tunisia and Algeria, in the Altai Mountains and India, and in New South Wales, Queensland, and in Tasmania.
Dolmens, however, occur in great numbers in Tunisia and the province of Constantine.
Roman Africa has been the subject of innumerable historical and archaeological researches, especially since the conquest of Algeria and Tunisia by the French.
In all the towns of Algeria and Tunisia museums have been founded for storing the antiquities of the region; the most important of these are the museums of St Louis, Carthage and the palace of Bardo (musee Alaoui) near Tunis, those of Susa, Constantine, Lambessa, Timgad, Tebessa, Philippeville, Cherchel and Oran.
In Tunisia, Carthage early became the object of archaeological investigation.
For the rest of Tunisia, the first explorer interested in archaeology was Victor Guerin in 1860; his results are contained in his remarkable Voyage archeologique dans la Regence de Tunis (1862, 2 vols.).
But it was the occupation of Tunisia by the French in 1881 which really gave the impetus to modern investigations in this district of ruined cities.
The marabouts took a prominent part in the resistance offered to the French by the Algerian Moslems; and they have been similarly active in politico-religious movements in Tunisia and Tripoli.
GABES, a town of Tunisia, at the head of the gulf of the same name, and 70 m.
Gabes is the military headquarters for southern Tunisia.
Gabes lies at the head of the shat country of Tunisia and is intimately connected with the scheme of Commandant Roudaire to create a Saharan sea by making a channel from the Mediterranean to these shats (large salt lakes below the level of the sea).
TUNISIA (Regency of Tunis), a country of North Africa, under the protection of France, bounded N.
- Geographically speaking, Tunisia is merely the eastern prolongation of the Mauretanian projection of northern Africa, of that strip of mountainous, fertile and fairly well-watered country north of the Sahara desert, which in its flora and its fauna, and to some extent in its human race, belongs rather to Europe than to Africa.
The greatest altitudes of the whole of Tunisia are attained on this central table-land, where Mt Sidi Ali bu Musin ascends to about 5700 ft.
This occupies the whole of the southern division of Tunisia, but although desert predominates, it is by no means all desert.
At the south-eastern extremity of Tunisia there is a clump of mountainous country, the wind-and-water-worn fragments of an ancient plateau, which for convenience may be styled the Matmata table-land.
The fame of this Belad-el-Jerid, or "Country of the Date Palms," was so exaggerated during the r 7th and 18th centuries that the European geographers extended the designation from this small area in the south of Tunisia to cover much of inner Africa.
With this country of Jerid may be included the island of Jerba, which lies close to the coast of Tunisia in the Gulf of Gabes.
Nevertheless, all this southern district of Tunisia bears evidence of once having been subject to a heavy rainfall, which scooped out deep valleys in the original table-land, and has justified the present existence of immense watercourses - watercourses which are still, near their origin, favoured with a little water.
Hot and mineral springs may be almost said to constitute one of the specialities of Tunisia.
The greater part of Tunisia is composed of sandstones, marls and loosely stratified deposits belonging to the Pliocene and Quaternary periods.
Lower Cretaceous rocks, consisting of thick limestones, shales and marls, occur in Central Tunisia.
The Senonian consists of a central facies with Micraster peini; a meridional facies with Ostrea; and a northern facies developed round Tunisia with large forms of Inoceramus and echinoids.
- Coal has been discovered in the Khmir ("Kroumir") country, but the principal mines at present worked in Tunisia are those of copper, lead and zinc. Zinc is chiefly found in the form of calamine.
Valuable deposits of phosphates are present, chiefly in the south-west of Tunisia, in the district of Gafsa.
The flora of Tunisia is very nearly identical with that of Algeria, though it offers a few species either peculiar to itself or not found in the last-named country.
On the whole its character is less Saharan than that of parts of Algeria, for the influences of the desert do not penetrate so far north in Tunisia as they do in Algeria.
The retama shrub is met with in sandy districts, especially in the Sahara, but also right up to the north of Tunisia.
The wild olive, the wild cherry, two species of wild plums, the myrtle, the ivy, arbutus, and two species of holly are found in the mountains of Khmiria, at various sites at high elevation near Tunis and Bizerta, and along the mountainous belt of the south-west which forms the frontier region between Tunisia and Algeria.
The only other species of palm found wild in Tunisia is the Chamaerops humilis, or dwarf.
The wild flowers of the north of Tunisia are so extremely beautiful during the months of February, March and April as to constitute a distinct attraction in themselves.2 1 See L.
2 List of Plants commonly met with in northern Tunisia Adonis microcarpa, DC. Nigella damascena, L.
The fauna of Tunisia at the present day is much impoverished as regards mammals, birds and reptiles.
In 1880 the present writer saw lions killed in the north-west of Tunisia, but by 1902 the lion was regarded as practically extinct in the regency, though occasional rumours of his appearance come from the Khmir Mountains and near Feriana.
Leopards of large size are still found in the north-west of central Tunisia.
The pardine lynx is found fairly abundantly in the west of Tunisia in the mountains and forest.
The zorilla, another purely African species, is found in the south of Tunisia.
In the south of Tunisia, especially about the shats, the elephant-shrew (Macroscelides) is found, an animal of purely African affinities.
Tunisia does not appear to possess the Barbary ape, which is found in Algeria and Morocco.
Natives of Morocco and of the Sahara oases occasionally bring with them young baboons which they assert are obtained in various Sahara countries to the south and south-west of Tunisia.
These baboons appear to belong to the Nubian species, but they cannot be considered indigenous to any part of Tunisia.
The porcupine and a large Octodont rodent (Ctenodactylus), the jerboa (two species), the hare, and various other rodents are met with in Tunisia.
The hartebeest appears now to be quite extinct; so also is the leucoryx, though formerly these two antelopes were found right up to the centre of Tunisia, as was also the ostrich, now entirely absent from the country.
In the marshy lake near Mater (north Tunisia), round the mountain island of Jebel Ashkel, is a herd of over 50 buffaloes; these are said to resemble the domestic (Indian) buffalo of the Levant and Italy, and to have their origin in a gift of domestic buffaloes from a former king of Naples to a bey or dey of Tunis.
Far down in the Sahara, to the south of Tunisia, the Arabs report the existence of a wild ass, apparently identical with that of Nubia.
The dorcas gazelle is still common in the south of Tunisia; but perhaps the most interesting ruminant is the magnificent udad, or Barbary sheep, which is found in the sterile mountainous regions of south Tunisia.
A beautiful little bird almost peculiar to the south of Tunisia and the adjoining regions of Algeria, is a species of bunting (Fringilla), called by the Arabs bu-habibi.
The natives of Tunisia at the present day belong mainly to two stocks, which may be roughly classified as the Berber and the Arab (q.v.), about two-thirds being of Berber and the remaining third of Arab descent.
north-west; 1 (2) ordinary Berbers, dolichocephalous, and of brown complexion, found over the greater part of Tunisia, especially in the east and south centre; (3) the short-headed Berbers, found in part of the Matmata country, part of the Sahara, the island of Jerba, the Cape Bon Peninsula, and the vicinity of Susa, Kairwan, and Sfax; (4) Berbers of a blond type, that is to say, with a tendency to brown or yellow moustaches, brown beard and head hair, and grey eyes.
These are met with in the west and north-west of Tunisia, and in one patch on the coast of the Cape Bon Peninsula, near Nabeul.
Berber dialects are still spoken in Tunisia in the island of Jerba, in the Matmata country, and in the Tunisian Sahara.
On the north-eastern littoral of Tunisia the population is very mixed.
In fact, it is thought by some French students of the country that the Arab element will probably be eliminated from Tunisia, as it is the most unsettled.
It is considered that these nomads will be gently pushed back towards the Sahara, leaving cultivable Tunisia to the settled Berber stock, a stock fundamentally one with the peoples of Mediterranean Europe.
The present population of Tunisia numbers approximately l i, 000,000, and consists of: Berbers, more or less of pure race, say.
- Besides the capital, Tunis, the chief towns of Tunisia are Sfax, Susa and Kairwan.
Other towns of Tunisia are, on the east coast, Nabeul, pop. about 5000, the ancient Neapolis, noted for the mildness of its climate and its pottery manufactures; Hammamet with 37 00 inhabitants; Monastir (the Ruspina of the Romans), a walled town with 5600 inhabitants and a trade in cereals and oils; Mandiya or Mandia (q.v.; in ancient chronicles called the city of Africa and sometimes the capital of the country) with 8500 inhabitants, the fallen city of the Fatimites, which since the French occupation has risen from its ruins, and has a new harbour (the ancient Cothon or harbour, of Phoenician origin, cut out of the rock is nearly dry but in excellent preservation); and Gabes (Tacape of the Romans, Qabis of the Arabs) on the Syrtis, a group of small villages, with an aggregate population of 16,000, the port of the Shat country and a depot of the esparto trade.
Gafsa, in the south of Tunisia, is a most interesting old Roman town, with hot springs.
Almost all the towns of Tunisia were originally Roman or romanized Berber settlements; consequently the remains of Roman buildings form a large part of the material of which their existing structures are composed.
In short, Tunisia is as much strewn with Roman remains as is Italy itself.
It may be noted, however, as a general condition that the native towns and villages of Tunisia, where they have not been spoiled by the shocking tastelessness of Mediterranean Europe, are exceedingly picturesque, and offer exceptional attractions to the painter.
- The commerce of Tunisia has thriven under the French protectorate, having risen from an annual total of about £1,700,000 in 1881 to £8,687,000 in 1908.
British trade with Tunisia has nearly tripled since the establishment of the French protectorate.
The conversion of Tunis into a seaport (1893) destroyed the importance of this line, which was then sold to the French Bone-Guelma Company (Bone-Guelma et Prolongements), which owns the majority of the railways in Tunisia.
The whole of Tunisia is covered with a network of telegraph lines (2500 m.), and there are telephones working in most of the large towns.
From a native's point of view Tunisia still appears to be governed by the Bey of Tunis, his Arab ministers and his Arab officials, the French only exercising an indirect - though a very real - control over the indigenous population (Mahommedans and Jews).
France is directly represented in Tunisia by a minister resident-general, and by an assistant resident.
The French resident-general is the virtual viceroy of Tunisia, and is minister for foreign affairs.
Rich in corn, in herds, and in later times also in oil, and possessing valuable fisheries, mines and quarries, the province of Africa, of which Tunisia was the most important part, attained under the empire a prosperity to which Roman remains in all parts of the country still bear witness.
Abd ul-Mumin, the Almohade conqueror of Tunisia, compelled many of the native Christians to embrace Islam, but when Tunis was captured by Charles V.
The conquest of Algiers by the Turks gave a dangerous neighbour to Tunisia, and after the death of Mohammed the Hafsite in 1525 a disputed succession supplied Khair ad-Din Barbarossa with a pretext for occupying the Turk* city in the name of the sultan of Constantinople.
'Ali, the son of a Cretan renegade, was proclaimed sovereign by the troops under the title of "Bey," and, being a prince of energy and ability, was able to establish the hereditary sovereignty, which has lasted without change of dynasty to the present time.2 Frequent wars with Algiers form the chief incidents in the internal history of Tunisia under the Beys.
Under Deys and Beys alike Tunisia was essentially a pirate state.
In these circumstances only the rivalry of the European powers that had interests in Tunisia protracted from year to year the inevitable revolution.
But in 1878, at the Congress of Berlin, Lord Salisbury agreed to allow France a "free hand" in Tunisia in return for French acquiescence in the British lease of Cyprus.
After 1862, however, the kingdom of Italy began to take a deep interest in the future of Tunisia.
The actual conquest of the country was not effected without a serious struggle with Moslem fanaticism, especially at Sfax; but all Tunisia was brought completely under French jurisdiction and administration, supported by military posts at every important point.
In 1897 Great Britain surrendered her commercial treaty with Tunisia and agreed (subject to a special temporary privilege regarding cotton goods) to allow her commerce and all other relations with Tunisia to be subjected to the same conditions as those affecting all such relations between Britain and France.
The French protectorate over Tunisia, based on the treaty signed by the Bey at Bardo on the 12th of May 1881 and confirmed by the treaty of La Marsa (June 8, 1883), was With not recognized by Turkey, which claimed the regency Turkey.
South of that point the Saharan frontiers of Algeria, Tunisia and Tripoli remained undefined.
Working eastward from Tunisia and Algeria the French occupied several points to which Turkey laid claim.
In1904-1905there were famines and some native discontent in the south of Tunisia; but in general the country has prospered amazingly under the French protec torate.
The native dynasty has been strengthened rather than weakened, and Tunisia may be pointed out as the best and wisest example of French administration over an alien land and race.
vii.; Arabic text, Tunis, 1286 A.H.) deals especially with Tunisia and goes down to 1681.
Especially valuable and lucid are the following works: Ernest Mercier, Histoire de l'Afrique septentrionale (Berberie) (3 vols., Paris, 1891), and Histoire de l'etablissement des Arabes dans l'Afrique septentrionale selon les auteurs arabes (Paris, 1875); Stanley Lane Poole, The Barbary Corsairs (" Story of the Nations Series," London, 1890), deals in part with the history of Tunisia.
Lists of all the rulers of Tunisia will be found in A.
The geography of Tunisia was first treated scientifically by E.
The works of Canon Tristram on the Sahara describe southern Tunisia in the 'sixties of the 19th century.
Two important articles on Tunisia appeared in Nos.
Numerous other works in English and French have been published on Tunisia from the tourist's point of view; the best of these is by Douglas Sladen, Carthage and Tunis (2 vols., 1908).
Flaubert's Salammbo ought always to be read by those who visit Carthage and Tunisia.
Ashbee, Bibliography of Tunisia (London, 1889).
The bombardment of the town in 1881 was one of the principal events of the French conquest of Tunisia; it was pillaged by the soldiers on the 16th of July, and the inhabitants had afterwards to pay a war indemnity of £ 250,000.
TUNIS, capital of Tunisia, the largest city in North Africa outside Egypt, in 36° 48' N., 10° 12' E.
In the Musee Arabe, which occupies an adjacent small palace built about 1830, are treasures illustrative of the Arab-Berber or Saracenic art of Tunisia.
For its later fortunes, see Tunisia, of which regency, since the accession of the Hafsites, Tunis has been the capital.
SBEITLA (anc. Sufetula), a ruined city of Tunisia, 66 m.
JERBA, an island off the coast of North Africa in the Gulf of Gabes, forming part of the regency of Tunisia.
In general, from the Arab invasion in the 7th century Jerba shared the fortunes of Tunisia.
It appears afterwards to have fallen under the power of the rulers of Tunisia, then to a native dynasty which reigned at Tripoli, and in the 16th century it became part of the Turkish vilayet of Tripoli.
in width, is known, as in Morocco and Tunisia.
The principal ranges of the Little Atlas - from west to east - are the Tlemcen (5500 ft.); the Warsenis (with Kef Sidi Omar, 650o ft.); the Titeri (4900 ft.); the Jurjura, with the peak of Lalla Kedija (7542 ft.) and Mount Babor (6447 ft.); and the Mejerda (3700 ft.), which extends into Tunisia.
The Mejerda and its affluent the Mellegue, rivers of Tunisia, have their rise in Algeria, in the mountainous country east of Constantine.
South of the Jebel Aures is another series of salt lakes closely connected with the Shat-el-Jerid (of Tunisia).
The chief exports are sheep and oxen, most of which are raised in Morocco and Tunisia, and horses; animal products, such as wool and skins; wine, cereals (rye, barley, oats), vegetables, fruits (chiefly figs and grapes for the table) and seeds, esparto grass, oils and vegetable extracts (chiefly olive oil), iron ore, zinc, natural phosphates, timber, cork, crin vegetal and tobacco.
C.) History From a geographical point of view Algeria, together with Morocco and Tunisia, from which it is separated only by artificial and purely political frontiers, forms a distinct country, Africa which it is convenient to designate by the name of Africa Minor.
Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia - dates back to the time of the Turkish dominion.
In Tunis "bey" has become the hereditary title of the reigning sovereigns (see Tunisia).
'ENFIDAVILLE' [Dar-el-], a town of Tunisia, on the railway between Tunis and Susa, 30 m.
Enfidaville is the chief settlement on the Enfida estate, a property of over 300,000 acres in the Sahel district of Tunisia, forming a rectangle between the towns of Hammamet, Susa, Kairawan and Zaghwan.
When, some years later, Khaireddin left Tunisia for Constantinople he sold the estate to a Marseilles company, which resold it to the Societe Franco-africaine.
Soc. Antiquaires de France, 1 9 05, p. 177) discovered in Tunisia in 1905, and may be of much later origin; it was a branch of the Via Praenestina.
It is the only safe port easily accessible to large vessels for over 1000 m., between Sfax in Tunisia and Alexandria, for, although there is safe and deep anchorage in the recess of the Gulf of Bomba, the entrance is rocky and difficult.
KAIRAWAN (KEROUAN), the "sacred" city of Tunisia, 36 m.
Some of the finest treasures of Saracenic art in Tunisia are in Kairawan; but the city suffered greatly from the vulgarization which followed the Turkish conquest, and also from the blundering attempts of the French to restore buildings falling into ruin.
The chief buildings are the mosques, which are open to Christians, Kairawan being the only town in Tunisia where this privilege is granted.
In the northern quarter stands the great mosque founded by Sidi Okba ibn Nafi, and containing his shrine and the tombs of many rulers of Tunisia.
Later it became the capital of the Aghlabite princes, thereafter following the fortunes of the successive rulers of the country (see TUNISIA: History).
On his way home he attended the teachers of the mosque at Kairawan, in Tunisia, who soon learnt from him that his people knew little of the religion they were supposed to profess, and that though his will was good, his own ignorance was great.
The conquest of the city of Marrakesh by the Muwahhadis in 1147 marked the fall of the dynasty, though fragments of the Murabtis continued to struggle in the Balearic Islands, and finally in Tunisia.
From the middle of the 16th century to the end of the 17th century the ruler of Tunisia was also called dey, a title frequently used during the same period by the sovereigns of Tripoli.
To speak of more modern times there can be enumerated the Zouaoua and Jebalia (Tripoli and Tunisia); the Chauwia, Kabyles and Beni-Mzab (Algeria); the Shluh (Chlouah), Amazigh and Berbers (Morocco); the Tuareg, Amoshagh, Sorgu, &c. (Sahara).
PORTO FARINA, a town of Tunisia about 20 m.
(See TUNISIA: History.)
by the Mediterranean, comprising the states of Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Tripoli.
MAHDIA (also spelt Mehdia, Mehedia, &c.), a town of Tunisia, on the coast between the gulfs of Hammamet and Gabes, 47 m.
barbarus of Tunisia and Morocco, and the still smaller C. e.
Geologically it belongs to Africa, beingsituated on the edge of the submarine platform which extends along the east coast of Tunisia, from which (at Mahadia) it is 90 m.
The most important fisheries extend along the coasts of Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco; but red coral is also obtained in the vicinity of Naples, near Leghorn and Genoa, and on the coasts of Sardinia, Corsica, Catalonia and Provence.
After travels in Greece, Tunisia, India, China and Japan, and writing a short sketch of the last two countries, he took his large fortune to Greece in 1868, and proceeded to visit Homeric sites.
It is true that stone implements of palaeolithic and neolithic types are found sporadically in the Nile valley, Somaliland, on the Zambezi, in Cape Colony and the northern portions of the Congo Free State, as well as in Algeria and Tunisia; but the localities are far too few and too widely separated to warrant the inference that they are to be in any way connected.
The story of the establishment of Turkish rule in northern Africa and of the revolutions of Morocco must be sought under the heads of Turkey, Tripoli, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco.
carbonate reservoirs in Western Canada, Kazakhstan, Tunisia and offshore India.
The group conducts basin analysis research with a petroleum geoscience theme in Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Libya and Tunisia.
In Tunisia stroll around an ancient walled medina or perhaps sink your toes into the silky white sands that hug the coastline.
Kwang-Chow-Wan however, is bound to providefor destitute children (see FOUNDLING HOSPITALS) Total in As and pauper lunatics (both these being under the care of the department), aged In Africa and the mdi Algeria and infirm people without resources and Algerian Sahara victims of incurable illness, and to furnish Tunisia medical assistance gratuitously to those West Africa without resources who are afflicted with Senegal..
The amount of French capital invested in French colonies and protectorates, including Algeria and Tunisia, was estimated in 1905 at Li 20,000,000, French capital invested in foreign countries at the same date being estimated at ten times that amount (see Ques.
He greeted the treaty of San Stefano (3rd March 1878) with undisguised relief, and by the mouth of the king, congratulated Italy (7th March 1878) on having maintained with the powers friendly and cordial relations free from suspicious precautions, and upon having secured for herself that most precious of alliances, the alliance of the future a phrase of which the empty rhetoric was to be bitterly demonstrated by the Berlin Congress and the French occupation of Tunisia.
Italy, who had made the integrity of the Ottoman empire a cardinal point of her Eastern policy, felt this change of the Mediterranean status quo the more severely inasmuch as, in order not to strain her relations with France, she had turned a deaf ear to Austrian, Russian and German advice to prepare to occupy Tunisia in agreement with Great Britain.
Hence, when opportunity offered firmly to establish Italian predominance in the central Mediterranean by an occupation of Tunisia, they found themselves deprived of those confidential relations with the central powers, and even with Great Britain, which might have enabled them to use the opportunity to full advantage.
Italian indignation at the French coup de main was the deeper on account of the apparent duplicity of the go~iernment of the Republic. On the 11th of May the French foreign minister, Barthlmy Saint Hilaire, had officially assured the Italian ambassador in Paris that France had no thought of occupying Tunisia or any part of Tunisian territory, beyond some points of the Kroumir country.
This assurance, dictated by Jules Ferry to Barthlmy Saint Hilaire in the presence of the Italian ambassador, and by him telegraphed en ci air to Rome, was considered a binding pledge that France would not materially alter the status quo in Tunisia.
Even had this circumstance been known at the time, it could scarcely have mitigated the intense resentment of the whole Italian nation at an event which was considered tantamount not only to the destruction of Italian aspirations to Tunisia, but to the ruin of the interests of the numerous Italian colony and to a constant menace against the security of the Sicilian and south Italian coasts.
Public opinion was further irritated against France by the massacre of some Italian workmen at Marseilles on the occasion of the return of the French expedition from Tunisia, and Depretis, in response to public feeling, found himself obliged to mobilize a part of the militia for military exercises.
In conjunction with the occupation of Tunisia, the effect of these disorders was to exhibit Italy as a country powerless to defend its interests abroad or to keep peace at home.
Mancini, still unwilling frankly to adhere to the Austro-German alliance, found his policy of friendship all round impeded by Gambettas uncompromising attitude in regard to Tunisia.
(See further Algeria.) The Mejerda range, which extends into Tunisia, has no heights exceeding 3 700 ft.
(See also Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Sahara.) Authorities.
Bizerte), a seaport of Tunisia, in 37Ã‚° 17' N., 9Ã‚° 50' E.
Apart from the province of Constantine, Algeria is less rich in Roman remains than Tunisia; mention must, however, be made of the excavations of Victor Waille at Cherchel, where were found fine statues in the Greek style of the time of King Juba II.; of P. Gavault at Tigzirt (Rusuccuru), and finally of those of Stephane Gsell at Tipasa (basilica of St Salsa) and throughout the district of Setif and at Khamissa (Thuburticum Numidarum).
Tunisia reaches farther north than any other part of Africa, Ras-al-Abiadh (Cape Blanc)' being in 37Ã‚° 20' N.
The principal Roman and other ruins in the regency are the aqueducts near the capital (Tunis) and the temple at Zaghwan, described under Tunis city; the great reservoir near Carthage (q.v.); the amphitheatre at El Jem (see SusA); the temples and other ruins of Sbeitla (q.v.); the ruins of Dugga, near Tebursuk, in the north-west of the regency (the amphitheatre of Dugga, the ancient Thugga, is a magnificent spectacle); the baths, amphitheatre and temples of Feriana (the ancient Thelepte); the whole route between Feriana (which is in the south of Tunisia, 33 m.
The history of Tunisia begins for us with the establishment of the Phoenician colonies (see Phoenicia and Carthage).
SFAX (Arabic Asfakis or Safakus, the cucumbers), a city of Tunisia, second in importance only to the capital, 78 m.
TUNIS, capital of Tunisia, the largest city in North Africa outside Egypt, in 36Ã‚° 48' N., 10Ã‚° 12' E.
The imports are cotton goods, flour, hardware, coal, sugar, tea, coffee, &c. The figures of trade and shipping are included in those of the trade of the regency (see Tunisia), of which Tunis and Goletta take about a third.
From about 1518 till the death of Uluch Ali in 1587, Algiers was the main seat of government of the beylerbeys of northern Africa, who ruled over Tripoli, Tunisia and Algeria.
Western Mediterranean cruises journey to Spain, Portugal, France, Italy, Morocco, and Tunisia.
Booking Airtours Cruise holidays can help you to get away to places such as Egypt, Tunisia and Greece.
The vinegar comes from Modena, Italy and the extra virgin olive oil comes from Tunisia.
It is also used in the flags for many countries from Alberia to Tunisia.
What the future of social media holds is anyone's guess, but if Egypt, Tunisia and other countries in the Middle East are any indication, social media can be a great force for change in the world.
The conduct of Italy in declining the suggestions received from Count Andrssy and General Ignatiev on the eve of the RussoTurkish Warthat Italy should seek compensation in Tunisia for the extension of Austrian sway in the Balkansand in subsequently rejecting the German suggestion to come to an arrangement with Great Britain for the occupation of Tunisia as compensation for the British occupation of Cyprus, was certainly due to fear lest an attempt on Tunisia should lead to a war with France, for which Italy knew herself to be totally unprepared.
This well-known Arab term for coast-belt (which in the plural form reappears as the familiar "Swahili" of Zanzibar) is applied to a third division of Tunisia, viz.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.