The city also contains numerous excellent educational establishments, although the state university is not here but at Tubingen, and its conservatorium of music has long been renowned.
From 1857 to 1861 he studied at Tubingen under F.
He then entered the ministry, became repetent at Tubingen, and for a short time held a pastorate at Heilbronn (1868).
He was afterwards appointed professor ordinarius of philosophy at Kiel (1873), and in 1878 he was elected to the philosophical chair at Tubingen.
He was then appointed to the ordinary chair of mathematics successively at Basel (1863), Tubingen (1865) and Leipzig (1868).
Albrecht Ritschl studied at Bonn, Halle, Heidelberg and Tubingen.
TUBINGEN, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Wurttemberg, picturesquely situated on the hilly and well-wooded banks of the Neckar, at its junction with the Ammer and Steinlach, 22 m.
Tubingen's chief claim to attention lies in its famous university, founded in 1477 by Duke Eberhard of Wurttemberg.
C. Baur, is known as the Tubingen school.
The country in the neighbourhood of Tubingen is very attractive; one of the most interesting points is the former Cistercian monastery of Bebenhausen, founded in 1185, and now a royal hunting-château.
Tubingen is mentioned as a strong fortress in 1078, and was ruled from 1148 by counts palatine.
The treaty of Tubingen is the name given in German history to an arrangement made in 1514 between Duke Ulrich and his subjects, by which the latter acquired various rights and privileges on condition of relieving the former of his debts.
See Eifert, Geschichte und Beschreibung der Stadt und Universitiit Tubingen (Tiibingen,1849); Maier, Die Musenstadt Tubingen (Tubingen, 1904); Tubingen und seine Umgebung (Tubingen, 1887-1889).
His Weltbuch, a supplement to his Chronica, was printed at Tubingen in 1534; the publication, in the same year, of his Paradoxa at Ulm brought him into trouble with the authorities.
In 1842 he received a call to Tubingen, retired in 1867, and died at Stuttgart on the 8th of August 1879.
Warnkonig, Flandrische Staatsand Rechtsgeschichte bis 1305 (3 vols., Tubingen, 1835-1842), and Gueldorf, Hist.
p. I120; P. Knapp, Ober Orpheusdarstellungen (Tubingen, 1895); F.
In 1852 he became lecturer in medicine at the university of Tubingen, where he published his great work Kraft and Stoi' (18J5).
The extreme materialism of this work excited so much opposition that he was compelled to give up his post at Tubingen.
True, the Tubingen criticism of F.
Roman Catholic apologetics - of necessity, Thomist - is well represented by Professor Schanz of Tubingen.
The peculiar service which was rendered at this juncture by the ` Cambridge School' was that, instead of opposing a mere dogmatic opposition to the Tubingen critics, they met them frankly on their own ground; and instead of arguing that their conclusions ought not to be and could not be true, they simply proved that their facts and their premisses were wrong.
von Schubert, Tubingen, 1902), i.
Paulus was educated in the seminary at Tubingen, was three years master in a German school, and then spent two years in travelling through England, Germany, Holland and France.
In 1868 he received the degree of doctor from the university of Tubingen in recognition of a treatise on the psychology of Dreams (Oneirokritikon.
After studying at Tubingen and Erlangen, he taught chemistry and physics, first at Keilhau, Thuringia, and then at Epsom, England, but most of his life was spent at Basel, where he undertook the duties of the chair of chemistry and physics in 1828 and was appointed full professor in 1835.
Finally, in 1876, he became professor of chemistry at Tubingen, where he died on the 11th of April 1895.
Fittig at Tubingen.
The chief attack came, however, from Baur (1845) and his colleagues of the Tubingen school.
With regard to the changed state of affairs in the Church, it must be said that this can be a conclusive argument only to one who holds the view of the Tubingen scholars, that the Apostolic Age was all of a piece and was dominated solely by one controversy.
Processes were devised by Guimet (1826) and by Christian Gmelin (1828), then professor of chemistry in Tubingen; but while Guimet kept his process a secret Gmelin published his, and thus became the originator of the "artificial ultramarine" industry.
After receiving his early education at the Caroline academy of Stuttgart, he entered the university of Tubingen, where he received the degree of doctor of medicine.
He practised for some time as a physician at Sulz, and then at Kirchheim, and in 1811 he was chosen extraordinary professor of philosophy and medicine at Tubingen.
Alfred Milner was educated first at Tubingen, then at King's College, London, and under Jowett as a scholar of Balliol College, Oxford, from 1872 to 1876.
At GÃ¶ttingen he remained, declining all further calls elsewhere, as to Erlangen, Kiel, Halle, Tubingen, Jena and Leipzig, until his death, which occurred on the 4th of February 1855.
His SOn, Christoph Von Sigwart (1830-1894), after a course of philosophy and theology, became professor at Blaubeuren (1859), and eventually at Tubingen, in 1865.
The canons are printed in C. Mirbt, Quellen zur Geschichte des Papsttums (Tubingen, 1901), p. 46 f.; Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, ed.
Lucius, Die Anfange des Heiligenkults (Tubingen, 1904); H.
Archeiologie (Tubingen, 1907), pp. 73 sqq.
An opponent of the Tubingen School, he published a number of important works, which are well known to students in Great Britain and America.
Inst., zu Tubingen (1884), i.
An opponent of the Tubingen school, his defence of the genuineness and authenticity of the gospel of St John is among the ablest that have been written; and although on some minor points his views did not altogether coincide with those of the traditional school, his critical labours on the New Testament must nevertheless be regarded as among the most important contributions to the maintenance of orthodox opinions.
(Tubingen, 1905); P. Carus, The Nestorian Monument (Chicago and London, 1909); E.
Early in 1838 Ewald received a call to Tubingen, and there for upwards of ten years he held a chair as professor ordinarius, first in philosophy and afterwards, from 1841, in theology.
C. Baur and the Tubingen school.
as far as Horb, thence in a north-easterly direction, and with rapid current it passes Rottenburg and the university town of Tubingen, taking then a generally northerly course.
He studied at Tubingen under F.
C. Baur was his teacher, he did not attach himself to the Tubingen school; in reply to the contention that there are traces of a sharp conflict between two parties, Paulinists and Petrinists, he says that "we find variety coupled with agreement, and unity with difference, between Paul and the earlier apostles; we recognize the one spirit in the many gifts."
(Tubingen, 1901), and in an English trans., with Introduction and occasional notes, by Dr C. Taylor (S.P.C.K., 2 vols., 1903 - 1906).
of Tubingen, on the railway to Ulm.
He came to know German philosophy and criticism, especially the criticism of Baur and the Tubingen school, which affected profoundly his construction of Christian history.
Hofand Staatsbibliothek Munchen and einer Anzahl anderer Bibliotheken Bayern gehalten werden (Munchen, 1909); Kiirschner, Jahrbuch der Presse (1902) Sperlings Zeitschriften Adressbuch (Stuttgart, 1910); Bibliographisches Repertorium, Berlin: Walzel-Houben, Zeitschriften der Romantik (1904); Houben, Zeitschriften des jungen Deutschlands (1906); Luck, Die deutsche Fachpresse (Tubingen, 1908).
Miller's works were published under the care of his brother at Tubingen, in 27 vols.
Schwegler (Der Montanismus and die christliche Kirche des 2ten Jahrhunderts, Tubingen, 1841).
1803, and at the close of his preliminary studies at the seminary of Blaubeuren entered the university of Tubingen in 1821 as a student of evangelical theology.
Returning to Wurttemberg in 1828, he first undertook the duties of repetent or theological tutor in Tubingen, and afterwards accepted a curacy in Stuttgart; but having in 1830 received an appointment in the royal public library at Stuttgart, he thenceforth gave himself exclusively to literature and historical science.
Alton (Tubingen, 1892); Aiquin, ed.
In 1703 Bengel left Stuttgart and entered the university of Tubingen, where, in his spare time, he devoted himself specially to the works of Aristotle and Spinoza, and in theology to those of Philipp Spener, Johann Arndt and August Franke.
In the following year he was recalled to Tubingen to undertake the office of Repetent or theological tutor.
In 1751 the university of Tubingen conferred upon him the degree of doctor of divinity.
Among his works are Johann Reuchlin, sein Leben and seine Werke (Leipzig, 1871); and Johann Reuchlin's Briefwechsel (Tubingen, 1875); Renaissance and Humanismus in Italien and Deutschland (1882, 2nd ed.
Schmid, Die alteste Geschichte des erlauchten Gesamthauses der koniglichen and furstlichen Hohenzollern (Tubingen, 1884-1888); E.
The Epistolae, which for the modern reader greatly exceed his other works in interest, have been edited by Demetriades (Vienna, 1792) and by Glukus (Venice, 1812), the Calvitii encomium by Krabinger (Stuttgart, 1834), the De providentia by Krabinger (Sulzbach, 1835), the De regno by Krabinger (Munich, 1825), and the Hymns by Flach (Tubingen, 1875).
(Tubingen, 1901); H.
After studying at Tubingen and Leipzig and travelling in Egypt and Syria, he entered the ministry of the Free Church of Scotland and was appointed professor of Old Testament subjects in the Free Church College at Glasgow 1892.
He studied at Heidelberg and Tubingen, and in 1820 delivered exegetical and historical lectures at Heidelberg.
Lohmeyer, Geschichte von Ostand Westpreussen (part i., 3rd ed., Gotha, 1908); Vallentin, Westpreussen seit den ersten Jahrzehnten dieses Jahrhunderts (Tubingen, 1893); Ambrassat, Westpreussen, ein Handbuch der Heimatkunde (Danzig, 1906).
Declining calls to Breslau, Tubingen, and thrice to Bonn, Hug continued at Freiburg for upwards of thirty years, taking an occasional literary tour to Munich, Paris or Italy.
Maine, "Minute on the Kathiawar States" (1864; printed in Life and Speeches, p. 320) and Early History of Institutions (1875); P. Laband, Staatsrecht des deutschen Reiches (Freiburgim-Breisgau and Tubingen, 1876); R.
von Mohl, Encyclopcidie der Staatswissenschaften (2nd ed., Tubingen, 1872); O.
Das Papsttum in seiner sozial-kulturellen Wirksamkeitt (2 vols., 3rd ed., Leipzig, 1901-1902); C. Mirbt, Quellen zur Geschichte des Papsttums and' des riimischen Katholizismus (2nd ed., Tubingen, 1901); L.
Hennecke (Tubingen, 1904).
He belonged to the Tubingen school.
On the whole, however, he modified the positions of the founder of the Tubingen school, going beyond him only in his investigations into the Fourth Gospel.
JOHANN ADAM MOHLER (1796-1838), German theologian, was born at Igersheim in Wurttemberg on the 6th of May 1796, and after studying philosophy and theology in the lyceum at Eliwangen, entered the university of Tubingen in 1817.
Ordained to the priesthood in 1819, he was appointed to a curacy at Riedlingen, but speedily returned as "repetent" to Tubingen, where he became privatdozent in 1822, extraordinary professor of theology in 1826 and ordinary professor in 1828.
Mohler wrote Die Einheit in der Kirche oder das Prinzip des Katholicismus (Tubingen, 1825); Athanasius der Grosse u.
He was a disciple of the Tubingen school and a strong Protestant.
From 1659 to 1662 he visited the universities of Basel, Tubingen and Geneva, and commenced the study of heraldry, which he pursued throughout his life.
Camerarius, professor of botany and medicine at Tubingen, published a letter on the sexes of plants, in which he refers to the stamens and pistils as the organs of reproduction, and states the difficulties he had encountered in determining the organs of Cryptogamic plants.
He was twice married, and his eldest son, Johann Brenz, was appointed (1562) professor of theology in Tubingen at the early age of twenty-two.
A new era was opened by the publication in 1857 of the second edition of Ritschl's Entstehung der altkatholischen Kirche, in which he broke away from the Tubingen school and introduced new points of view that have revolutionized the interpretation of the early church.
He entered the university of Tubingen in 1836, and was one of the earliest pupils of F.
In 1843 he founded the Jahrbilcher der Gegenwart, and became Privatdozent of philosophy and classical philology in Tubingen university.
It was this book which first put before the world, with Schwegler's characteristic boldness and clearness, the results of the critical labours of the earlier representatives of the new Tubingen school in relation to the first development of Christianity.
In the end, the greater proportion adopted the Book of Concord (1577), drafted chiefly by Jacob Andreae of Tubingen, Martin Chemnitz of Brunswick and Nicolas Selnecker of Leipzig.
deutschen evangelischen Landeskirchen (Tubingen, 1902); Erich Forster, Die Enstehung der preussischen Landeskirchen unter der Regierung Konig Friedrich Wilhelms III., i.
(Tubingen, 1905); Emil Sehling, Geschichte der protestantischen Kirchenverfassung (Leipzig, 1907); articles in Herzog's Realencyklopadie fiir protest.
Bengel, abbot of Alpirspach (a Lutheran community), published in 1734, at Tubingen, an edition of the New Testament which marks the beginning of a new era.
Hug, Roman Catholic professor of theology at Freiburg, published (Stuttgart and Tubingen) his Einleitung in die Schriften des N.
Herein lies the permanent importance of the work of Ferdinand Christian Baur, professor of theology at Tubingen from 1826 to 1860.
The Tubingen school founded by Baur dominated the theological criticism of the New Testament during a great part of the 19th century and it still finds some support.
Schweitzer, Von Reimarus zu Wrede (Tubingen, 1906).
After studying at Tubingen and Berlin, he became Privatdozent at Tubingen in 1847 and eventually (1861) professor of ecclesiastical and dogmatic history.
More recent editions are by Obbarius (Tubingen, 1845) and A.
Entwicklung (Tubingen, 1835); E.
Kugler, Analekten zur Geschichte des zweiten Kreuzzugs (Tubingen, 1878, 1883).
educated at the cloister school of Bebenhausen, near Tubingen, where his father, an able Orientalist, was chaplain and professor, and at the theological seminary at TÃ¼bingen, which he was specially allowed to enter when he was three years under the prescribed age.
The individual works appeared as follows: - Ober die Moglichkeit einer Form der Philosophie iiberhaupt (Tubingen, 1 794); Ideen zu einer Philosophie der Natur (Leipzig, 1797, ed.
1799); System des transcendentalen Idealismus (Tubingen, 1800); Bruno, oder fiber das gottliche and natiirliche Prinzip der Dinge (Berlin, 1802, ed.
18 43); Vorlesungen fiber die Methode des akademischen Studiums (Tubingen, 1803, ed.
von Kugler, Bohemund and Tancred (Tubingen, 1862); while L.
A brilliant examination for the degree of bachelor procured him, in 1588, admittance on the foundation to the university of Tubingen, where he laid up a copious store of classical erudition, and imbibed Copernican principles from the private instructions of his teacher and life-long friend, Michael Maestlin.
As yet, however, he had little knowledge of, and less inclination for, astronomy; and it was with extreme reluctance that he turned aside from the more promising career of the ministry to accept, early in 1594, the vacant chair of that science at Gratz, placed at the disposal of the Tubingen professors by the Lutheran states of Styria.
He notes with exultation the 9th of July 1595, as the date of the pseudodiscovery, the publication of which in Prodromus Dissertationum Cosmographicarum seu Mysterium Cosmographicum (Tubingen, 1596) procured him much fame, and a friendly correspondence with the two most eminent astronomers of the time, Tycho Brahe and Galileo.
His refusal to subscribe unconditionally to the rigid formula of belief adopted by the theologians of Tubingen permanently closed against him the gates of his alma mater.
The son of John Watson, a civil servant, he was born at Manningtree, Essex, on the 3rd of November 1850, and was educated at Stirling and at Edinburgh University, afterwards studying theology at New College, Edinburgh, and at Tubingen.
fiir Kirchenrecht (Tubingen, 1904).
After studying at Ingolstadt, Vienna and Tubingen he entered the service of the emperor Frederick III.
He studied medicine at Tubingen, Heidelberg and Berlin, and in 1857 began to lecture at Heidelberg.
P. Fallmerayer, Fragmenta aus dem Orient (Stuttgart and Tubingen, 1845); V.
- In the middle of the 1 9th century an able school of critics, known as the Tubingen school, sought to show from indications in the several Gospels that they were composed well on in the 2nd century in the interests of various strongly marked parties into which the Church was supposed to have been divided by differences in regard to the Judaic and Pauline forms of Christianity.
Carefully indexed source materials in the original languages are given by C. Mirbt, Quellen zur Geschichte des Papsttums und des riimischen Katholizismus (2nd enlarged ed., Tubingen, 1901); many fragments in translation under " Papacy " in History for Ready Reference, ed.
Returning to theology, he attempted to connect it with philosophy in a treatise, Dilucidationes philosophicae, de deo, anima humana, mundo (Tubingen, 1725, 1746, 1768).
This work, containing nothing original, but giving a clear representation of Wolff's philosophy, met with great success, and the author was appointed to the office of preacher at the castle of Tubingen and of reader in the school of theology.
His friends at Tubingen disapproved his new views, and in 1725, on Wolff's recommendation, he was invited by Peter the Great to lecture in St Petersburg, where he was well received.
Beside the Dilucidationes, he wrote: - De harmonia animi et corporis humani commentatio (Frankfort and Leipzig, 1735; Tubingen, 1741); De origine et permissione mall (1724), an account of the Leibnitzian theodicy.
He began his Oriental studies under Tychsen at the university of Rostock, and afterwards prosecuted them at GÃ¶ttingen and Tubingen.
There is an excellent study of both books and author by Linsenmann, Michael Baius, and die Grundlegung des Jansenismus, published at Tubingen in 1867.
He read theology at Tubingen and medicine at Basel, where he lectured on physical science.
He published Grundriss der ersten Logik (Stuttgart, 1800); Ober die Gesetze der Ideenassociation (Tubingen, 1796); Briefe fiber den Ursprung der Metaphysik (Altona, 1798); Philos.
Baal (Tubingen, 1906), the literature to Kings, BooKs OF, and the histories referred to in JEws.
As regards theology, Bonn, Breslau and Tubingen have both a Protestant and a Catholic faculty; Freiburg, Munich, Munster and Wurzburg are exclusively Catholic; and all the rest are Protestant.
The most celebrated public libraries are those of Berlin (i,ooo,ooo volumes and 30,000 MSS.); Munich (1,000,000 volumes, 40,000 MSS.); Heidelberg (563,000 volumes, 8ooo MSS.); GÃ¶ttingen (503,000 volumes, 6000 MSS.); Strassburg (760,000 volumes); Dresden (500,000 volumes, 6000 MSS.); Hamburg (municipal library, 600,000 volumes, 5000 MSS.); Stuttgart (400,000 volumes, 3500 MSS.); Leipzig (universitylibrary, 500,000 volurries, 5000 MSS.); Wurzburg (350,000 volumes); TUbingen (340,000 volumes); Rostock (318,000 volumes); Breslau (university library, 300,000 volumes, 7000 MSS.); Freiburg-im-Breisgau (250,000 volumes); Bonn (265,000 volumes); and Konigsberg (230,000 volumes, I ioo MSS.).
The present article deals mainly with the third group, to which the title "Clementine literature" is usually confined, owing to the stress laid upon it in the famous Tubingen reconstruction of primitive Christianity, in which it played a leading part; but later criticism has lowered its importance as its true date and historical relations have been progressively ascertained.
He studied theology and oriental languages in the university of his native town, and in 1850 was appointed professor ordinarius of theology at Erlangen, where the school of theologians became almost as famous as that of Tubingen.
Kunsterkldrung (Stuttgart and Tubingen, 1828); and Griech.
Tirard (London, 1894), (the original Agypten und agyptisches Leben in, Altertum, 2 vols., was published in 1885 at Tubingen); G.
Chantepie de la Saussaye, Lehrbuch der Retigionsgeschichte (Tubingen, 1905), vol.
(Stuttgart, and Tubingen, 1840); Fiedler, Reise durch alle The'le des Konigreiches Griechenland, ii.
KARL JOSEF VON HEFELE (1809-1893), German theologian, was born at Unterkochen in Wurttemberg on the 15th of March 1809, and was educated at Tubingen, where in 1839 he became professor-ordinary of Church history and patristics in the Roman Catholic faculty of theology.
Holsten was an adherent of the Tubingen school, and held to Baur's views on the alleged antagonism between Petrinism and Paulinism.
This step helped his studies, for he was sent to Tubingen in 1496 and became a favourite pupil of the guardian of the Minorite convent there, Paulus Scriptoris, a man of considerable general learning.
At Tubingen the future "apostate in three languages" was able to begin the study of Hebrew.
(Tubingen, 1871); J.
Kiistlin, Hegel in philosophischer, politischer and nationaler Beziehung (Tubingen, 1870); Rosenkranz, Hegel als deutscher National-Philosoph (Berlin, 1870), and his Neue Studien, vol.
This was followed by Der Mensch and die elementarische Natur (Stuttgart and Tubingen, 1845), in three parts (Beitri ge) : (1) an historical and philosophical dissertation on the relations of mankind and the "soul of nature," largely influenced by Schelling, (2) a dissertation on the juridical side of the question, De fragmento Vegoiae, being the thesis presented for his degree, (3) a lyrical drama, Erlinde.
The fruit of his long years of illness was a slender volume of lyrics, Gedichte (Stuttgart and Tubingen, 1851), good in form, but seldom inspired, and showing occasionally the influence of a morbid sensuality.
(Tubingen, 1908), p. 19 seq.
Heiligenkultus, &c. (Tubingen, 5904); P. Saintyves, Saints successeurs des dieux (Paris, 1907).
He was educated at Frankfort-on-theMain, and at the universities of Tubingen, Leipzig and Halle, where he became one of J.
BAUR, FERDINAND CHRISTIAN (1792-1860), leader of the Tubingen school of theology, was born at Schmiden, near Canstatt, on the 21st of June 1792.
After receiving an early training in the theological seminary at Blaubeuren, he went in 1809 to the university of Tubingen.
Here he studied for a time under Ernst Bengel, grandson of the eminent New Testament critic, Johann Albrecht Bengel, and at this early stage in his career he seems to have been under the influence of the old Tubingen school.
The learning of the work was fully recognized, and in 1826 the author was called to Tubingen as professor of theology.
It is with Tubingen that his greatest literary achievements are associated.
Mackay, The Tubingen School and its Antecedents (1863); A.
the article on "The Tubingen Historical School," in Bibliotheca Sacra, vol.
EDUARD ZELLER (1814-1908), German philosopher, was born at Kleinbottwar in Wurttemberg on the 22nd of January 1814, and educated at the university of Tubingen and under the influence of Hegel.
In 1840 he was Privatdozent of theology at Tubingen, in 1847 professor of theology at Bern, in 1849 professor of theology at Marburg, migrating soon afterwards to the faculty of philosophy as the result of disputes with the Clerical party.
Weizsacker, Der rheinische Bund (Tubingen, 1879).
im 14ten and 'glen Jahrhundert, i., Tubingen, 1886; Die Entstehung der Volkswirtschaft, 5th ed., Tubingen, 1906), and, in a modified form, W.
C. Baur and the Tubingen school, with its theory of sharp antitheses between Judaic and Gentile Christianity, of which they took the original apostles and Paul respectively as typical.
Hence the Tubingen school did its chief work in putting the needful question, not in returning the correct answer.
Still the attitude created by the Tubingen theory largely persists as a biassing element in much that is written about Acts.
For among the results of the Tubingen criticism was what Dr W.
Of the reasons for a date in one of the earlier decades of the 2nd century, as argued by the Tubingen school and its heirs, several are now untenable.
In 1856 he became a Privat-docent, and in 1858 extraordinary professor at Leipzig; in 1861 professor of philology and archaeology at Tubingen; in 1864 professor of classical antiquities at Zurich; in 1869 at Jena, where he was also director of the archaeological museum; in 1874 at Munich, where he remained until his death on the 21st of September 1883.
Not in Cologne or Tubingen but in Padua and Florence did the German pioneers of the Renaissance acquire their sense of liberal studies.
Returning to Germany in 1855 he was professor of history successively at the universities of Rostock, Tubingen (which he left in 1866 because of his political views), Marburg and Gottingen.
His first work, Konig Aelfred and seine Stellung in der Geschichte Englands (Berlin, 1851), was followed by monographs on Bischof Grosseteste and Adam von Marsh (Tubingen, 1864), and on Simon von Montfort (Tubingen, 1867).
Tubingen School in Germany.
-C. Rosier, De commentitiis philosophiae Ammoniaceae fraudibus et noxis (Tubingen, 1786); L.
After studying philology, philosophy and theology at Helmstadt, Jena, Giessen, Tubingen and Heidelberg, he travelled through Holland, France and England, where he became acquainted with the leading Reformers.
Wille, Philipp der Grossmuthige von Hessen and die Restitution Ulrichs von Wurttemberg (Tubingen, 1882); W.
The boy's education was undertaken by his uncle Martin Maier, parish priest at Rothenburg on the Neckar, who sent him at the age of twelve to the university of Heidelberg, and subsequently to those of Tubingen, Cologne and Freiburg in the Breisgau.
Subsequently he was ordinary professor of philosophy at Tubingen, and in 1873 professor of theology at Giessen.
He did not appreciate as sufficiently as David Strauss and the Tubingen critics the difficulties which a natural theory has to surmount, nor did he support his conclusions by such elaborate discussions as they deemed necessary.
Mackay, The Tubingen School and its Antecedents (1863), pp. 103 ff.; Otto Pfleiderer, Development of Theology (1890), p. 209; T.
He was educated at the gymnasium of Stuttgart, and at the universities of Tubingen, Halle and Berlin, where he was successively influenced by Baur and Schmid, by Tholuck and Julius Muller, by Strauss and, above all, Neander.
He contributed little to the solution of the problem, but forced the investigation of the canon alike on theologians and the reading public. Again, he sketched a view of early church history, further worked out by Johann Salomo Semler (1725-1791), and surprisingly like that which was later elaborated by the Tubingen school.
In 1825 Strauss passed from school to the university of Tubingen.
In 1832 he returned to Tubingen and became repetent in the university, lecturing on logic, history of philosophy, Plato, and history of ethics, with great success.
But as Schmiedel champions the Tubingen view in the Encyclopaedia Biblica, it cannot be overlooked.
It is necessary to treat them separately in connexion with the Tubingen view, which represents Paul as the original Simon.
It would be superfluous to criticize the Tubingen view under a form in which it has already been abandoned.
When the Tubingen School turn their attention to the Apocryphal Acts and Martyrdoms, the image of Paul still obsesses their mental gaze.
In conclusion, there are of course some grounds for the Tubingen view, but they are wholly inadequate to bear the structure that has been raised upon them.
Special literature on Unam Sanctam: C. Mirbt, Quellen zur Geschichte des Papsttums (2nd ed., Tubingen, 1901), 148 f.; Kirchenlexikon, xii.
Sartori, Tubingen, 1812) are spurious; see Bohm, Die Sammlung der hinterlassenen politischen Schriften des Prinzen Eugens (Freiburg, 1900).
On Toland's relation to the subsequent Tubingen school, as presented in his Nazarenus, see D.
Muller, Der Kampf Ludwigs des Bayern mit der Curie (Tubingen, 1879 seq.); W.
92; Aristotle, Politics, 1310 b, 1315 b; P. Knapp, Die Kypseliden and die Kypseloslade (Tubingen, 1888); L.
Lietzmann, Apollinaris von Laodicea and seine Schule (Tubingen, 1905).
1 During a stay in Tubingen he read Grossgebauer's Alarm Cry, and in 1666 he entered upon his first pastoral charge at Frankfort-on-the-Main, profoundly impressed with a sense of the danger of the Christian life being sacrificed to zeal for rigid orthodoxy.
von Bergmann, Zur Geschichte der Entwickelung deutscher, polnischer and jiidischer Bevolkerung in der Provinz Posen seit 1824 (Tubingen, 1883); E.
After studying theology at Leipzig, GÃ¶ttingen and Tubingen, he became in 1885 professor ordinarius of systematic theology at Heidelberg, and in 1893 was called to Jena.
He was the first professor of theology at the newly founded (1477) university of Tubingen, of which he was twice rector.
See Linsenmann, in Theologischen Quartalschrift (Tubingen, 1865); Stockl, Phil.
He studied at Tubingen, where he became doctor of philosophy in 1840 and Privatdozent in 1848.
In the meantime he left Tubingen for Ulm, whence he came finally to the seminary of Maulbronn.
See Umf rid, Karl Planck, dessen Werke and Wirken (Tubingen, 1881); and Schmidt, "Das Lebensideal Karl Christian Plancks," in the Vortrdge der philosophischen Gesellschaft (Berlin, 1896).
The Lutherans held that the Incarnate One possessed all divine attributes, but either willed to suspend their use - this is the Kenosis doctrine of the Lutheran school of Tubingen in the 17th century - or concealed their working; the latter was the doctrine of the Giessen school.
After holding chairs at Kiel (1866), Konigsberg (1873), and Jena (1876), he was finally appointed professor of history at Tubingen, where he died on the 2nd of March 1887.
Innis (Alexander the Great to the fall of the Arsacidae) (Tubingen, 1887).
Gdppingen, Gmund, Tubingen, Tuttlingen and Ravensburg.
The upper chamber (Standesherren) is composed of adult princes of the blood, heads of noble families from the rank of count (Graf) upwards, representatives of territories (Standesherrschaften), which possessed votes in the old German imperial diet or in the local diet; it has also members (not more than 6) nominated by the king, 8 members of knightly rank, 6 ecclesiastical dignitaries, a representative of the university of Tubingen, and of the technical high school of Stuttgart, 2 representatives of commerce and industry, 2 of agriculture, and i of handicrafts.
The higher branches of learning are provided in the university of Tubingen, in the technical high school (with academic rank) of Stuttgart, the veterinary high school at Stuttgart, the commercial college at Stuttgart, and the agricultural college of Hohenheim.
- See Wiirttembergische Jahrbiicher fiir Statistik and Landeskunde; Das Konigreich Wurttemberg, eine Beschreibung nach Kreisen, Oberdmtern and Gemeinden (Stuttgart, 1904); Statistisches Handbuch fur das Konigreich Wurttemberg (Stuttgart, 1885 fol.); Das Konigreich Wurttemberg, eine Beschreibung von Land, Volk and Staat (1893); the Jahresberichte der Handelsand Gewerbekammern in Wurttemberg; Lang, Die Entwickelung der Bevolkerung Wurttembergs im Laufe des .r9ten Jahrhunderts (Tubingen, 1903); Engel and Schulze, Geognosticher Wegweiser durch Wurttemberg (Stuttgart, 1908); Goz, Staatsrecht des Konigreichs Wurttemberg (Tubingen, 1908); and F.
The extortions by which he sought to raise money for his extravagant pleasures excited a rising known as that of the arme Konrad (poor Conrad), not unlike the rebellion in England led by Wat Tyler; order was soon restored, and in 1514 by the treaty of Tubingen the people undertook to pay the duke's debts in return for various political privileges, which in effect laid the foundation of the constitutional liberties of the country.
They were first printed in two forms in 1810 - a German translation down to the year 1733 from the firm of Cotta of Tubingen; and in French published by Vieweg of Brunswick, and coming down to 1742.
In 1870 he obtained the chair at Tubingen, and in 1876 that at Strassburg, where the laboratories were erected from his designs.
Baaders (Tubingen, 1901); Kuno Fischer, Zur hundertjahrigen Geburtstagfeier Baaders (Erlangen, 1865).
For a time Coverdale lived at Tubingen, where he was created D.D.
In 1867 he refused a professorship at Tubingen, and in 1872 another (that left vacant by Ranke) at Berlin, remaining faithful to Basel.
He had not, however, met with any notable success when he died at Tubingen on the 12th of September 1691.
GUSTAV FRIEDRICH OEHLER (1812-1872), German theologian, was born on the 10th of June 1812 at Ebingen, Wurttemberg, and was educated privately and at Tubingen where he was much influenced by J.
In 1837, after a term of Oriental study at Berlin, he went to Tubingen as Repetent, becoming in 1840 professor at the seminary and pastor in Schdnthal.
In 1852 he returned to Tubingen as director of the seminary and professor of Old Testament Theology at the university.
He declined a call to Erlangen as successor to Franz Delitzsch (1867), and died at Tubingen on the 19th of February 1872.
LOUIS AUGUSTE SABATIER (1839-1901), French Protestant theologian, was born at Vallon (Ardeche), in the Cevennes, on the 22nd of October 1839, and was educated at the Protestant theological faculty of Montauban and the universities of Tubingen and Heidelberg.
Test.; and though his own views were liberal, he opposed the results of the Tubingen school.
HERMANN SODEN, FREIHERR VON (1852-), German biblical scholar, was born in Cincinnati on the 16th of August 1852, and was educated at the university of Tubingen.
But it is scarcely the work of a great scholar: Renan's debt to the school of Tubingen has been exaggerated, in so far as regards the Life of Jesus.
Reincke in Der alte Reichstag and der neue Bundesrat (Tubingen, 1906) points out a marked resemblance between the medieval archchancellor and the German imperial chancellor of the present day.
In 1534 Duke Ulrich called him to Wurttemberg in aid of the reformation there, as well as for the reconstitution of the university of Tubingen, which he carried out in concert with Ambrosius Blarer of Constanz.
In 1845 he was entirely captivated by the Tubingen school, and in his work Das Evangelium Marcions and das kanonische Evangelium des Lukas, published in 1846, he appears as a disciple of F.
The country in the neighbourhood of Tubingen is very attractive; one of the most interesting points is the former Cistercian monastery of Bebenhausen, founded in 1185, and now a royal hunting-chÃ¢teau.
Quite apart from the difficulties created by the Tubingen theory, legitimate difficulties were found in the style of the letter, in the speculation of the errorists, and in the theology of the author.
Besides these three chief eye-witnesses we may also mention the Annales Genuenses by the Genoese consul Caffarus,' and the Annales Pisani of Bernardus Marago, useful as giving the mercantile and Italian side of the Crusade; the Hierosolymita of Ekkehard, the German abbot of Aura, who first came to Jerusalem about 1101 (partly based on the Gesta, but also of independent value: see Hagenmeyer's edition, Tubingen, 1877); and Raoul of Caen's Gesta Tancredi, composed on the basis of information supplied by Tancred himself.
Nurnberger in Theologische Quartalschrift, Tubingen, vol.
His paternal grandfather, an Englishman, settled in Germany and married a German lady; and their son, Charles Milner, practised as a physician in London and became later Reader in English at Tubingen University.
At GÃƒ¶ttingen he remained, declining all further calls elsewhere, as to Erlangen, Kiel, Halle, Tubingen, Jena and Leipzig, until his death, which occurred on the 4th of February 1855.
He became professor of philosophy at Tubingen, and wrote numerous books on the history of philosophy: - fiber den Zusammenhang des Spinozismus mit der Cartesianischen Philosophie (1816); Handbuch zu Vorlesungen fiber die Logik (1818, 3rd ed., 1835); Der Spinozismus (1839); and Geschichte der Philosophic (1844).
(A.) His edition of the Greek Testament was published at Tubingen in 1734, and at Stuttgart in the same year, but without the critical apparatus.
An incomplete edition of his works (largely expository) appeared at Tubingen, 1576-1590.
JULIUS ROBERT MAYER (1814-1878), German physicist, was born at Heilbronn on the 25th of November 1814, studied medicine at Tubingen, Munich and Paris, and after a journey to Java in 1840 as surgeon of a Dutch vessel obtained a medical post in his native town.
A large number of Rittera ristocratic schools (Ritt e r-Akademien) w ere founded,, beginning with the Collegium Illustre of Tubingen (1589) and ending with the Hohe Karlschule of Stuttgart (1775).
educated at the cloister school of Bebenhausen, near Tubingen, where his father, an able Orientalist, was chaplain and professor, and at the theological seminary at TÃƒ¼bingen, which he was specially allowed to enter when he was three years under the prescribed age.
He began his Oriental studies under Tychsen at the university of Rostock, and afterwards prosecuted them at GÃƒ¶ttingen and Tubingen.
The most celebrated public libraries are those of Berlin (i,ooo,ooo volumes and 30,000 MSS.); Munich (1,000,000 volumes, 40,000 MSS.); Heidelberg (563,000 volumes, 8ooo MSS.); GÃƒ¶ttingen (503,000 volumes, 6000 MSS.); Strassburg (760,000 volumes); Dresden (500,000 volumes, 6000 MSS.); Hamburg (municipal library, 600,000 volumes, 5000 MSS.); Stuttgart (400,000 volumes, 3500 MSS.); Leipzig (universitylibrary, 500,000 volurries, 5000 MSS.); Wurzburg (350,000 volumes); TUbingen (340,000 volumes); Rostock (318,000 volumes); Breslau (university library, 300,000 volumes, 7000 MSS.); Freiburg-im-Breisgau (250,000 volumes); Bonn (265,000 volumes); and Konigsberg (230,000 volumes, I ioo MSS.).
At Tubingen he lived as student and teacher for six years, until on Reuchlin's advice, the elector of Saxony called him to Wittenberg as professor of Greek in 1518.1 Her character is evidenced by the familiar proverb Wer mehr will verzehren Denn sein Pflug kann erehren, Der muss zuletzt verderben Und vielleicht am Galgen sterben of which Melanchthon said to his students "Didici hoc a mea matre, vos etiam observate."
The reader who is not familiar with the eccentricities of the Tubingen school will doubtless be surprised to learn that the Paul who thus quietly slips in at the close of the drama was himself all along the disguised villain of the plot, the very Simon Magus whom he comes to assist Peter in destroying (see below).
" We must let the Tubingen School have this passage for what it is worth, only remarking that it was not on the ground of circumcision that Paul persecuted the Church, and that it is impossible to extract history out of these fictions.
After studying theology at Leipzig, GÃƒ¶ttingen and Tubingen, he became in 1885 professor ordinarius of systematic theology at Heidelberg, and in 1893 was called to Jena.
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