Tufa sentence example

tufa
  • Ten shafts lined with slabs of tufa which were there found may have been the approaches to tombs or may have served as wells.
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  • The hill on which Sessa lies is a mass of volcanic tufa.
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  • Calcareous tufa or travertine occurs in the valley of Matlock and elsewhere, and in some places is still being deposited by springs.
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  • Catacomb of benches cut out of the tufa rock.
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  • The igneous formation of which the greater part of the Roman Campagna is, in its superior portion, composed, contains three strata known under the common name of tufa, - the " stony," " granular," and " sandy " tufa, - the last being commonly known as pozzolana.
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  • The stony tufa (tufa litoide) is quarried as building-stone.
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  • The granular tufa is useless for either purpose, containing too much earth to be employed in making mortar, and being far too soft to be used as stone for building.
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  • The Mithraeum hewn in the tufa quarries of the Capitoline Hill at Rome, still in existence during the Renaissance, is an example.
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  • The treasury was raised on a quadrangular structure, supported on its south side by the Hellenico, and built of tufa.
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  • There are some remains of the ancient city walls of rectangular blocks of tufa on the southern side of the town, and some rock-cut sewers in the cliffs below them.
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  • On the former there are now no traces of antiquity, but on the latter are scanty remains of the city walls, in small blocks of the grey-green tufa (cappellaccio) which is used in the earliest buildings of Rome, and traces of the streets.
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  • Cinder cones and tufa cones abound, but one of the most distinguishing features of the Hawaiian volcanoes is the great number of craters of the engulfment type, i.e.
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  • It was defended by a deep ditch, which can still be traced, and by walls, a portion of which, on the eastern side, constructed of rectangular blocks of tufa, was brought to light in 1897.
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  • In the second period volcanic activity occurred at the bottom of the Pliocene sea, and the tufa, which extends over the whole Campagna to a thickness of 300 ft.
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  • The tufa, sperone and peperino were easy to quarry, and could be employed by those who possessed comparatively elementary tools, while travertine, which came into use later, was an excellent building stone, and the lava (selce) served for paving stones and as material for concrete.
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  • The subsoil too is differently formed: the surface consists of very absorbent materials, then comes a stratum of less permeable tufa or peperino (sometimes clay is present), and below that again more permeable materials.
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  • As the drainage by cuniculi removed the moisture in the subsoil, so the drainage of the lakes by emissaria, outlet channels at a low level, prevented the permeable strata below the tufa from becoming impregnated with moisture which they would otherwise have derived from the lakes of the Alban Hills.
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  • It appears, however, from a careful examination of the remains that their work was only a reconstruction of a more ancient edifice, the date of the original form of which cannot be fixed; while its first alteration belongs to the "tufa" period, and three other periods in its history can be traced.
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  • No good building stone was at hand; and the public as well as private edifices were constructed either of volcanic tufa, or lava, or Sarno limestone, or brick (the latter only used for the corners of walls).
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  • In a few instances only do we find them making use of a whitish limestone wrongly called travertine, which, though inferior to the similar material so largely employed at Rome, was better adapted than the ordinary tufa for purposes where great solidity was required.
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  • The portion of the portico surrounding the forum which was in the process of rebuilding at the time when the city was destroyed was constructed of this material, while the earlier portions, as well as the principal temples that adjoined it, were composed in the ordinary manner of volcanic tufa.
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  • That of the Doric temple in the Foro Triangolare (6th century B.C.) and an old column built into a house in Region vi., Insula 5; also of the older parts of the city walls - date uncertain (Sarno limestone and grey tufa).
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  • Grey tufa period; ashlar masonry of tufa, coated with fine white stucco; rubble work of lava.
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  • No homogeneous series of buildings - we find various styles of construction (quasi-reticulate, opus reticulatum of tufa with stone quoins, of the time of Augustus, opus reticulatum with brick quoins or with mingled stone and brick quoins, a little later); and three styles of wall decoration fall within its limits.
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  • They are mostly of volcanic origin, and include pumice, tufa, santorin earth, trass and pozzuolana itself.
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  • Generally speaking, they are only of local importance, their cheapness depending largely on the nearness and abundance of some suitable volcanic deposit of the trass or tufa class.
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  • In section the isle is seen to possess a threefold character: there is first a basement of tufa, from which rise, secondly, colonnades of basalt in pillars forming the faces and walls of the principal caves, and these in turn are overlaid, thirdly, by a mass of amorphous basalt.
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  • In the part of Herculaneum already excavated the corridors in the upper portions of the theatre are compactly filled, up to the head of the arches, with pozzolana and pumice transformed into tufa (which proves that the formation of this stone may take place in a comparatively short time).
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  • Tufa is also found in the lowest part of the city towards the sea in front of the few houses that have been discovered; and in the very high banks that surround them, as also in the lowest part of the theatre, there are plainly to be seen earth, sand, ashes, fragments 3 C.I.L.
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  • The site of the primitive city, which later became the citadel, is occupied by the modern town; it is situated at the end of a long plateau between two valleys, and protected by perpendicular tufa cliffs some 60 ft.
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  • Here it is defended by a fine wall of opus quadratum of tufa, in alternate courses of headers and stretchers.
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  • It took the place of an earlier one, of similar proportions but built of tufa or "poros" stone.
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  • They are well constructed of regular parallelograms of a sandy tufa, laid in headers and stretchers.
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  • The main part of the town and the bazaars are crowded alongside the stream, while suburbs with scattered houses among orchards and gardens extend up two tributary streams. The houses are massive and well built of a soft volcanic tufa, and with their courtyards and gardens climbing up the hillsides afford a striking picture.
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  • The town lay on a hill of tufa, running from N.E.
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  • The line of the city walls, of rectangular blocks of tufa, can be traced, and there seem to have been eight gates in the circuit, which was about 4 m.
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  • On the right bank they are of pliocene gravel, on the left of tufa; and on the latter, on a cliff above the river (the ancient Puilia saxa) stood Ficana (marked by the farmhouse of Dragoncello), which is said to have owed its origin to Ancus Martius.
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  • Outflows of lava and tufa cover the mountain sides and fill up the valleys.
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  • They include fantastic rock formations, karst cliffs and caves and terraces of calcareous tufa.
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  • There are those binding stones and consolidating the material with burnt lime and volcanic tufa.
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  • Yet it is in this stratum, and in this alone, that the catacombs are constructed; their engineers avoiding with equal care the solid stone of the tufa litoide and the friable pozzolana, and selecting the stratum of medium hardness, which enabled them to form the vertical walls of their galleries, and to excavate the loculi and cubicula without severe labour and also without fear of their falling in.
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  • To adapt the ground for its purpose as a cemetery, a gallery was run all round the area in the tufa rock at a convenient depth below the surface, reached by staircases at the corners.
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  • The site, surrounded by ravines and accessible only on the W., is naturally strong and characteristic of an Etruscan town; on this side there is a considerable fragment of the ancient Etruscan wall, built of rectangular blocks of tufa (whether the rest of the site was protected by walls is uncertain), and a ruined castle, erected by Antonio da Sangallo the elder in 1499, for Pope Alexander VI., and restored by Pope .Paul III.
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  • The tufa deposits which radiate from it extend as far as Rome; various small craters surround it, while the existence of warm springs in the district (especially those of Vicarello, probably the ancient Aquae Apollinares) may also be noted.
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  • Current tufa formation at Nash Brook appears to reflect the interaction of hydrological and biological controls.
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  • The adventurous can still spend a night in one of the cave dwellings hewn from the tufa rock.
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  • Water was sampled at the fall, where tufa deposition on twigs and leaves is evident.
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  • In Trench 4 the tufa deposits were 40m wide starting 18m from the north end of the trench.
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  • Trulli are small, picturesque rural houses (also built of tufa stone) some dating from the 15th century.
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  • She is traditionally supposed to have resided at the tufa waterfall still known as Janet 's Foss.
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