Tumor sentence example

tumor
  • I made him a deal to take the tumor out.

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  • Your tumor was operable when I met you and for the entirety of first year.

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  • In it was her bucket list, a list of things she hoped to do before she died from the terminal brain tumor she no longer possessed.

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  • It was hard to imagine she had a tumor in her brain the half the size of her fist.

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  • The knowledge made her want to scream, knowing she'd spent years blindly letting him talk to her like this and encourage her with pretty words, while he ensured the tumor in her head killed her.

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  • The worst case scenario – that she died of a tumor – was no longer possible.

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  • Removed her tumor, immortalized her and now, could comfort her with a single touch.

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  • Her brain tumor never seemed like a blessing before now.

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  • The tumor is still growing, which means there is still a chance at cognitive deterioration.

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  • Based on her medical records, the tumor didn't grow until she hit puberty and didn't interfere with her ability to function before a few years ago, Wynn started.

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  • To save you, I need to remove the tumor Wynn caused to expand in your head.

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  • Your life in exchange for keeping the tumor I remove.

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  • He'd pushed her away in order to keep the tumor from growing.

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  • The whole reason he'd avoided her was because of Wynn's warning – pleasure kills – a reminder that Deidre's tumor was connected to her emotions.

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  • Deidre had bartered for Darkyn to remove the tumor and to do so without pain.

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  • Andre confirmed that her tumor was gone, which meant they had a chance at a healthy relationship.

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  • No tumor, nothing to stop them from working through whatever issues they had to make a life together.

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  • The woman he fell for on the beach, without the tumor?

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  • Happiness causes her pain, the tumor to grow and eventually, death.

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  • It was getting more difficult to keep his distance from his mate, and he hated knowing he'd have to hurt her emotionally to prevent the tumor from growing too fast.

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  • He was left feeling dirty, like he was leading her on with enough encouragement to keep her from taking matters into her own hands but not so much that her tumor grew.

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  • I, uh, made a deal with Darkyn a few days ago for him to remove my brain tumor.

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  • In exchange, he keeps the tumor.

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  • It had to do with the tumor.

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  • In the shadow world when you told me about your tumor.

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  • Deidre made a deal with the Dark One, one good enough to bring her soul back from the dead, combine the two Deidres, cure the tumor of one and release the final product from Hell.

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  • Assuming she's not still dying of a tumor.

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  • Darkyn had demons searching the apartment last week for what Gabriel assumed was the soul contained in the tumor of the human-Deidre's head.

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  • She deserved the brain tumor.

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  • I connected the tumor – which was completely operable – with magic to her emotions.

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  • I have a terminal brain tumor.

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  • She wasn't going to, anymore than she had to the tumor.

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  • She was born with a tumor.

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  • The magic I used to kill her, I also used to seal the tumor.

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  • Wynn told me what he did and about the soul encased in her tumor.

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  • There's a soul encased in a tumor.

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  • He didn't have a solution to her tumor.

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  • There was a soul in her tumor.

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  • Assuming she hadn't missed more fine print in her deal with Darkyn, she wanted to survive the removal of the tumor.

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  • This one didn't have a tumor.

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  • Diagnosed with a brain tumor as a child, she was pronounced terminal over three years before.

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  • He knew there was a soul in the tumor in human-Deidre's head.

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  • The tumor is gone?

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  • He initially suspected the soul in Deidre's tumor was what Darkyn sought.

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  • The whole reason he'd avoided her was because of Wynn's warning – pleasure kills – a reminder that Deidre's tumor was connected to her emotions.

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  • You were able to feel the tumor in Deidre's head the other night, right?

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  • If Andre verified there was no tumor, did it matter what she was hiding?

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  • Before we chat, he asked me to verify your tumor is gone.

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  • His mate was allegedly no longer dying of a tumor, even if he couldn't figure out what secrets she hid, and his newfound independence left him wary of the Immortal Laws but no longer enslaved by them.

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  • The worst case scenario – that she died of a tumor – was no longer possible.

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  • Hallucinations, fate or some sort of mania brought on by her brain tumor, she wasn't going to wait for the Grand Canyon.

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  • I connected the tumor – which was completely operable – with magic to her emotions.

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  • If you want her tumor to slow its growth, you'll ensure she's unhappy, Wynn advised.

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  • He couldn't have the tumor – or half her brain missing – when he revived her.

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  • The surgeries that first year integrated the tumor into your brain using science and magic in a combination that even I was unable to reverse, when I finally realized you weren't the same woman I recalled.

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  • It will take a great deal of power to preserve you, remove the tumor and heal the damage.

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  • Only a deity can turn a human immortal, which is what it'll take to keep you alive while we remove the tumor.

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  • He was diagnosed at age 2 but did not succumb to a fatal brain tumor until age 12.

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  • Both the image normalization and tissue segmentation algorithms developed by our group significantly improve the statistics in tumor volume measurement.

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  • In 5/6 patients the wild-type allele was lost in the tumor samples, suggesting a causal role for the mutations in RCC.

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  • Tumor necrosis factor alpha also plays a pivotal part in inflammation.

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  • Infliximab ties up a special protein in the body called tumor necrosis factor alpha or TNF a, which is involved in inflammation.

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  • The main tumor was excised together with a 5cm margin of small bowel on either side with primary end-to-end anastomosis.

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  • However, T cells do not recognize many tumor antigens directly on the cells.

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  • All 25 patients mounted immune responses to the 5T4 tumor antigen The tumor response rate was better than expected.

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  • Research is ongoing to find the ideal vector for the tumor antigen encoding gene.

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  • For example, several novel tumor therapies are based on the concept of inducing T-cell responses that are specific for tumor antigens.

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  • In eight children who presented with symptoms of acute appendicitis, the tumor was located at the tip of the appendix.

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  • If the tumor does not do this it is termed benign.

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  • The last false diagnosis was a tumor which I was to have surgery to perform biopsy.

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  • The tumor may resemble a ' blood blister ' under a nail.

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  • Molecular genetic analysis of tumor cell DNA was done by southern blot.

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  • Sections of the lung away from the tumor site showed patchy bronchopneumonia with evidence of edema.

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  • There is a skin tumor in the inner canthus of the right eye.

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  • Carrots are a great source of alpha carotene, probably more powerful than beta carotene in inhibiting processes that may lead to tumor growth.

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  • Then I go back to the bone tumor clinic, then back across to the chemo suite for my chemo suite for my chemo.

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  • At the completion of high-dose chemotherapy, all tumor markers had returned to normal in 6 patients.

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  • These new vessels feeding the tumor also provide a conduit for tumor spread throughout the body.

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  • Histological confirmation of tumor involvement in the paranasal sinuses is not available.

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  • Nonetheless, " The RNA tumor viruses also have buoyant densities that coincide with those of certain cellular constituents.

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  • Commonly employed treatment options include cryotherapy (freezing of the tumor) and excision.

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  • The aim is to achieve high concentrations of activated cyclophosphamide locally in the tumor while minimizing circulating levels of the drug.

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  • The product comprises a highly engineered retrovirus that delivers a specific human cytochrome P450 gene to tumor cells.

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  • The tumor cells showed abundant, granular eosinophilic cytoplasm.

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  • In all cases tumor cells were relatively small and showed monomorphic or pleomorphic nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and ill-defined cytoplasm.

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  • During that time, my wife died of a brain tumor, and I became depressive.

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  • This material has a high dielectric constant, similar to a tumor.

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  • However, none of these patients had a poorly differentiated tumor.

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  • In contrast, Taxol resistance is not related to tumor differentiation.

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  • This suggests either an inherited disposition for some tumor types or the existence of environmental risk factors.

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  • Exposure to blue or brown asbestos dust can cause mesothelioma, a tumor of the pleura, which is the lining of the lung.

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  • An effective immune response is likely to induce changes in local tumor vasculature as immune effectors are recruited.

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  • The tumors of the bilateral epididymis were surgically resected and of the right renal tumor enucleated.

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  • The tumor was located in the upper, middle and lower thoracic esophagus in four, 20 and 11 cases, respectively.

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  • The tumor was completely excised by functional endoscopic sinus surgery on 12th August 1999.

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  • It uses multiple gamma rays focused on the tumor.

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  • If a total gastrectomy is being performed for a more proximal tumor then this sequence of events can be changed.

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  • A novel tumor suppressor gene implicated in colorectal cancer progression has also been identified by this group.

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  • Glioma tumor cells release the neurotransmitter glutamate, which carves a path of destruction through brain tissue allowing the tumor cells to advance.

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  • Tumor type distribution was 33 vestibular schwannomas, 5 meningiomas, and 1 cavernous hemangioma.

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  • In this preliminary study, paraffin-embedded tumor samples of uncertain histogenesis from seven patients were then analyzed.

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  • Biopsy of the mass was consistent with Wilms tumor with favorable histology.

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  • Data were obtained on clinical presentation, tumor histology, tumor marker levels and clinical course.

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  • Patient prognosis and survival was best predicted by tumor histology.

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  • Allelic imbalance in cell lines cannot be assessed in the same way as in tumor / normal tissue specimens.

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  • In fact initial attempts using tumor immunotherapy to combat cancer were made in the late 19th century by American Dr. William Coley.

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  • We therefore tested a dendritic cell immunotherapy in an attempt to control the tumor growth in two patients.

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  • Our findings indicate the importance of combining engineered T cells with other anti-tumour strategies such as vaccination to achieve a better tumor immunotherapy.

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  • This was probably the most stressful time for the family as the biopsies of the tumor kept coming back as inconclusive.

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  • In some cases the primary tumor in the appendix can be quite inconspicuous in the context of abundant mucinous peritoneal tumor.

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  • The rectal stump is then washed out with povidone iodine solution to kill any intraluminal tumor cells.

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  • Others have used ICS blood, salvaged from the tumor field and then irradiated in more than 300 patients.

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  • This tumor also usually causes jaundice at an early stage.

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  • The correlation between histologic atypia and MIB-1 li was poor, with only 1 tumor having both atypia and MIB-1 LI 2% .

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  • The initial PET scan revealed the primary tumor and local lymphadenopathy.

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  • In a 53 year old patient FDG-PET was performed after chemotherapy of an abdominal Non-Hodgkin lymphoma for evaluation of persistent tumor vitality.

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  • The patients at risk of tumor lysis syndrome are those with high tumor burden prior to treatment.

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  • Sometimes a tumor is called malignant when it is a cancer, but malignant hypertension is not cancer.

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  • This means that most work done on most tumor markers is almost worthless.

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  • Peritoneal mesothelioma causes a tumor to grow in the lining of the abdomen.

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  • Issue 4 March 2001 Contains articles on endocrinology in aging, the tumor microenvironment and the cell cycle.

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  • The capsules, or bioreactors, permit the release of recombinant proteins that may assert their effects in the tumor microenvironment.

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  • It is the first fully human monoclonal antibody for RA that works by targeting a key inflammatory protein, Tumor Necrosis Factor.

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  • Fresh samples of tumor and normal colonic mucosa were taken at the time of surgery and snap frozen in liquid nitrogen.

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  • Autologous SCT is feasible, safe and can result in complete remission in a significant proportion of patients with tumor stage mycosis fungoides.

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  • Bone invasion and tumor necrosis, features not reported before, were found in six cases each.

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  • There is a particular emphasis on the role of members of the tumor necrosis factor family.

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  • Other causes Less common causes of Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss include an acoustic neuroma, which is a benign tumor.

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  • You can only have a liver transplant if you have no more than 3 tumor nodules and none are more than 5 centimeters across.

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  • Both greater and lesser omentum were infiltrated with tumor.

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  • We are collaborating on an exhaustive molecular characterisation of cancer cell lines to identify novel oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in ovarian cancer.

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  • Gene therapy Scientists are studying oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes.

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  • These included increased expression of several oncogenes, as well as decreased expression of several tumor suppressor genes and genes that regulate airway inflammation.

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  • Both patients received high orchiectomy under the diagnosis of testicular tumor and the histopathological diagnosis in both patients was non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

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  • Pax-2 is expressed in early kidney organogenesis, Wilms ' tumor and renal cell carcinoma.

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  • The inflammation can cause a small outgrowth known as a polyp, which is a benign tumor that grows inside the colon.

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  • The new animal studies did not allow any conclusions to be made regarding the mechanisms of tumor induction by diesel particulates in humans.

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  • Tumor antigenic peptides hold promise for the development of novel cancer immunotherapies.

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  • In future all NCRN trials that local pis wish to initiate locally will need to be supported by the relevant disease specific Tumor Board.

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  • The tumor may prevent the normal pituitary from being able to secrete the hormones that control menstruation and fertility.

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  • These include oesophageal stents - either rigid plastic or self-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) and local tumor ablative techniques such as laser therapy.

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  • The histology of the tumor, including nuclear pleomorphism and the mitotic count, are of no value in predicting clinical outcome.

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  • In contrast, staining of the tumor for pancreatic polypeptide was strongly positive.

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  • In most cases, specific membrane staining as well as a weak cytoplasmic positivity of tumor cells were seen.

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  • The presence of cells in the tumor being positive for estrogen and/or progesterone receptors is an indication for treatment.

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  • The four patients who were failure died secondary to tumor progression.

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  • For 16q and WT1, some indication of which of these theories applies comes from the data on tumor progression.

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  • When present these are usually due to a small (2mm) tumor that is secreting excess prolactin in the pituitary gland.

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  • Tumor burdens in mice were completely eradicated and survival was significantly prolonged.

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  • Tumor thickness is the most important prognostic factor for local and distant recurrence and overall survival in melanoma.

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  • There was no tumor recurrence during a median follow-up of 8.4 years.

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  • Patients with a family history of the disorder are at greater risk of tumor recurrence.

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  • Two patients received intensified therapy due to less than 70% tumor regression on day 33.

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  • He used large amounts of beetroot successfully for cancerous tumor regression, up to 1 kg daily have been used.

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  • The mainstay of treatment for early stage cancer is surgical removal of the tumor.

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  • These genes include the translational repressors, pumilio, nanos and brain tumor.

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  • Transurethral resection of the tumor in the urinary bladder was performed.

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  • All patients then underwent a planned radical tumor resection.

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  • No significant differences were found between good and poor responders for the other tumor markers evaluated.

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  • Top of page trilateral retinoblastoma Occasionally, a new tumor can develop in the center of the brain.

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  • Octreotide scintigraphy demonstrated that this tumor avidly bound the peptide.

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  • This tumor selectivity has been demonstrated for transplanted tumors in animal models.

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  • Similarly, in the three patients receiving human serum albumin, no significant tumor cell reduction was observed.

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  • The reports back from these patients are encouraging with a number reporting tumor shrinkage.

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  • This allows doctors to assess how well patients are responding to therapy by measuring tumor shrinkage.

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  • Tumor size was defined as maximum diameter of the tumor measured from the surgical specimen.

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  • A human breast tumor spheroid immunostained for the hypoxic cell marker, HIF-1 alpha (red staining ).

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  • Using the mathematical model and the experimental evidence we show that the tumor cell size is reduced by solid stress inside the tumor spheroid.

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  • All costs for treatment in relation to the primary presenting tumor and metastatic spread will be excluded including any complications relating to the cancer.

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  • Initial Assessment As alluded to above, pre-operative tumor staging can be unpredictable.

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  • Endoscopic ultrasound appeared to be reliable for both local tumor and lymph node staging of oesophageal cancer.

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  • The main problem raised by these tumors is confounding infection which may lead to late diagnosis or an error in tumor staging.

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  • All malignant salivary gland tumors expressed similar intense HA in tumor stroma.

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  • This pro-inflammatory cytokine is especially important in tumor stroma interactions.

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  • Using FISH, loss or monosomy 22q was detected in small subpopulations of tumor cells in 36% of cases.

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  • Pheochromocytoma is usually an adrenal tumor with a very variable clinical symptomatology.

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  • Further tests to stage the disease revealed a 1.5 cm tumor in the right testis.

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  • She is part of a local research collaboration developing novel therapeutics targeting regulators of tumor invasion.

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  • Level of tumor thrombus appears to be correlated with overall survival.

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  • Hypertension, heart tonic, ongoing research into tumor therapy.

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  • Most of the mice inoculated with highly variable BHK-21 cells developed malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT ).

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  • The C. elegans homolog of the p53 tumor suppressor is required for DNA damage induced apoptosis.

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  • Sadly, we lost Dino to a brain tumor about a year later.

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  • If this process can be halted, the tumor will stop growing an approach called vascular targeting.

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  • After initial partial CT resolution the tumor grew, compressing the inferior vena cava.

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  • These include gynecological oncology, breast cancer, surgical oncology, tumor virology and lung cancer.

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  • In human tumor xenograft models, treatment with XR5944 caused both partial and complete regression of large established tumors.

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  • Residual tumor was the most strongly predictive factor for recurrence or death.

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  • A residuary legacy is the easiest way to leave money to Brain Tumor UK in your Will.

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  • Top of page Trilateral retinoblastoma Occasionally, a new tumor can develop in the center of the brain.

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  • The figure below gives a summary of primary tumor site in a series of over 900 people diagnosed with Ewing 's sarcoma of bone.

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  • Our study concludes that Tc-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy with lemon juice stimulation is useful for the detection and diagnosis of Warthin 's tumor.

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  • Two patients had tumor recurrence following previous segmental resection.

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  • The aim of PDT for advanced cancer is usually to reduce symptoms by shrinking the tumor.

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  • The tumor became necrotic after 6 days and after 10 days the dead tissue sloughed away.

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  • The pattern of somatic mutation is being used to follow the clonal history of the tumor cell clone.

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  • The somatostatin analog octreotide may help control hormone secretion and stabilize tumor growth.

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  • A human breast tumor spheroid immunostained for the hypoxic cell marker, HIF-1 alpha (red staining).

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  • Special high fat diets can help to keep the body 's energy needs supplied whilst starving the tumor.

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  • Diagnosed with Autism at age 2 and having to battle with leukemia until ultimately succumbing to a fatal brain tumor aged 12.

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  • Total parotidectomy rather than superficial parotidectomy is suggested to avoid the recurrence of the tumor.

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  • The enzyme is found in most types of tumor cells but not in healthy cells, indicating the potential of telomerase inhibitors in chemotherapy.

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  • Telomere maintenance is essential for tumor cells to by-pass replicative senescence and become immortal.

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  • Addition of XPA specifically conferred full NER capacity on the testis tumor extracts.

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  • This is the first report demonstrating a signaling role for a dual thrombin receptor system in human tumor cells.

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  • We continue to advocate an aggressive, optimistic approach for those patients with clinically confined tumors with isolated venous tumor thrombus extension.

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  • We diagnosed a left undescended testicular tumor and torsion of the left testis.

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  • Scientists have now isolated and modified the toxin ricin to eliminate severe side effects without compromising its power to kill tumor cells.

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  • In short, CTCL may be a malignancy of T cells stimulated to proliferate against its own tumor antigens.

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  • Most of the mice inoculated with highly variable BHK-21 cells developed malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT).

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  • Strong smell from the wound If you have an ulcerating tumor, its smell is probably the most distressing symptom.

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  • Such a mechanism could account for pedigrees showing transmission of the tumor through unaffected carriers.

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  • The second patient had undergone an emergency resection of a bulky tumor leaking into the left chest following endoscopic dilatation.

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  • Gender, site, morphology, type, concomitant vesical tumor, nodes number and involvement do not significantly influence survival.

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  • The tumor mass is growing from the retina (arrow) into the vitreous cavity.

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  • Yolk sac tumor was characterized by a range of expression, which mirrored its morphologic variation.

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  • Surgery involves removing the tumor and surrounding tissue, whereas chemotherapy zaps cancer cells with highly toxic chemicals.

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  • I desperately hoped that the cancerous tumor was not malignant.

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  • There is growing evidence that a yearly booster may cause an aggressive tumor at the injection site, but this matter is still under study so no revisions have been made to the vaccination schedule yet.

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  • Your vet may want to run further tests to see if the problem is caused by some abnormality or a tumor of some sort.

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  • It has volatile oils that are believed to inhibit tumor formation - particularly in the lungs.

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  • Illnesses, including the removal of a tumor from one of her fingers and complications with pregnancies, have been very public.

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  • The group brings brain tumor patients and their loved ones to Tinseltown for a VIP experience.

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  • Her treatment included chemotherapy and a lumpectomy, in which the tumor and surrounding tissue is removed.

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  • She was previously married to actor Bruce Scott (1968-1972) and Dr. Thomas Calcaterra (1973-1979), a physician she met when she had a tumor removed from her eye.

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  • She did not lose her eye when she had a tumor removed, just her vision.

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  • After enjoying a long life in good health, Otto was diagnosed with a deadly stomach tumor.

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  • Additionally, those who have had a stroke, neuromuscular disorder or brain tumor are also more likely to develop the condition.

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  • There are also other things that cause nerve damage, such as a head injury or tumor, side effects of some medications, or other medical problems.

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  • These flavenoids, which are most prevalent in dry red wines, may inhibit tumor development in pancreatic cancer, other cancers and Alzheimer's disease.

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  • Due to antioxidants like reseveratrol, catechin and gallic acid, studies have shown that red wine has anti-viral properties and even help to prevent certain forms of cancer tumor growth.

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  • These antioxidants, especially resveratrol, fight the free radicals that cause cell damage and cancerous tumor growth.

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  • These abnormal cells divide uncontrollably and eventually form a new growth known as a tumor or neoplasm.

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  • If the cancer cells have spread to surrounding tissue, even after the malignant tumor is removed, it will typically recur.

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  • Early symptoms can be produced by the growth of a solid tumor in an organ or gland.

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  • A growing tumor may press on nearby nerves, organs, and blood vessels, causing pain and pressure that may be the first warning signs of cancer.

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  • Tumor markers, specific proteins released by certain types of cancer cells, can be detected by performing a test on venous blood.

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  • Cytogenetic analysis of tumor chromosomes, for example, can identify structural abnormalities that may explain the unique origins of cancer in an individual child.

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  • Gene sequences can also be evaluated in a method (comparative genomic hybridization) that compares samples from a tumor and normal tissue after both have been exposed to the same radioactive material.

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  • This method can determine gains and losses in DNA in the region of the tumor, detecting alterations that have caused the cancer.

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  • The aim of cancer treatment is to remove or destroy all or as much of the primary tumor as possible and to prevent its recurrence or metastases.

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  • Surgical removal of a solid tumor is most effective with small tumors confined to one area of the body.

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  • Surgery removes the tumor (tumor resection) and usually part of the surrounding tissue to ensure that no cancer cells remain in the area.

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  • Debulking surgery, for example, removes part of a tumor that is pressing on other organs and causing pain.

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  • Radiation kills tumor cells and is used alone when a tumor is in a poor location for surgery.

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  • External radiation is aimed at the tumor from outside the body.

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  • Because the cancer cells have not yet been exposed to anti-cancer drugs, they are especially vulnerable, allowing neoadjuvant therapy to effectively reduce tumor size.

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  • Hormone therapy blocks the production or action of these hormones, slowing growth of the tumor and extending survival for months or years.

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  • Most commonly the term refers to the collection and analysis of tissue from a suspected tumor to establish malignancy.

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  • Metastasis-A secondary tumor resulting from the spread of cancerous cells from the primary tumor to other parts of the body.

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  • Tumor growth (schwannoma) on the nerves to the ears (auditory nerves) is most characteristic of NF-2.

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  • These include various types of malignant brain tumors, as well as leukemia and cancerous tumors of certain muscles (rhabdomyosarcoma), the adrenal glands (pheochromocytoma), or the kidneys (Wilms' tumor).

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  • The tumor may also spread to neighboring nervous system structures, causing weakness of the muscles of the face, headache, dizziness, poor balance, and uncoordinated walking.

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  • Diagnosis of NF-2 requires the presence of either a nodule or mass (tumor) on the acoustic nerve or another distinctive nervous system tumor, which may only be identifiable through imaging studies.

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  • Neurofibroma-A soft tumor usually located on a nerve.

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  • Wilms' tumor is a cancerous tumor of the kidney that usually occurs in young children.

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  • Wilms' tumor may occur in only one or in both kidneys.

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  • About 7 percent of all cases of Wilms' tumor occur bilaterally (in both kidneys simultaneously).

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  • Wilms' tumor is a type of malignant tumor.

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  • These features of Wilms' tumor make it a type of cancer that, without treatment, would eventually cause death.

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  • However, advances in medicine between the 1980s and the early 2000s have made Wilms' tumor a very treatable form of cancer.

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  • Wilms' tumor occurs almost exclusively in young children.

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  • In the United States, Wilms' tumor occurs in about eight children per million in white children under the age of 15 years.

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  • Wilms' tumor makes up about 6 percent of all childhood cancers and ranks as the second most frequent cancerous abdominal tumor in children.

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  • The cause of Wilms' tumor is not as of 2004 completely understood.

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  • Because 15 percent of all patients with this type of tumor have other inherited defects, it seems clear that at least some cases of Wilms' tumor may be due to an inherited alteration.

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  • It appears that the tendency to develop a Wilms' tumor can run in families.

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  • In fact, about 1.5 percent of all children with a Wilms' tumor have family members who have also had a Wilms' tumor.

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  • Some patients with Wilms' tumor experience abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, high blood pressure, or blood in the urine.

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  • However, the parents of many children with this type of tumor are the first to notice a firm, rounded mass in their child's abdomen.

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  • Rarely, a Wilms' tumor is diagnosed after there has been bleeding into the tumor, resulting in sudden swelling of the abdomen and a low red blood cell count (anemia).

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  • About 5 percent of Wilms' tumor cases involve both kidneys during the initial evaluation.

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  • The tumor appears on either side equally.

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  • When pathologists look at these tumor cells under the microscope, they see great diversity in the types of cells.

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  • Researchers have found evidence that certain types of lesions occur before the development of the Wilms' tumor.

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  • Initial diagnosis of Wilms' tumor is made by looking at the tumor using various imaging techniques.

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  • Ultrasound, computed tomography scans (CT scans) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans) are helpful in diagnosing Wilms' tumor.

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  • Intravenous pyelography, in which a dye injected into a vein helps show the structures of the kidney, can also be used in diagnosing this type of tumor.

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  • Final diagnosis, however, depends on obtaining a tissue sample from the mass (biopsy) and examining it under a microscope in order to verify that it has the characteristics of a Wilms' tumor.

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  • This biopsy is usually done during surgery to remove or decrease the size of the tumor.

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  • Other studies (chest x rays, CT scan of the lungs, bone marrow biopsy) may also be done in order to see if the tumor has spread to other locations.

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  • Treatment for Wilms' tumor almost always begins with surgery to remove or decrease the size of the kidney tumor.

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  • While the tumor can spread to these surrounding areas, it is less likely to do so compared to other types of cancer.

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  • In cases where the tumor affects both kidneys, surgeons will try to preserve the kidney with the smaller tumor by removing only a portion of the kidney, if possible.

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  • Samples of the tumor are also examined under a microscope to determine particular characteristics of the cells making up the tumor.

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  • Information about the tumor cell type and the spread of the tumor is used in deciding the best kind of treatment for a particular patient.

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  • These therapies are called adjuvant therapies, and this type of combination therapy has been shown to substantially improve outcome in patients with Wilms' tumor.

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  • Likewise, some types of chemotherapy have been found to be effective in treating Wilms' tumor.

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  • The National Wilms' Tumor Study Group developed a staging system to describe Wilms' tumors.

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  • All of the stages assume that surgical removal of the tumor has occurred.

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  • Stage I involves favorable Wilms' tumor cells and is usually treated successfully with combination chemotherapy involving dactinomycin and vincristine and without abdominal radiation therapy.

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  • These patients usually receive abdominal radiation therapy and lung radiation therapy if the tumor has spread to the lungs.

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  • These patients also receive lung radiation therapy if the tumor has spread to the lungs.

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  • Another type of tumor cell can be present in Stages I through IV.

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  • All of these patients receive abdominal radiation therapy and lung radiation therapy if the tumor has spread to the lungs.

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  • The prognosis for patients with Wilms' tumor is quite good, compared to the prognosis for most types of cancer.

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  • The patients who have the best prognosis are usually those who have a small-sized tumor, a favorable cell type, are young (especially under two years of age), and have an early stage of cancer that has not spread.

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  • There are no known ways as of 2004 to prevent a Wilms' tumor, although it is important that children with birth defects associated with Wilms' tumor be carefully monitored.

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  • Clearly, a child who is undergoing the rigors of treatment for Wilms' tumor is going to have some very difficult times.

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  • A stroke or tumor can damage the hypothalamus, causing the body's thermostat to malfunction.

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  • Acromegaly-A rare disease resulting from excessive growth hormone caused by a benign tumor.

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  • If such a tumor develops within the first ten years of life, the result is gigantism (in which growth is accelerated) and not acromegaly.

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  • Gigantism-Excessive growth, especially in height, resulting from overproduction of growth hormone during childhood or adolescence by a pituitary tumor.

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  • Untreated, the tumor eventually destroys the pituitary gland, resulting in death during early adulthood.

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  • If the tumor develops after growth has stopped, the result is acromegaly, not gigantism.

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  • Headaches or visual disturbances may suggest a brain tumor.

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  • In cases of tumor, most commonly craniopharyngioma (a tumor near the pituitary gland), children and adolescents may have neurological symptoms such as headaches, vomiting, and problems with vision.

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  • The doctor will do a complete examination to make sure that delayed growth is not caused by other underlying problems, such as tumor.

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  • Neuroma-Scar tissue that forms around a nerve; a tumor derived from nerve tissue.

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  • Interferon, tumor necrosis factor, and various interleukins are the major fever-producing cytokines.

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  • Evidence of infection, tumor, or other diseases can be found in this way.

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  • These organic causes of headache may include hydrocephalus (abnormal build-up of fluid in the brain), infection of the brain, tumor, or other conditions.

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  • When they encounter more dense material, such as a tumor, bone, or a metal fragment, they are stopped.

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  • Such damage can result from head injury or a tumor.

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  • An acoustic neuroma, for example, is a benign tumor that wraps around the nerve.

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  • X rays, computed tomography scan (CT scan), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can pinpoint evidence of nerve damage, tumor, or other structural problems.

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  • Acoustic neuroma-A benign tumor that grows on the nerve leading from the inner ear to the brain.

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  • As the tumor grows, it exerts pressure on the inner ear and causes severe vertigo.

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  • A sarcoma is a cancerous (malignant) bone tumor.

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  • A primary bone tumor originates in or near a bone.

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  • A sarcoma is a type of malignant primary bone tumor.

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  • If the tumor is located on a leg bone, the patient may limp.

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  • Physical examination and routine x rays may yield enough evidence to diagnose benign bone tumors, but removal of tumor tissue for microscopic analysis (biopsy) is the only sure way to rule out malignancy.

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  • A needle biopsy involves using a fine, thin needle to remove small bits of tumor, or a thick needle to extract tissue samples from the innermost part (the core) of the growth.

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  • An excisional biopsy is the surgical removal of a small, accessible tumor.

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  • The surgeon performing an incisional biopsy cuts into the patient's skin and removes a portion of the exposed tumor.

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  • Performed under local or general anesthetic, biopsy reveals whether a tumor is benign or malignant and identifies the type of cancer cells the malignant tumor contains.

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  • Immunohistochemistry involves adding special antibodies and chemicals or stains to tumor samples.

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  • Once bone cancer has been diagnosed, the tumor is staged.

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  • This process indicates how far the tumor has spread from its original location.

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  • The stage of a tumor suggests which form of treatment is most appropriate and predicts how the condition will probably respond to therapy.

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  • A metastatic osteosarcoma has spread to the lungs, to bones not directly connected to the bone in which the tumor originated, or to other tissues or organs.

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  • Chemotherapy is usually administered in addition to surgery, to kill cancer cells that have separated from the original tumor and spread to other parts of the body.

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  • After a patient completes the final course of chemotherapy, CAT scans, bone scans, x rays, and other diagnostic tests may be repeated to determine if any traces of tumor remain.

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  • If no evidence of tumor growth or recurrence is indicated, these tests are performed less frequently in the following years.

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  • Likelihood of long-term survival depends on the type and location of the tumor, how much the tumor has metastasized, and on what organs, bones, or tissues have been affected.

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  • In these conditions, a tumor of fatty tissue becomes isolated among the nerves below the spinal cord, which may result in tethering of the spinal cord and complications similar to those with open spina bifida.

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  • These proteins seem to serve as inhibitors of tumor growth.

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  • When the TS genes are defective or absent, the proteins are either absent or deficient, which allows tumor growth.

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  • These causes include enlarged adenoids that cause sleep apnea, physical defects in the urinary system, or a spinal tumor.

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  • Paresthesias can also be caused by central nervous system disturbances, including stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), tumor, trauma, multiple sclerosis, or infection.

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  • The location of the affected nodes is usually associated with the site of an underlying infection, inflammation, or tumor.

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  • Audiometric testing can also be an adjunct to diagnosis of more serious problems related to hearing loss such a related syndrome or a tumor.

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  • Sometimes prenatal surgery is performed to remove a tumor.

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