In the main it is a broad trough, wider towards the north than towards the south, and unsymmetrical, Hudson Bay occupying much of its north-eastern part, while to the west broad plains rise gradually to the foot-hills of the Rocky Mountains, the eastern member of the Cordillera which follows the Pacific coast of America.
In the north, the Strait of Juan de Fuca and the intricately branching waterways of Puget Sound between the Cascade and the Olympic ranges occupy trough-like depressions which were filled by extensive glaciers in Pleistocene times; and thus mark the beginning of the great stretch of forded coast which extends northward to Alaska.
The Red Sea itself is a great trough bounded by faults along each side.] Climate.
The West Atlantic Trough lying on the western side of the Central Rise widens in the north into the North American Basin, and its, greatest depths appears to be in the Porto Rico Trench, where in 1882 Capt.
Iron ships' plates have recently been coated with copper in sections (to prevent the adhesion of barnacles), by building up a temporary trough against the side of the ship, making the thoroughly cleansed plate act both as cathode and as one side of the trough.
It occupies the lower portion of the trough between the Adirondacks and the Green Mountains.
The Daniell type consists of a teak trough divided into five cells by slate partitions coated with marine glue.
But next morning I went to the trough, and lo, he had disappeared!
Alex had broken the ice off the top of the water trough by the time she got there and every stall was filled with fresh hay.
The chain dips below the water, then rises into the furnace and passes down into the other trough on its way out.
The micrometer by Trough ton, fitted to their 5 ft.
Water trickles continuously into the trough, and the centrifugal action holds it as an inside lining against the rim, where it slowly evaporates.
In Mexico and South America, instead of the pan, a wooden dish or trough, known as " batea," is used.
The trough flooring, a in.
In the eastern trough the Peake Deep lies off the Bay of Biscay in 20° W.
H', Prolonged siphonal notch of the shell occupied by the siphon, or trough-like process of the mantle-skirt.
Moore that the sandstone ridges which here bound the trough have been recently elevated, and have been cut through by the Lukuga during the process.
The Atlantic anticyclone is, therefore, at its weakest in winter, and on its polar side the polar eddy becomes a trough of low pressure, extending roughly from Labrador to Iceland and Jan Mayen, and traversed by a constant succession of cyclones.
It runs a remarkably straight course westward through a narrow trough from Daolatyar to Obeh, amidst the bleak wind-swept uplands of the highest central elevations in Afghanistan.
To the piston P. The newly coated wire is passed through a long trough T, containing cold water, until it is sufficiently cold to allow it to be safely wound on a bobbin B' This operation completed, the wire is wound from the bobbin B' on to another, and at the same time carefully examined for air-holes or other flaws, all of which are eliminated.
Taking the Atlantic as our simplest type, we may say that the surface of an ocean basin resembles that of a mighty trough or syncline, buckled up more or less centrally in a medial ridge, which is bounded by two long and deep marginal hollows, in the cores of which still deeper grooves sink to the profoundest depths.
The broad Pacific depression seems to answer to the broad elevation of the Old World - the narrow trough of the Atlantic to the narrow continent of America."
Here it is joined by the Sharian Su from the west, and the two valleys form, a great trough through which the caravan road from Erzerum to Persia runs.
Liquation, if not followed by poling, is carried on as a rule in a reverberatory furnace with an oblong, slightly trough-shaped inclined hearth; if the lead is to be poled it is usually melted down in a cast-iron kettle.
Thus although the rocks of the southern coast of Java in their general character and succession resemble those of Christmas Island, there lies between them an abysmal trough 18,000 ft.
Northwards from the Hindu Kush (it is across this range that the route from Zebak to Ishkashim lies), which determines the great bend of the Oxus river northwards from Ishkashim, and narrows the valley of that river into the formation of a trough as far as the next bend westwards at Kala Wamar.
A little above Brandeis it picks up the Iser, which, like itself, comes down from the Riesengebirge, and at Melnik it has its stream more than doubled in volume by the Moldau, a river which winds northwards through the heart of Bohemia in a sinuous, trough-like channel carved through the plateaux.
Deep down in the trough of the Chitral river, about midway between its source and its junction with the Kabul at Jalalabad, is.
In certain parts of the plateau there are narrow anticlinal uplifts, an outlying effect of mountain-making compression; here a ridge rises if the exposed strata are resistant, as in Chestnut ridge of western Pennsylvania; but here a valley is excavated if the exposed strata are weak, as in Sequatchie Valley, a long narrow trough which cuts off a strip of the plateau from its greater body in Tennessee.
The western trough extends northwards into Davis Strait, forming a depression in the Telegraph plateau; to the south of Newfoundland and Nova Scotia are Sigsbee Deep, Libbey Deep and Suhm Deep, each of small area; north-east of the Bahamas Nares Deep forms the largest and deepest depression in the Atlantic, in which a sounding of 4561 fathoms was obtained (70 m.
The greater part of this trough is over 600 fathoms deep. The profusion of islands and their usually bold elevation give beauty and picturesqueness to the sea, but its navigation is difficult and dangerous, notwithstanding the large number of safe and commodious gulfs and bays.
In diameter, which lift the water to a trough at the top of the dam, whence it is distributed among the gardens and melon patches, rice, cotton, tobacco, liquorice and durra fields, between the immediate bed of the river and the rocky banks which shut it out from the desert.
As the Hindu Kush strikes westwards, after first rounding the head of an Oxus tributary (the Ab-i-Panja, which Curzon considers to be the true source of the Oxus), it closely overlooks the trough of that glacier-fed stream under its northern spurs, its crest at the nearest point being separated from the river by a distance which cannot much exceed io m.
The vacuum pan is erected at a height which commands the crystallizers, each of which will, as in days gone by in Cuba, hold the contents of the pan, and these in their turn are set high enough to allow the charge to fall into the feeding-trough of the centrifugals, thus obviating the necessity of any labour to remove the raw sugar from the time it leaves the vacuum pan to the time it falls into the centrifugals.
Talon shoved her back into the valley with a snarled threat under his breath, and she hurried out of the trough again, breathing hard by the time she'd clambered twenty feet to the top.
Carmen left Alex with the doe and ducked into the dairy, returning with a scoop of alfalfa pellets she distributed in the long narrow feed trough along the wall.
Above the sea, and has a length of 180 m., is remarkable for its long course between the outer and central ranges of the Andes, in a trough known as the " Callejon de Huaylas," 100 m.
A rectangular trough of boards, whose dimensions depend chiefly on the size of the planks available, is set up on the higher part of the ground at one side of the claim to be worked, upon trestles or piers of rough stone-work, at such an inclination that the stream may carry off all but the largest stones, which are kept back by a grating of boards about 2 in.
Above the sea, and occupies the southern end of the great central rift-valley, which terminates suddenly at its southern point, the line of depression being represented farther south by the more easterly trough of Lakes Nyasa and Rukwa, from which Tanganyika is separated by the Fipa plateau, composed of old granitoid rocks; though even here traces of old valley-walls are said by Dr Kohlschiitter to exist.
The depression is distinguished according to form and slope as (r) a basin when of a roughly round outline, (2) a trough when wide and elongated, or (3) a trench when narrow and elongated lying along the edge of a continent.
The Cape Trough runs northward from this basin.
At each end of the furnace is a trough of water which covers the furnace mouth, so that air is prevented from entering the furnace.
In this central region, however, it is only by way of exception that the cirques were so far enlarged by retrogressive glacial erosion as to sharpen the preglacial dome-like summits into acute peaks; and in no case did glacial action here extend down to the plains at the eastern base of the mountains; but the widened, trough-like glaciated valleys frequently descend to the level of the elevated intermont basins, where moraines were deployed forward on the basin floor.
There are, it is true, mountain ranges which are formed of folded beds; but in many cases the direction of the chains is different from that of the folds, so that the ranges must owe their elevation to other causes; and the folds, moreover, are of ancient date, for the most part Archaean or Palaeozoic. The configuration of the region is largely due to faulting, trough-like or tray-like depressions being formed, and the intervening strips, which have not been depressed, standing up as mountain ridges.
Heating spirits of hartshorn, he was able to collect "alkaline air" (gaseous ammonia), again because he was using mercury in his pneumatic trough; then, trying what would happen if he passed electric sparks through the gas, he decomposed it into nitrogen and hydrogen, and "having a notion" that mixed with hydrochloric acid gas it would produce a "neutral air," perhaps much the same as common air, he synthesized sal ammoniac. Dephlogisticated air (oxygen) he prepared in August 1774 by heating red oxide of mercury with a burning-glass, and he found that in it a candle burnt with a remarkably vigorous flame and mice lived well.
An elongated trough, 66 m.
M.) with depths down to 2200 fathoms. A rise between Spitsbergen and Greenland separates the Norwegian Trough (greatest depth 2005 fathoms in 68° 21' N., 2° 5' W.) which in turn is divided from the Atlantic by the Wyville Thomson Ridge which runs between the Faeroe and Shetland islands and is covered by only 314 fathoms of water at the deepest point.
The western half of the basin occupies a trough of synclinal structure; but the making of this syndine is so ancient that it cannot be directly connected with the occurrence of the lake to-day.
The extension of a trough or basin penetrating the land or an elevation is termed an " embayment " when wide, and a " gully " when long and narrow; and the deepest part of a depression is termed a " deep."
A more efficient arrangement consists of a stack of vertical pipes standing up from a main or collecting trough and connected at the top in consecutive pairs by a cross tube.
By an arrangement of diaphragms in the lower trough the vapours are circulated through the system.
To use the apparatus, the long tube is placed in a vapour bath (c) of the requisite temperature, and after the air within the tube is in equilibrium, the delivery tube is placed beneath the surface of the water in a pneumatic trough, the rubber stopper pushed home, and observation made as to whether any more air is being expelled.
The extension of a basin or trough stretching towards the continent is termed an embayment when relatively wide and a gully when narrow.
This rise is separated from the Crozet Rise by a depression extending to 2675 fathoms, through which the Kerguelen Trough (which lies north of Kerguelen) is brought into free communication with the Indo-Atlantic Antarctic Basin.
The China Sea on the north has a maximum depth of 2715 fathoms off the Philippines, the Sulu Basin reaches 2550 fathoms, and the Celebes Basin 2795 fathoms. Some of the channels between the islands are of very great depth, Macassar Strait exceeding 1000 fathoms, the Molucca Passage exceeding 2000 fathoms, and the Halmahera Trough sinking as deep as 2575 fathoms. The deepest of all is the Banda Basin, a large area of which lies below 2500 fathoms and reaches 3557 fathomsin the Kei Trench.
The Baltic Sea exceeds 50 fathoms in few places except the broad central portion, though small caldron-like depressions here and there may sink below zoo fathoms. The Red Sea on the other hand, though shut off from the Indian Ocean by shallows of the Strait of Bab-elMandeb with little more than ioo fathoms, sinks to a very considerable depth in its central trough, which reaches 1209 fathoms in 20° N.
In the Bering Sea the trough north of Buldir in the Aleutian Islands sinks to 2237 fathoms, and in the Sea of Okhotsk, north-west of the Kuriles, to 1859 fathoms. Similar conditions prevail in the East China Sea and the Andaman Sea.
In approximately 3000 fathoms the bottom temperature is 31.1° F.; in the Cape Trough it is 32.7° in 45° S., and 33.8° to 34.3° in 35° S., while north of the Walfisch Ridge and east of the South Atlantic Rise bottom temperatures of 36° to 36.7° F.
Engines specially designed for testing are usually provided with a brake wheel having a trough-shaped rim.
The absence of good bark, dugout timber, and chisels of stone deprived the whole Mississippi valley of creditable water-craft, and reduced the natives to the clumsy trough for a dugout and miserable bull-boat, made by stretching dressed buffalo hide over a crate.
" Penguin," near the Tonga Islands: and the Tuscarora deep, a long, narrow trough running immediately to the east of Kamchatka, the Kurile Islands and Japan.
The valleys between the tilted mountain blocks are smooth and often trough-like, and are often the sites of shallow salt lakes or playas.
Every drop of mercury, as it enters from the funnel, entirely closes the narrow tube like a piston, and in going past the place where the side tube enters entraps a portion of air and carries it down to the trough, where it can be collected.
Turning on the water, she filled their water trough before heading out for the longhorn shed, which was the closest to the trees.