Tropical sentence example

tropical
  • The tropical belt of high pressure persists all the year tion of ture.

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  • In tropical waters a sea snake is found, which, though very poisonous, rarely bites.

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  • Oh, and the tropical storm will become a hurricane late Saturday night.

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  • In some tropical stations, at certain seasons of the year, thunder is almost a daily occurrence.

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  • It is related closely to the famous baobab of tropical Africa.

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  • On the eastern forested slopes and in the lower valleys tropical conditions prevail.

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  • It is a small tropical island that attracts outdoor adventurists.

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  • The plant generally understood by this name is Nepenthes, a genus containing nearly sixty species, natives of tropical Asia, north Australia and (one only) of Madagascar.

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  • On many of the islets numerous tropical fruits are found growing wild, but they are no doubt escapes from cultivation, just as the large herds of wild cattle, horses, donkeys, pigs, goats and dogs - the last large and fierce - which occur abundantly on most of the islands have escaped from domestication.

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  • Its broad pinnate tropical leaf was pleasant though strange to look on.

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  • The tropics of Cancer and Capricorn cut off with surprising precision (the latter somewhat less so) the tropical from the north and south temperate zones..

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  • The Chinese immigrants suffer chiefly from fever of a malarial type, from beri-beri, a species of tropical dropsy, and from dysentery.

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  • The shores are covered with coral; earthquakes and tidal waves are frequent, the latter not taking the form of bores, but of a sudden steady rise and equally sudden fall in the level of the sea; the climate is rather tropical than temperate, but sickness is almost unknown among the residents.

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  • The tertiary era opens with a climate in which during the Eocene period something like existing tropical conditions must have obtained in the northern hemisphere.

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  • It is possibly for the purpose of feeding on parasitic mites that book-scorpions lodge themselves beneath the wing-cases of large tropical beetles; and the same explanation, in default of a better, may be extended to their well-known and oft-recorded habit of seizing hold of the legs of horse-flies or other two-winged insects.

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  • The inhabitants of tropical America sometimes keep fireflies in small cages for purposes of illumination, or make use of the insects for personal adornment.

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  • The territories of the Gran Chaco, however, are covered with a characteristic tropical vegetation, in which the palm predominates, but intermingled south of the Bermejo with heavy growths of algarrobo, quebracho-colorado, urunday (Astronium fraxinifolium), lapacho (Tecoma curialis) and palosanto (Guayacum officinalis), all esteemed for hardness and fineness of grain.

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  • Firefly is a term popularly used for certain tropical American click-beetles (Pyrophorus), due to their power of emitting light.

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  • As unlicensed blood-letters, certain land-leeches are among the most unpleasant of parasites that can be encountered in a tropical jungle.

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  • Florida is a great area to visit with its tropical climate and endless beaches.

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  • Occurring in all temperate and tropical countries, book-scorpions live for the most part under stones, beneath the bark of trees or in vegetable detritus.

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  • They are all inhabitants of the open plains or the forests of the tropical and temperate parts of South America, with the exception of a few species which range as far north as Texas.

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  • Darian, who had willingly hired a sailboat and sailed straight into a tropical storm.

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  • The valley regions are tropical, and malarial fevers are common.

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  • Catasetinae, with three tropical American genera, two of which, Cataselurn and Cycnoches, have dior tri-morphic flowers.

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  • The climate of North Borneo is tropical, hot, damp and enervating.

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  • Barbeques are great for all ages, and adults can appreciate tropical drinks and grilled seafood.

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  • Honolulu is a wonderful vacation spot rich in history and tropical landscape.

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  • Unlike the dead cities of the Yucatan plains, Palenque is surrounded by wooded hills and overgrown by tropical vegetation.

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  • In the shallower tropical waters, especially on the central ridge, considerable areas are covered by Pteropod ooze, a deposit consisting largely of the shells of pelagic molluscs.

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  • It was the first German colony to dispense (1903-1904) with an imperial subsidy towards its upkeep. Several firms have acquired plantations in which coffee, cocoa, cotton, kola and other tropical products are cultivated.

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  • It is chiefly found in the tropical parts of Asia and Africa, but has also been met with in South Carolina and several of the West Indian islands.

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  • High districts covered with oaks and chestnuts succeed to this almost tropical vegetation; a little higher up and we reach the elevated regions of the Pollino and the Sila, covered with firs and pines, and affording rich pastures even in the midst of summer, when heavy dews and light frosts succeed each other in July and August, and snow begins to appear at the end of September or early in October.

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  • They are widely distributed, but are particularly abundant in certain tropical climates where active root absorption goes on while the air is nearly saturated with water vapour.

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  • Irregularity of cambium occurs in various families of woody dicotyledonous plants, mostly among the woody climbers, known as lianes, characteristic of tropical and sub-tropical forests.

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  • The types of vegetation (tropical forests, sclerophyllous forest, temperate forests, tundra, &c.) thus briefly outlined are groups of Schimpers climatic formations.

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  • It is remarkable that the characteristic features of the Miocene flora, which in other partm of the world have spread and developed southwards, are conspicususly absent from the African tropical flora.

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  • It is singular that only the first three of them belong to the order Passeriformes, a proportion which is not maintained in any other tropical region.

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  • Others thrive in a greenhouse; such are C. asiaticum, a widely distributed plant on the sea-coast of tropical Asia, C. capense and C. longiflorum, from the Cape, and C. Macowani and C. Moorei from Natal.

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  • The Paussidae are a very remarkable family of small beetles, mostly tropical, found only in ants' nests, or flying by night, and apparently migrating from one nest to another.

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  • The Passalidae are a tropical family of beetles generally considered to be intermediate between stag-beetles and chafers, the enlarged segments of the feeler being capable of close approximation.

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  • It is of beautiful appearance, and the almost tropical profusion of its growth may have led to the early erroneous reports of the densely-wooded nature of these islands.

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  • Each year, however, the output of " plantation " rubber will show a considerable increase, and it is to be expected that ultimately this will form the chief source of supply, unless unforeseen circumstances should arise to interfere with the development of the plantation industry, which has been vigorously started chiefly with European capital in the tropical possessions of Great Britain, France and Germany.

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  • During the tropical rains the soil is liable, to a greater or less extent, to denudation, which becomes very serious when the land slopes; and in any case, the soil is apt to become impoverished by the loss of its soluble constituents.

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  • Another disadvantage of uncovered soil in a plantation of young rubber trees is that the ground under the heat of a tropical sun rapidly loses its moisture.

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  • The insect fauna is very similar to that of Russia; but a few genera, as the Tentyria, do not penetrate into the steppe region of West Siberia, while the tropical Colasposoma, Popilia and Languria are found only in south-eastern Transbaikalia, or are confined to the southern Amur.

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  • The violets comprise a large botanical genus (Viola) - in which more than 200 species have been described - found principally in temperate or mountain regions of the northern hemisphere; they also occur in mountainous districts of South America and South and Tropical Africa, while a few are found in Australasia.

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  • Gloriosa, well known in cultivation, climbs by means of its tendril-like leaftips; it has handsome flowers with decurved orange-red or yellow petals; it is a native of tropical Asia and Africa.

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  • Smilax is a characteristic tropical genus containing about 200 species; the dried roots of some species are the drug sarsaparilla.

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  • Among the many tropical fruits found here are bananas, guavas, mangoes, cashews, breadfruit, aguacates, papayas, zapotes, granadillas, oranges, lemons and limes.

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  • This rodent, Coelogenys (or Agouti) paca, together with one or two other tropical American species, represents a genus near akin to the agoutis and included in the family Caviidae.

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  • Chimpanzees, of which there appear to be at least two species, range through the tropical forest-zone of Africa from the west coast to Uganda.

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  • They contain stunted timber trees, palms, mangroves and other tropical and sub-tropical plants and have an almost impenetrable undergrowth.

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  • Its native country is unknown, but it probably originated in India or some parts of eastern tropical Asia where it has been cultivated from great antiquity and whence its cultivation spread westwards and eastwards.

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  • Though cultivated in sub-tropical countries such as Natal and the Southern states of the Union, it is essentially tropical in its requirements and succeeds best in warm damp climates such as Cuba, British Guiana and Hawaii, and in India and Java in the Old World.

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  • Here the tropical heat is tempered by constant trade winds, there is perfect immunity from hurricanes, the soil is peculiarly suited for cane-growing, and by the use of specially-prepared fertilizers and an ample supply of water at command for irrigation the land yields from 50 to 90 tons of canes per acre, from which from 12 to 14% of sugar is produced.

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  • There is much less moisture, and the flora is of a less tropical character than farther north; it has some Polynesian and New Zealand affinities, and on the west coast a partially Australian character; on the higher hills it is stunted; on the lower, however, there are fine .grass lands, and a scattered growth of niaulis (Melaleuca viridiflora), useful for its timber, bark and cajeput oil.

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  • A good series of tropical aroids is to be seen in the aroid house at Kew.

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  • The alpine vegetation on all these lofty mountains is of a mixed Cape and Abyssinian character - witch-hazels, senecios, lobelias, kniphofias, everlasting flowers, tree heaths and hypericums. The really tropical vegetation of Buganda is nearly identical with that of West Africa, but there is no oil-palm.

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  • Occupying 135 degrees of latitude, living on the shores of frozen or of tropical waters; at altitudes varying from sea-level to several thousands of feet; in forests, grassy prairies or deserts; here starved, there in plenty; with a night here of six months' duration, there twelve hours long; here among health-giving winds, and there cursed with malaria - this brown man became, in different culture provinces, brunette or black, tall or short, long-headed or short-headed, and developed on his own hemisphere variations from an average type.

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  • The Arctic peoples regulated their lives by the long day and night in the year; among the tribes in the arid region the place of sunrise was marked on the horizon for each day; the tropical Indians were not so observant, but they worshipped the sun-god above all.

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  • Abandoned since 495 - for Kasyapa was eventually slain during a battle fought in the plain beneath - it has, on the whole, well withstood the fury of tropical storms, and is now used again to gain access to the top. When rediscovered by Major Forbes in 1835 the portions of the gallery where it had been exposed for so many centuries to the south-west monsoon, had been carried away.

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  • The pursuit, too, was carried out in the midst of a tropical thunderstorm which broke at the roar of the opening cannonade, and very considerably retarded the French pursuit.

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  • The tropical Asiatic element predominates on the low lands; types characteristic of Australia and New Zealand occur principally on the upper parts of the high islands.

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  • Owing to the proximity of two oceans, and the varied configuration of the surface of Costa Rica, an area of a few square miles may exhibit the most striking extremes of climate; but, over the entire country, it is possible to distinguish three climatic zones - tropical, temperate and cold.

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  • Rheumatism on the Atlantic seaboard, and malaria on both coasts, are the commonest forms of disease; but, as a whole, Costa Rica is one of the healthiest of tropical lands.

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  • Corythophanes and Laemanctus, with only a few species, are rare inhabitants of the tropical forests of Central America and Mexico.

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  • Here the more common European plants and trees give place to the wild olive, the caper bush, the aloe, the cactus, the evergreen oak, the orange, the lemon, the palm and other productions of a tropical climate.

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  • This description refers to a fertile sub-tropical oasis on the partially barren plateau; below in the forested lowlands, where tropical conditions prevail, the numbers and varieties are many times greater.

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  • It was the month of June, in which the tropical heat of Calcutta is most oppressive.

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  • The railway had created a record in being the most expensive built in tropical Africa-8942 per mile.

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  • The Royal Botanical Gardens at Pamplemousses, which date from the French occupation of the island, contain a rich collection of tropical and extra-tropical species.

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  • The population of European blood, which calls itself Creole, is greater than that of any other tropical colony; many of the inhabitants trace their descent from ancient French families, and the higher and middle classes are distinguished for their intellectual culture.

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  • Irrigation has shown that with water, arid and barren plains, veritable deserts, may be made to bloom with immense wealth of semi-tropical fruits; and irrigation in the tropical area along the Colorado river, which is so arid that it naturally bears only desert vegetation, has made it a true humid-tropical region like Southern Florida, growing true tropical fruits.

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  • Its height is from 3000 to 4000 ft., and it is clothed with tropical high fens.

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  • Gutta-percha (getah percha in the vernacular), camphor, cinnamon, cloves, nutmegs, gambir and betel, or areca-nuts, are all produced in the island; most of the tropical fruits flourish, including the much-admired but, to the uninitiated, most evil-smelling durian, a large fruit with an exceedingly strong outer covering composed of stout pyramidal spikes, which grows upon the branches of a tall tree and occasionally in falling inflicts considerable injuries upon passers-by.

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  • Not only will most tropical plants refuse to live in a temperate climate, but many species are seriously injured by removal a few degrees of latitude beyond their natural limits.

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  • The parrot tribe form one of the most pre-eminently tropical groups of birds, only a few species extending into the warmer temperate regions; yet even the most exclusively tropical genera are by no means delicate birds as regards climate.

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  • Hardly any group of Mammalia is more exclusively tropical than the Quadrumana, yet, if other conditions are favourable, some of them can withstand a considerable degree of cold.

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  • The recently extinct Siberian mammoth and woolly rhinoceros were closely allied to species now inhabiting tropical regions exclusively.

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  • He well remarked that the debility and sickening of Europeans in many tropical countries are wrongly ascribed to the climate, but are rather the consequences of indolence, sensual gratification and an irregular mode of life.

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  • Many tropical types here ascend to 7000 ft.

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  • It is by no means certain that even the higher rate is greater than that exhibited by a tropical bamboo which will grow over a foot a day, or even common grasses, or asparagus, during the active period of cell-division, though the phenomenon is here complicated by the phase of extension due to intercalation of water.

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  • The spores, when liberated by the dehiscence of the sporangium, give rise to the prothallus, which is now, owing mainly to the investigations of Treub and Bruchmann, known in a number of tropical and temperate species.

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  • Numerous species of ferns, both temperate and tropical, are cultivated as valued ornamental plants.

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  • The rock sculpture is often very similar to that of a tropical desert.'

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  • One of the severest complications of the disease is abscess of the liver, usually said to be solitary, and known as tropical abscess of the liver, but probably is more frequently multiple than is usually thought.

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  • The surface consists of a narrow coastal zone where tropical conditions prevail, a broad belt of mountainous country covered by the ranges of the Sierra Madre Occidental and their intervening valleys where oak and pine forests are to be found, and an intervening zone among the foothills of the Sierra Madre up to an elevation of 2000 ft., where the conditions are subtropical.

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  • Vallisneria (eel-grass) contains two species, one native of tropical Asia, the other inhabiting the warmer parts of both hemispheres and reaching as far north as south FIG.

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  • Halophila, Enhalus and Thalassia are submerged maritime plants found on tropical coasts, mainly in the Indian and Pacific oceans; Halophila has an elongated stem rooting at the nodes; Enhalus a short, thick rhizome, clothed with black threads resembling horse-hair, the persistent hard-bast strands of the leaves; Thalassia has a creeping rooting stem with upright branches bearing crowded strap-shaped leaves in two rows.

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  • The order is a widely distributed one; the marine forms are tropical or subtropical, but the fresh-water genera occur also in the temperate zones.

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  • There is a rich tropical vegetation, and a number of considerable streams water the island.

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  • The state is divided into two distinct zones - the tierras calientes of the coast and lower river courses where tropical conditions prevail, and the tierras templadas of the mountain region where the conditions are subtropical.

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  • The true boas comprise some forty species; most of them are American, but the genus Eryx inhabits North Africa, Greece and south-western Asia; the genus Enygrus ranges from New Guinea to the Fiji; Casarea dussumieri is restricted to Round Island, near Mauritius; and two species of Boa and one of Corallus represent this subfamily in Madagascar, while all the other boas live in America, chiefly in tropical parts.

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  • One of the commonest species of the genus Boa is the Boa constrictor, which has a wide range from tropical Mexico to Brazil.

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  • The vegetation is mostly of a tropical Indo-Malayan character - thick jungle with great trees covered with creepers and epiphytes.

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  • The fauna of Madagascar, while deficient in most of the characteristic tropical forms of life, is one of great interest to the naturalist from its remote affinities, much of its animal life having Asiatic rather than African relationships.

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  • While the climate of the north and south, especially the south, is eminently healthy, and even the intensely heated Sahara is salubrious by reason of its dryness, the tropical zone as a whole is, for European races, the most unhealthy portion of the world.

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  • The acclimatization of white men in tropical Africa generally is dependent largely on the successful treatment of tropical diseases.

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  • The rate of mortality among the natives from tropical diseases is also high, one of the most fatal being that known as sleeping sickness.

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  • The northern and southern temperate zones have a flora distinct from that of the continent generally, which is tropical.

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  • The more humid regions have a richer vegetation - dense forest where the rainfall is greatest and variations of temperature least, conditions found chiefly on the tropical coasts, and in the west African equatorial basin with its extension towards the upper Nile; and savanna interspersed with trees on the greater part of the plateaus, passing as the desert regions are appNoached into a scrub vegetation consisting of thorny acacias, &c. Forests also occur on the humid slopes of mountain ranges up to a certain elevation.

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  • The climbing plants in the tropical forests are exceedingly luxuriant and the undergrowth or " bush " is extremely dense.

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  • Tropical flora disappears, and in the semi-desert plains the fleshy, leafless, contorted species of kapsias, mesembryanthemums, aloes and other succulent plants make their appearance.

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  • Of reptiles the lizard and chameleon are common, and there are a number of venomous serpents, though these are not so numerous as in other tropical countries.

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  • The upper Niger rises in June as the result of the tropical rains, and decreases in December, its breadth at Turella expanding from between 2000 and 2500 ft.

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  • In the maritime parts of Malaga and Granada the vegetation is of almost tropical richness and beauty, while in Murcia, Alicante and Almeria the aspect is truly African, fertile oases appearing in the midst of rocky deserts or barren steppes.

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  • Consult also P. C. Meyer, Erforschungsgeschichte and Staatenbildungen des Westsudan (Gotha, 1897), an admirable summary with bibliography and maps; Karl Kumm, The Sudan (London, 1907); Lady Lugard, A Tropical Dependency (London, 1905); and the bibliographies given under the various countries named.

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  • It is a remarkable fact that these genera, comprizing a separate family Lumbricidae, when introduced into tropical and other countries, thrive abundantly and oust the indigenous forms. In gatherings of earthworms from various extra-European countries it is always found that if the collections have been made in cultivated ground and near the coast the worms are of European species; farther inland the native forms are met with.

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  • The indigenous species of Great Britain, about twenty in number, do not grow to a greater length than some io in.; but in several tropical countries there are species which grow to a length of from 3 to 6 ft.

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  • Subsidiary points of utility, such as the formation of the London and Liverpool schools of tropical medicine from 1899 onwards, were taken up by him with characteristic vigour.

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  • From this statement of the conditions it will be seen that the tropical zone is the most favourable for observation, and that the most favourable hour of the day at which the light can be seen must always be the earliest after sunset and the last before sunrise.

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  • It is noteworthy that he could see the zodiacal band across the entire sky during the whole of every very clear moonless night in tropical regions.

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  • Vast stores of hard vegetable fats are still practically wasted in tropical countries, such as India, Indo-China and the Sunda Islands, tropical South America, Africa and China.

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  • Some species included in the genus Danaeites or Danaeopsis from Jurassic rocks of Poland, Austria and Switzerland may possibly be closely allied to the recent tropical genus Danaea.

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  • Sezanne yields Ferns in profusion, mingled with other shade-loving plants such as would grow under the trees in a moist ravine; its vegetation is comparable to that of an island in the tropical seas.

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  • Callitris (2 species), Sequoia, Athrotaxis (?) Ginkgo, Podocarpus, Pinus; and several genera of palms, of which the tropical Nipa is the most abundant and most characteristic, among the others being fan-palms of the genera Sabal and Chamaerops.

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  • He considers the flora to be the most tropical of any that has so far been studied in the northern hemisphere.

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  • The plants suggest a comparison of the climate and forests with those of the Malay Archipelago and tropical America.

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  • Among the characteristics of this Miocene flora are the large number of families represented, the marked increase in the deciduous-leaved plants, the gradual decrease in the number of palms and of tropical plants, and the replacement of these latter by Mediterranean or North American forms. According to Heer, the tropical forms in the Swiss Miocene agree rather with Asiatic types, while the subtropical and temperate plants are allied to forms now living in the temperate zone in North America.

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  • Among the Dicotyledons, the Leguminosae take the first place with 131 species, including Acacia, Caesalpinia and Cassia, each represented by several forms. The occurrence of 90 species of Amentaceae shows that, as the climate became less tropical, the relative proportion of this group to the total flora increased.

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  • But if this process is continuous from latitude to latitude, then we ought not to look for a flora of equivalent age in the warm-temperate Miocene deposits of central Europe, but should rather expect to find that the temperate plants of Greenland were contemporaneous with a tropical flora in central Europe.

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  • Concurrently with this change, the tropical and extinct forms disappeared, and the flora approached more and more nearly to that now existing in the districts where the fossil plants are found, though in the older deposits, at any rate, the geographical distribution still differed considerably from that now met with.

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  • Degraded, worm-like batrachians of still obscure affinities, inhabiting tropical Africa, south-eastern Asia and tropical America.

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  • The recent addition of a third genus of Aglossa, Hymenochirus (24) from tropical Africa, combining characters of Pipa and Xenopus, has removed every doubt as to the real affinity which connects these genera.

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  • Papyrus grows in Lake Huleh, and rice and cereals thrive on its shores, whilst below the Sea of Galilee the vegetation is almost tropical.

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  • It could have been a tropical rain forest, so densely covered with trees and without a trace of human inhabitants.

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  • The rain had quit for the day, though the tropical storm spinning around in the Gulf guaranteed another week or so of sporadic storms.

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  • The guy's sitting on some tropical beach with a babe in his lap.

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  • At Kericho we had the opportunity to walk in the Kakamega tropical rainforest, and looked at tea plantation agriculture.

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  • Tropical oils and mother's milk are by far the richest food sources of medium chain fatty acids available.

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  • It will be a natural amphitheater with waterfalls perfumed by tropical flowers.

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  • Tropical shrimp are produced either by industrial trawling in the wild or by intensive aquaculture.

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  • This book is essential reading for any marine aquarist wishing to keep tropical corals.

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  • The Red Sea is the world's most accessible tropical marine aquarium.

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  • Use casual language that will encourage guests to plunge into the fun, and be sure to include any special instructions such as encouraging guests to wear their brightest tropical shirt or sexiest swimsuit.

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  • For a light and delectable dessert, try sticky rice and tropical fruits.

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  • The north temperate region is more sharply separated from the other two than the south temperate region from the tropical.

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  • The western dry areas have the old-world leguminous Astragalus and Prosopis (Mesquit), but are especially characterized by the northward extension of the new-world tropical Cactaceae, Mgmmillaria, Cereus and Opuntia, by succulent Amar llideae such as A gave (of which the so-called American aloe is a type), and by arborescent Liliaceae (Yucca).

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  • It precludes the explanation of any common features in the dissevered porciuns of the tropical area of vegetation by lateral communirations, and throws back their origin to the remotest geological antiquity.

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  • A peculiar feature in which tropical Africa stands alone is that at least one-fifth and probably more of the species are common to both sides of the continent and presumably stretch right across it.

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  • The singular shrubby Amaryllids, Vellozieae, are common to tropical and South Africa, Madagascar and Brazil.

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  • And it is interesting to note that while the tropical forms of Quercus failed to reach Australia from Malaya, the temperate Fagus crept in by a back door.

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  • Melastomaceae, copiously represented in tropical America, are more feebly so in Peru and wholly wanting in Chile.

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  • High mountain levels supplied paths of communication for stocking the South Temperate region, the floras of which were enriched by adapted forms of tropical types.

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  • Coco-nuts, cacao, bananas, mangoes and other tropical fruits are produced in profusion, but the production of foodstuffs (beans, Indian corn, mandioca, &c.) is not sufficient for local consumption.

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  • Some require the hot, moist temperature of a stove; such are C. amabile, a native of Sumatra, C. amoenum (India), C. Balfourii (Socotra), C. giganteum (West tropical Africa), C. Kirkii (Zanzibar), C. latifolium (India), C. zeylanicum (tropical Asia and Africa), and others.

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  • Sugar, rice, indigo and tropical fruits are the chief products of the fertile district in which the town lies; it is widely known for its fish-ponds and its excellent fish, and its principal manufactures are jusi, pina, ilang ilang perfume and sugar.

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  • There are nearly 1000 known species, most of which live in tropical countries.

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  • This first or cold stage of the paroxysm varies much in length; in temperate climates it lasts from one to two hours, while in tropical and subtropical countries it may be shortened.

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  • Remittent is a not unusual form of the malarial process in tropical and subtropical countries, and in some localities or in some seasons it is more common than intermittent.

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  • One of the most interesting was carried out in 1900 for the London School of Tropical Medicine by Dr Sambon and Dr Low, who went to reside in one of the most malarious districts in the Roman Campagna during the most dangerous season.

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  • In British tropical possessions the bill is incomparably heavier.

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  • As a rule the general facies as well as dimensions are remarkably uniform throughout a family, so that tropical species -often differ little in appearance from those inhabiting temperate regions.

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  • Many instances of exaggerated and apparently unnatural structure nevertheless occur, as in the case of the genera Pangonia, Nemestrina, Achias, Diopsis and the family Celyphidae, .and, as might be expected, it is chiefly in tropical species that these peculiarities are found.

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  • The recent discovery of a bloodsucking maggot, which is found in native huts throughout the greater part of tropical and subtropical Africa, and attacks the inmates when asleep, is of great interest.

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  • In tropical countries ants sometimes make their nests in the hollow thorns of trees or on leaves; species with this habit are believed to make a return to the tree for the shelter that it affords by protecting it from the ravages of other insects, including their own leaf-cutting relations.

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  • Tropical orchids are mostly epiphytal - that is, they grow upon trees without deriving nourishment from them.

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  • It contains two small genera of tropical Asia and Africa with almost regular flowers, and the large genus Cypripedium containing about 80 species in the north-temperate zone and tropical Asia and America.

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  • Also some genera mainly represented in South and tropical Africa, such as Satyrium, Disa and others.

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  • Coelogyninae, 7 genera, mostly epiphytes, and inhabitants of tropical Asia.

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  • Pleurothallidinae, characterized by a thin stem bearing one leaf which separates at a distinct joint; the sepals are usually much larger than the petals and lip. Includes To genera, natives of tropical America, one of which, Pleurothallis, contains about 400 species.

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  • Phajinae, includes 15 genera chiefly tropical Asiatic, some- Phajus and Calanthe - spreading northwards into China and Japan.

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  • Cystopodiinae, includes 9 genera tropical, but extending into north temperate Asia and South Africa; Eulophia and Lissochilus 'are ' important African genera.

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  • The summers are hot, though short in the northern latitudes, the maximum of summer heat being comparatively little less than that observed in the tropical countries farther south.

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  • Although the foregoing account of the temperatures of Asia supplies the main outline of the observed phenomena, a very important modifying cause, of which more will be said hereafter, comes into operation over the whole of the tropical region, namely, the periodical summer rains.

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  • The truly tropical flora of the hotter and wetter regions of eastern India is continuous with that of the Malayan peninsula and islands, and extends along the lower ranges of the Himalaya, gradually becoming less marked and rising to lower elevations as we go westward, where the rainfall diminishes and the winter cold increases.

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  • In short, we have a somewhat heterogeneous assemblage of tropical, temperate and alpine plants, as has been already briefly indicated, of which, however, the tropical are so far dominant as to give their character to the flora viewed as a whole.

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  • The arboreous forms which least require the humid and equable heat of the more truly tropical and equatorial climates, and are best able to resist the high temperatures and excessive drought of the northern Indian hot months from April to June, are certain Leguminosae, Bauhinia, Acacia, Butea and Dalbergia, Bombax, Shorea, Nauclea, Lagerstroemia, and Bignonia, a few bamboos and palms, with others which extend far beyond the tropic, and give a tropical aspect to the forest to the extreme northern border of the Indian plain.

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  • The more tropical forms of the east, such as the tree-ferns, do not reach west of Nepal.

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  • Indian agriculture combines the harvests of the tropical and temperate zones.

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  • In this same region the summer heat and rain provide a thoroughly tropical climate, in which rice and other tropical cereals are freely raised, being as a rule sown early in July and reaped in September or October.

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  • Here again we have an absence of all tropical forms, and a great development of groups characteristic of cold and temperate regions.

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  • The assemblage of birds of the Indian region is one of the richest and most varied in the world, being surpassed only by that of tropical America.

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  • The Siluridae attain their chief development in tropical regions.

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  • The plant is a native of India, but is now widely spread throughout the tropical zone.

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  • Geographical Journal (London, 1904); A Tropical Dependency, by Lady Lugard (London, 1905); the Colonial Office Reports on Northern Nigeria from 1902 onward, and other works cited under NIGERIA.

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  • The slopes and valleys are densely wooded, the lower regions being very fertile and adapted to tropical agriculture.

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  • Owing to the precession of the equinoxes it is longer than a tropical or sidereal year by 25 minutes and 2.3 seconds.

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  • It produces Indian corn and other cereals and potatoes in the colder regions, and tropical fruits, sweet potatoes and mandioca (Jatropha manihot, L.) in the low tropical valleys.

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  • The Alligator or Avocado Pear is Persea gratissima, a member of the natural order Lauraceae, and a native of the West Indies and other parts of tropical America.

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  • For the present the connivance of the senate at his coup d'etat of Nivose led to the deportation of one hundred and thirty Jacobins; some were interned in the islands of the Bay of Biscay, while fifty were sent to the tropical colonies of France, whence few of them ever returned.

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  • The southern territory held by this fauna is invaded by genera and species distinctly tropical.

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  • His colleague, Vieillot, brought out in 1805 a Histoire naturelle des plus beaux chanteurs de la Zone Torride with figures by Langlois of tropical finches, grosbeaks, buntings and other hard-billed birds; and in 1807 two volumes of a Histoire' naturelle des oiseaux de l'Amenique septentrionale, without, however, paying much attention to the limits commonly assigned by geographers to' that part of the world.

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  • Although the species are fewer in number than in most other families of fishes, they are widely spread and extremely abundant, peopling by countless schools the oceans of the tropical and temperate zones, and approaching the coasts only accidentally, occasionally, or periodically.

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  • They occur up mountain slopes as far as vegetation extends, in tropical valleys and forests, in open grassy plains, in sandy deserts, and even in fresh-water ponds and between tide-marks on the seashore.

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  • Some tropical members of the family belonging to the genus Nephela, however, spin a web which is intermediate in structure between that of Aranea and the complete sheet-like web of Agalena.

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  • Other species of wandering habits carry the cocoon about with them, sometimes attached to the spinnerets, as in the Lycosidae, sometimes tucked under the thorax, as in the large tropical house-spider, Heteropoda regia, one of the Clubionidae.

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  • The greatest disparity in size between the sexes is met with in the tropical genus Nephila, the females of which are gigantic representatives of the Argyopidae.

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  • The genus Gossypium includes herbs and shrubs, which have been cultivated from time immemorial, and are now found widely distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres.

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  • South America, the West Indies, tropical Africa and Southern Asia are the homes of the various members, but the plants have been introduced with success into other lands, as is well indicated by the fact that although no species of Gossypium is native to the United States of America, that country now produces over twothirds of the world's supply of cotton.

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  • Attempts have been made to introduce this into the infested area in Texas; but owing to the winter proving fatal to the " kelep " its usefulness may be restricted to tropical and subtropical regions.

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  • The boll worm is most destructive in the south-western states, where the damage done is said to vary from 2 to 60% of the crop. Taking a low average of 4%, the annual loss due to the pest is estimated at about 1 - 2,500,000, and it occupies second place amongst the serious cotton pests of the U.S.A. The boll worm is widely spread through the tropical and temperate zones.

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  • The World's Commercial Cotton Crop. It is impossible to give an exact return of the total amount of cotton produced in the world, owing to the fact that in China, India and other eastern countries, in Mexico, Brazil, parts of the Russian empire, tropical Africa, &c., considerable - in some cases very large - quantities of cotton are made up locally into wearing apparel, &c., and escape all statistical record.

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  • The vegetation of the island is characterized by tropical luxuriance, - the moutainous regions being clad with dense forest, in which various species of palms, the camphor-tree (Laurus Camplaora), and the aloe are conspicuous.

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  • The more rugged districts and higher elevations are clad with such tropical forest trees as ebony, Spanish cedar, sandalwood, rosewood and mahogany.

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  • There are several species of palms, flowering trees, trees with beautifully coloured foliage, tree ferns, resinous trees and trees bearing tropical fruits.

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  • In the British colonies of tropical and of South Africa' surveys for the most part are carried on actively.

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  • The plants are rough-haired annual or perennial herbs, more rarely shrubby or arborescent, as in Cordia and Ehretia, which are tropical or sub-tropical.

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  • The order is widely spread in temperate and tropical regions, and contains 85 genera with about 1200 species.

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  • The scenery in the oriental portion of the island is very beautiful, with wild mountains and tropical forests.

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  • The tropical heat and humidity of Cuba make possible a flora of splendid richness.

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  • The climate of Cuba is tropical and distinctively insular in characteristics of humidity, equability and high mean temperature.

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  • Convincing evidence is offered by the qualities of the Spanish race in Cuba that white men of temperate lands can be perfectly acclimatized in this tropical island.

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  • There are the usual malarial, bilious and intermittent fevers, and liver, stomach and intestinal complaints prevalent in tropical countries; but unhygienic living is, in Cuba as elsewhere, mainly responsible for their existence.

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  • The connexion that seemed to be first established was between variations in the quantity of water transported from the tropical to the sub-polar Atlantic and variations in the intensit y of solar radiation.

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  • In general the plankton - and especially the phyto-plankton of the polar and temperate seas - is much more abundant than is that of the sub-tropical and tropical zones.

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  • If this is admitted the poverty of tropical sea-water in mineral nitrogen compounds is explained by the higher temperature, which accelerates the activity of denitrifying bacteria.

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  • The Ptychoderidae and Spengelidae are predominantly tropical and subtropical, while the Balanoglossidae are predominantly arctic and temperate in their distribution.

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  • In 1900 a high school for shipbuilding was founded, and in 1901 an institute for seamen's and tropical diseases, with a laboratory for their physiological study, was opened, and also the first public free library in the city.

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  • About most of the residences there are many tropical trees, flowering shrubs and plants.

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  • The forests of tropical America have suffered similarly, trees having been injured or destroyed and in some cases cut down in order to secure the immediate increase of supply which was called for by a considerable rise in value.

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  • In 1909 the total production of rubber is stated to have been about 70,000 tons, of which more than one-half came from tropical America, about one-third from Africa, whilst the remainder was chiefly of Asiatic origin, including " plantation " rubber from Ceylon and Malaya, which amounted to about 3000 tons.

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  • Among these are the precise extent of demand, the limit of the inevitable fall in price with largely increased production, the cost of labour as increasing amounts are required, and the effect of changed conditions on the output of " wild " rubber and the competition of the new plantations which are being established in tropical America.

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  • They contain a few genera chiefly old world tropical and subtropical.

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  • The country is mountainous, and the vegetation of the lower heights begins to assume a tropical aspect.

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  • This region is more tropical in character, partially barren, and has an uncertain rainfall, a large part of the Sao Francisco basin and the upper Atlantic slope of its eastern rim being subject to long-continued droughts.

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  • Its climate is more tropical and its development has gone forward less rapidly than in the more temperate regions of the south.

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  • In general terms, it is a tropical country, with sub-tropical and temperate areas covering its three southern states and a great part of the elevated central plateau.

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  • The lower river valleys of the Tocantins-Araguaya, Xingu, Tapajos and Paraguay are essentially tropical, their climate being hot and humid like that of the Amazon.

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  • These animals are found only in the tropical regions of South America.

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  • Of the great inland region, which includes the arid campos of the north, the partially-wooded plateaus of Minas Geraes, Goyaz and Matto Grosso, the temperate highlands of the south, and the tropical lowlands of the Paraguay basin, no adequate description can be given without taking each section in detail, which can be done to better advantage in describing the individual states.

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  • The fibre of the piassava (Leopoldinia piassava, or Attalea funifera) is widely used for cordage, brushes and brooms. There are many other palms whose fruit, fibre and wood enter largely into the domestic economy of the natives, but the list given shows how important a service these trees rendered to the aboriginal inhabitants of tropical America, and likewise how useful they still are to the people of tropical Brazil.

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  • Besides these it might easily excel in producing many of the tropical fruits for which there is a commercial demand.

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  • But the most striking of the coast-belt flora are the tropical forms - the palm, mangrove, wild banana (Strelitzia augusta), tree-ferns, tree euphorbia, candelabra spurge and Caput medusae.

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  • More important than the cereal crops are the tropical and sub-tropical products of the coast zone.

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  • The British settlers soon realized that the coast lands were suited to the cultivation of tropical or semi-tropical products, and from 1852 onward sugar, coffee, cotton and arrow-root were introduced, tea being afterwards substituted for coffee.

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  • It contains about 40 genera with more than 1000 species, and is found in all parts of the world except the coldest, but is especially well developed in tropical Asia and tropical America.

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  • The creeping or trailing type is a common one, as in the English bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis), which has also a tendency to climb, and Calystegia Soldanella, the sea-bindweed, the long creeping stem of which forms a sandbinder on English seashores; a widespread and efficient tropical sand-binder is Ipomaea Pes-Caprae.

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  • One of the commonest tropical weeds, Evolvulus alsinoides, has slender, long-trailing stems with small leaves and flowers.

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  • In hot dry districts such as Arabia and north-east tropical Africa, genera have been developed with a low, much-branched, dense, shrubby habit, with small hairy leaves and very small flowers.

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  • The climate is tropical and generally unfavourable to white settlement, the exceptions being the elevated localities on the Amazon exposed to the strong winds blowing up that river.

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  • In the tropical district of the Limpopo valley there is some cultivation of the coffee-tree, and this region is also adapted for the growing of tea, sugar, cotton and rice.

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  • It is generally supposed that man originated in tropical or subtropical latitudes, and spread gradually towards the poles.

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  • Amongst the most northerly races the latter garb is worn by both sexes alike; farther south by the men, the women retaining the tropical form; farther south still the latter reigns supreme.

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  • The retention by women in Europe of the tropical garb can be explained by the fact that her sphere has been mainly confined to the house, and her life has been less active than that of man; consequently the adoption of the arctic dress has been in her case less necessary.

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  • The retention of the tropical pattern by the Highlanders is due directly to environment, since the kilt is better suited than trousers for walking over wet heather.

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  • On the coast and the northern slopes of the Maritime Andes the tropical heat is greatly modified by the trade-winds.

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  • The tropical vegetation extends to an altitude of about 1300 ft., above which it may be classed as semi-tropical up to about 3500 ft., and temperate up to 7200 ft., above which the vegetation is Alpine.

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  • Most bats are insect-eaters, but the tropical "flying foxes" or fox-bats of the Old World live on fruit; some are blood-suckers, and two feed on small fish.

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  • In general, tropical and semitropical conditions as to temperature, with a comparatively dry climate, give the best results.

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  • It thrives on the seaward slopes of the western range in the zone of the tropical rains, at Coffee.

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  • In tropical climates with a well-marked dry season mosquitoes pass into a semi-dormant condition during the period when there is little water in which to deposit their eggs.

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  • The genus Widdringtonia of tropical and South Africa is also known locally as cedar.

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  • In the oases of the Jerid are found several species of tropical African mammals and two or three of Senegalese birds, and the vegetation seems to have as much affinity with tropical Africa as with Europe.

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  • The montana is the region of tropical forests within the valley of the Amazon, and skirts the eastern slopes of the Andes.

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  • Most of these main streams flow through profound gorges in a tropical climate, while the upper slopes yield products of the temperate zone, and the plateaus above are cold and bleak, affording only pasture and the hardiest cereals.

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  • There is a tropical flora in the deep gorges, higher up a sub-tropical, then a temperate, then a sub-arctic flora.

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  • The third division of Peru is the region of the tropical forests, at the base of the Andes, and within the basin of the Amazon.

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  • The other products of these warm valleys are excellent coffee, cocoa, sugar, tropical fruits of all kinds, and gold in abundance.

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  • Tsetse-flies are restricted to Africa, where they occur in suitable localities throughout the greater portion of the tropical region, although not found either in the Sahara or in the veld country of the extreme south.

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  • But there are also a number of tropical species, notably among butterflies and beetles.

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  • Among butterflies (chOchO) Rein gives prominence to the broad-winged kind (Papilio), which recall tropical brilliancy.

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  • Flocks of lupa and other species swim in the wake of the tropical fishes which move towards Japan at certain seasons.

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  • Of contemporary magazines the Tropical Agriculturist was started in 1881, the Ceylon Literary Register (1886-1896), afterwards the Monthly Literary Register and the Ceylon National Review in 1893.

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  • The majority of snakes are active during the day, their energy increasing with the increasing temperature; whilst some delight in the moist sweltering heat of dense tropical vegetation, others expose themselves to the fiercest rays of the midday sun.

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  • They are widely distributed in all tropical and subtropical countries, even in such solitary places as Christmas Island, but they do not occur in New Zealand.

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  • Tortrix scytale, one of the "coral-snakes" of tropical South America, is beautiful coral-red with black rings, grows to nearly a yard in length, and is said sometimes to be worn as a necklace by native ladies.

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  • The range of the family extends over all the tropical and subtropical countries, including islands, except New Zealand.

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  • Dipsadomorphus, Dipsas, Leptognathus, Dryophis, Dendrophis and other closely allied genera are typical, very long-bodied and longtailed tree-snakes, chiefly tropical.

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  • The most beautiful of all snakes are perhaps certain varieties of Chrysopelea ornata, a species extremely common in the Indian Archipelago and many parts of the continent of tropical Asia.

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  • These snakes are all very poisonous, mostly viviparous and found in all tropical and subtropical countries, with the exception of Madagascar and New Zealand.

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  • They are the tropical American Elaps, the Indian Callophis, the African Poecilophis and the Australian Vermicella.

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  • The vegetation is also rich, and Amboyna produces most of the common tropical fruits and vegetables, including the sago-palm, bread-fruit, cocoa-nut, sugar-cane, maize, coffee, pepper and cotton.

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  • It is generally distributed in temperate and tropical regions, but especially developed in warm countries.

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  • In Arum the blade is simple, as also in the so-called arum-lily (Richardia), a South African species common in Britain as a greenhouse plant, and in Caladium, a tropical South American genus, and Alocasia (tropical Asia), species of which are favourite warm-greenhouse plants on account of their variegated leaves.

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  • In other genera the leaves are much divided and sometimes very large; those of Dracontium (tropical America) may be 15 ft.

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  • Izerbacea and arctic species generally, to 1 oo ft., and occurring most abundantly in cold or temperate climates in both hemispheres, and generally in moist situations; a few species occur in the tropical and sub-tropical portions of the three great continents.

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  • The rains descend in floods upon the heights; but in the vicinity of Tasisudon, the capital, they are moderate; there are frequent showers, but nothing that can be compared to the tropical rains of Bengal.

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  • The habitats which they affect are the hot, dry regions of tropical America, the aridity of which they are enabled to withstand in consequence of the thickness of their skin and the paucity of evaporating pores or stomata with which they are furnished, - these conditions not permitting the moisture they contain to be carried off too rapidly; the thick fleshy stems and branches contain a store of water.

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  • Mangrove swamps surround the town and epidemics of cholera, yellow fever and other tropical diseases have been frequent; but the unhealthiness of the climate is mitigated to some extent by the high tides which cover the marshes, and the invigorating breezes which blow in from the sea.

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  • Rice, cotton, sugar-cane, yucas (Manihot aipi) and tropical fruits are produced in the irrigated valleys of the coast, and wheat, Indian corn, barley, potatoes, coffee, coca, &c., in the upland regions.

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  • Most Hymenoptera are of moderate or small size, the giants of the order - certain saw-flies and tropical digging-waspsnever reach the bulk attained by the largest beetles, while the wing-spread is narrow compared with that of many dragonflies and moths.

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  • In the north tropical belt of high pressure south of the Azores the atmospheric pressure in January is o 87 in.

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  • In the region of tropical hurricanes the navies, while in the Mediterranean and in the Indian Ocean converging wind system of a circular storm causes a heaping many soundings were made in connexion with submarine up of water capable of devastating the low coral islands of the cables to the East.

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  • This variety surrounds the tropical parts of the continental shelves of South America, South Africa and eastern China.

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  • Still, according to Murray and Irvine, finely divided colloidal clay is to be found in all parts of the ocean however remote from land, though in very small amount, and there is less in tropical than in cooler waters.

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  • Observations with the xanthometer have not hitherto been numerous, but it appears that the purest blue (o--I on Forel's scale) is found in the Sargasso Sea, in the North Atlantic and in similarly situated tropical or subtropical regions in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.

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  • Over shallows even the water of the tropical oceans is always green.

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  • Brown or even blood-red stripes have been observed in the North Atlantic when swarms of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus were present; the brown alga Trichodesmium erythraeum, as its name suggests, can change the blue of the tropical seas to red; swarms of diatoms may produce olive-green patches in the ocean, while some other forms of minute life have at times been observed to give the colour of milk to large stretches of the ocean surface.

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  • Buchanan on the " Challenger " were vitiated by the incompleteness of the method employed, but they are none the less of value in showing clearly that the waters of the far south of the Indian Ocean are relatively rich in carbonic acid and the tropical areas deficient.

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  • In each of the three oceans there are two maxima of salinity-one in the north, the other in the south tropical belt, separated by a zone of minimum salinity in the equatorial region, and giving place poleward to regions of still lower salinity.

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  • Buchanan pointed out in 1876, that the great contrasts in surface salinity between the tropical maxima and the equatorial minima give place at the moderate depth of 200 fathoms to a practically uniform salinity in all parts of the ocean.

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  • The latter often gives birth to prodigious icebergs and ice islands, which are carried northward by ocean currents, nearly as far as the tropical zone before they melt.

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  • Vertical movements are also produced by difference of temperature in the water, but these can only be feeble, as below 'coo fathoms the temperature differences between tropical and polar waters are very small.

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  • The existence of a layer of water of low salinity at a depth of 500 fathoms in the tropical oceans of the southern hemisphere is to be referred to this action of the melting ice of the Antarctic regions.

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  • In a narrow strip along the Gulf there are some Mexican or tropical birds, notably the caracara and two varieties of grackle (Megaquiscalus).

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  • What may be called typical, that is to say arboreal, squirrels are found throughout the greater part of the tropical and temperate regions of both hemispheres, although they are absent both from Madagascar and Australasia.

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  • Although the English squirrel is a beautiful little animal, it is surpassed by many of the tropical members of the group, and especially by those of the Malay countries, where nearly all the species are brilliantly marked, and many are ornamented The Burmese Red-bellied Squirrel (Sciurus pygerythrus).

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  • The climate is remarkably healthy, the heat due to its tropical situation being moderated by land and sea breezes.

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  • On the low littoral zone the coast produced a rich tropical bush, in which the mangrove is very prominent.

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  • Pangani (pop. about 3500) is situated at the mouth of the river of the same name; it serves a district rich in tropical products, and does a thriving trade with Zanzibar and Pemba.

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  • There are luxuriant tropical forests in the coast region of Buganda, in Busoga, west Elgon, western Unyoro, eastern Toro, the central Semliki valley and north-west Ankole.

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  • The usual tropical food-plants are cultivated.

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  • The genus contains about two hundred species in tropical and temperate regions.

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  • On March 23rd, two weeks after he ceased to be president, Mr Roosevelt sailed for Africa, to carry out a long-cherished plan of conducting an expedition for the purpose of making a scientific collection of the fauna and flora of the tropical regions of that continent.

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  • The large river-prawns of the genus Palaemon (closely allied to Leander) found in most tropical countries are also often used as food.

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  • The majority of the species of Clupea are of greater or less utility to man; it is only a few tropical species that acquire, probably from their food, highly poisonous properties, so as to be dangerous to persons eating them.

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  • The coast region is characterized by mangroves, Pandanus, rattans, and similar palms with long flexible stems, and the middle region by the great rice-fields, the coco-nut and areca palms, and the usual tropical plants of culture.

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  • Espirito Santo is almost exclusively agricultural, sugar-cane, coffee, rice, cotton, tobacco, mandioca and tropical fruits being the principal products.

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  • The home of the vast majority of parrot-forms is unquestionably within the tropics, but the popular belief that parrots are tropical birds only is a great mistake.

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  • A large number of forms learn in captivity to talk and whistle, the well-known red-tailed grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) of tropical Africa being pre-eminent.

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  • Synetheres, or Coendu, contains some eight or ten species, known as tree-porcupines, found throughout tropical South America, with one extending into Mexico.

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  • The great warming and abundant rainfall of the island regions of the western Pacific, and the low temperature of the surface water in the east, cause a displacement of the southern tropical maximum of pressure to the east; hence we have a permanent " South Pacific anticyclone " close to the coast of South America.

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  • Beyond the tropical high-pressure belt, the winds of the North Pacific are under the control of an area of low pressure, which, however, attains neither the size nor the intensity of the " Iceland " depression in the north Atlantic. The result is that north-westerly winds, which in winter are exceedingly dry and cold, blow over the western or Asiatic area; westerly winds prevail in the centre, and south-westerly and southerly winds off the American coast.

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  • This large family contains about 400 species, with numerous genera; the greatest diversity in numbers and forms occurs in the tropical parts of the Old World, especially in the Australian region, inclusive of many of the Pacific islands.

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  • In England Robert Hooke (1635-1703) held to the theory of extinction of fossil forms, and advanced the two most fertile ideas of deriving from fossils a chronology, or series of time intervals in the earth's history, and of primary changes of climate, to account for the former existence of tropical species in England.

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  • This implies tropical and sub-tropical conditions.

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  • Descending to the lowlands on either side of the plateau, the temperature rises steadily until the upper limit of the tropical region, called tierras calientes, is reached, where the climate is hot, humid and unhealthy, as elsewhere in the forested coastal plains of tropical America.

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  • The great central plateau and its bordering lowlands form an intermediate territory in which these dissimilar types are found side by side, the tropical species extending northward along the coast to the United States, while the northern species have found their way to the southern limits of the plateau.

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  • Alligators and crocodiles are numerous in the lagoons and rivers of the coast and the iguana is to be found everywhere throughout the tropical lowlands, the large black Ctenosura acanthinurus being partly arboreal in habit when full grown.

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  • The arboreal life of the tropical forests has developed the treeclimbing habit among snakes as well as among frogs and toads, and also the habit of mimicry, their colour being in harmony with the foliage or bark of the trees which form their " hunting-grounds."

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  • This is due not only to its geographical position and its vertical climatic zones, which give it a range from tropical to arctic types, but also to its peculiar combination of humid and arid conditions in which we find an extensive barren table-land interposed between two tropical forested coastal zones.

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  • These widely divergent conditions give to Mexico a flora that includes the genera and species characteristic of nearly all the zones of plant life on the western continents - the tropical jungle of the humid coastal plains with its rare cabinet-woods, dye-woods, lianas and palms; the semi-tropical and temperate mountain slopes where oak forests are to be found and wheat supplants cotton and sugar-cane; and above these the region of pine forests and pasture lands.

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  • In southern Mexico the pine is found at even lower elevations where the tropical growth has been destroyed by cultivation and fire.

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  • The denuded mountain slopes and plateaus of southern Mexico are due to the prehistoric inhabitants who cleared away the tropical forest for their Indian corn fields, and then left them to the erosive action of the tropical rains and subsequent occupation by coarse grasses.

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  • In the valleys of some of these denuded slopes oak and pine are succeeding the tropical species where fires have given them a chance to get a good foothold.

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  • In the agricultural regions sugar, cotton, tobacco, cacao, coffee, mandioca and tropical fruits are produced.

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  • Ross (49), regarding the parasites as a quite different kind of Sporozoan, termed them Leishmania; and Wright named his variety from tropical ulcers Helcosoma tropicum.

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  • Owing to their tropical heat, low elevation above sea-level, and marshy soil, they are thinly peopled, and contain few important towns except the seaports.

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  • Fauna.Differences of temperature have produced in North America seven transcontinental life-zones or areas characterized by relative uniformity of both fauna and flora; they are the Arctic, Hudsonian and Canadian, which are divisions of the Boreal Region; the Transition, Upper Austral and Lower Austral, which are divisions of the Austral Region, and the Tropical.

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  • The Arctic, Hudsonian and Canadian enter the United States from the north and the Tropical from the south; but the greater part of the United States is occupied by the Transition, Upper Austral and Lower Austral, and each of these is divided into eastern and western subzones by differences in the amount of moisture.

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  • It is the northernmost home of the armadillo, ocelot, jaguar, red and grey cats, and the spiny pocket mouse, and in southern Texas especially it is visited by several species of tropical birds.

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  • There is some resemblance to the Tropical life-zone at the south-eastern extremity of Texas, but this zone in the United States is properly restricted to southern Florida and the lower valley of the Colorado along the border of California and Arizona, and the knowledge of the latter is very imperfect.

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  • The area in Florida is too small for characteristic tropical mammals, but it has the true crocodile (Crocodilus americanus) and is the home of a few tropical birds.

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  • The Austroriparian zone has the long-leaf and loblolly pines, magnolia and live oak on the uplands, and the bald cypress, tupelo and cane in the swamps; and in the semi-tropical Gulf strip are the cabbage palmetto and Cuban pine; here, too, Sea Island cotton and tropical fruits are successfully cultivated.

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  • The Tropical belt of southern Florida has the royal palm.

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  • On the westward slopes, especially of the Selkirks and Coast Ranges, vegetation is almost tropical in its density and luxuriance, the giant cedar and the Douglas fir sometimes having diameters of 10 ft.

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  • The bracing weather of Canadian winters is followed by the warmth and humidity of genial summers, under which crops grow in almost tropical luxuriance, while the cool evenings and nights give the plants a robustness of quality which are not to be found in tropical regions, and also make life for the various domestic animals wholesome and comfortable.

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  • In 1899 he retired from the Indian medical service, and devoted himself to research and teaching, joining the Liverpool school of tropical medicine as lecturer, and subsequently becoming professor of tropical medicine at Liverpool University.

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  • In 1913 he became physician for tropical diseases to King's College, London.

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  • The products are so diversified that, with the exception of some tropical fruits of California and Florida, almost everything cultivated in the United States can be produced.

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