Tropical Sentence Examples

tropical
  • The tropical belt of high pressure persists all the year tion of ture.

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  • In tropical waters a sea snake is found, which, though very poisonous, rarely bites.

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  • Oh, and the tropical storm will become a hurricane late Saturday night.

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  • It is related closely to the famous baobab of tropical Africa.

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  • In some tropical stations, at certain seasons of the year, thunder is almost a daily occurrence.

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  • On the eastern forested slopes and in the lower valleys tropical conditions prevail.

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  • The plant generally understood by this name is Nepenthes, a genus containing nearly sixty species, natives of tropical Asia, north Australia and (one only) of Madagascar.

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  • It is a small tropical island that attracts outdoor adventurists.

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  • On many of the islets numerous tropical fruits are found growing wild, but they are no doubt escapes from cultivation, just as the large herds of wild cattle, horses, donkeys, pigs, goats and dogs - the last large and fierce - which occur abundantly on most of the islands have escaped from domestication.

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  • The tropics of Cancer and Capricorn cut off with surprising precision (the latter somewhat less so) the tropical from the north and south temperate zones..

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  • Its broad pinnate tropical leaf was pleasant though strange to look on.

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  • The Chinese immigrants suffer chiefly from fever of a malarial type, from beri-beri, a species of tropical dropsy, and from dysentery.

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  • The shores are covered with coral; earthquakes and tidal waves are frequent, the latter not taking the form of bores, but of a sudden steady rise and equally sudden fall in the level of the sea; the climate is rather tropical than temperate, but sickness is almost unknown among the residents.

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  • The tertiary era opens with a climate in which during the Eocene period something like existing tropical conditions must have obtained in the northern hemisphere.

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  • It is possibly for the purpose of feeding on parasitic mites that book-scorpions lodge themselves beneath the wing-cases of large tropical beetles; and the same explanation, in default of a better, may be extended to their well-known and oft-recorded habit of seizing hold of the legs of horse-flies or other two-winged insects.

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  • The territories of the Gran Chaco, however, are covered with a characteristic tropical vegetation, in which the palm predominates, but intermingled south of the Bermejo with heavy growths of algarrobo, quebracho-colorado, urunday (Astronium fraxinifolium), lapacho (Tecoma curialis) and palosanto (Guayacum officinalis), all esteemed for hardness and fineness of grain.

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  • The inhabitants of tropical America sometimes keep fireflies in small cages for purposes of illumination, or make use of the insects for personal adornment.

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  • Firefly is a term popularly used for certain tropical American click-beetles (Pyrophorus), due to their power of emitting light.

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  • As unlicensed blood-letters, certain land-leeches are among the most unpleasant of parasites that can be encountered in a tropical jungle.

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  • They are all inhabitants of the open plains or the forests of the tropical and temperate parts of South America, with the exception of a few species which range as far north as Texas.

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  • Florida is a great area to visit with its tropical climate and endless beaches.

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  • Occurring in all temperate and tropical countries, book-scorpions live for the most part under stones, beneath the bark of trees or in vegetable detritus.

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  • Darian, who had willingly hired a sailboat and sailed straight into a tropical storm.

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  • The valley regions are tropical, and malarial fevers are common.

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  • Catasetinae, with three tropical American genera, two of which, Cataselurn and Cycnoches, have dior tri-morphic flowers.

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  • The Red Sea is the world's most accessible tropical marine aquarium.

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  • They occur up mountain slopes as far as vegetation extends, in tropical valleys and forests, in open grassy plains, in sandy deserts, and even in fresh-water ponds and between tide-marks on the seashore.

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  • Here the tropical heat is tempered by constant trade winds, there is perfect immunity from hurricanes, the soil is peculiarly suited for cane-growing, and by the use of specially-prepared fertilizers and an ample supply of water at command for irrigation the land yields from 50 to 90 tons of canes per acre, from which from 12 to 14% of sugar is produced.

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  • The population of European blood, which calls itself Creole, is greater than that of any other tropical colony; many of the inhabitants trace their descent from ancient French families, and the higher and middle classes are distinguished for their intellectual culture.

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  • The parrot tribe form one of the most pre-eminently tropical groups of birds, only a few species extending into the warmer temperate regions; yet even the most exclusively tropical genera are by no means delicate birds as regards climate.

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  • Many tropical types here ascend to 7000 ft.

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  • The true boas comprise some forty species; most of them are American, but the genus Eryx inhabits North Africa, Greece and south-western Asia; the genus Enygrus ranges from New Guinea to the Fiji; Casarea dussumieri is restricted to Round Island, near Mauritius; and two species of Boa and one of Corallus represent this subfamily in Madagascar, while all the other boas live in America, chiefly in tropical parts.

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  • From this statement of the conditions it will be seen that the tropical zone is the most favourable for observation, and that the most favourable hour of the day at which the light can be seen must always be the earliest after sunset and the last before sunrise.

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  • It is noteworthy that he could see the zodiacal band across the entire sky during the whole of every very clear moonless night in tropical regions.

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  • Vast stores of hard vegetable fats are still practically wasted in tropical countries, such as India, Indo-China and the Sunda Islands, tropical South America, Africa and China.

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  • Some species included in the genus Danaeites or Danaeopsis from Jurassic rocks of Poland, Austria and Switzerland may possibly be closely allied to the recent tropical genus Danaea.

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  • Sezanne yields Ferns in profusion, mingled with other shade-loving plants such as would grow under the trees in a moist ravine; its vegetation is comparable to that of an island in the tropical seas.

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  • Callitris (2 species), Sequoia, Athrotaxis (?) Ginkgo, Podocarpus, Pinus; and several genera of palms, of which the tropical Nipa is the most abundant and most characteristic, among the others being fan-palms of the genera Sabal and Chamaerops.

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  • He considers the flora to be the most tropical of any that has so far been studied in the northern hemisphere.

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  • The plants suggest a comparison of the climate and forests with those of the Malay Archipelago and tropical America.

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  • Among the characteristics of this Miocene flora are the large number of families represented, the marked increase in the deciduous-leaved plants, the gradual decrease in the number of palms and of tropical plants, and the replacement of these latter by Mediterranean or North American forms. According to Heer, the tropical forms in the Swiss Miocene agree rather with Asiatic types, while the subtropical and temperate plants are allied to forms now living in the temperate zone in North America.

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  • Among the Dicotyledons, the Leguminosae take the first place with 131 species, including Acacia, Caesalpinia and Cassia, each represented by several forms. The occurrence of 90 species of Amentaceae shows that, as the climate became less tropical, the relative proportion of this group to the total flora increased.

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  • But if this process is continuous from latitude to latitude, then we ought not to look for a flora of equivalent age in the warm-temperate Miocene deposits of central Europe, but should rather expect to find that the temperate plants of Greenland were contemporaneous with a tropical flora in central Europe.

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  • Concurrently with this change, the tropical and extinct forms disappeared, and the flora approached more and more nearly to that now existing in the districts where the fossil plants are found, though in the older deposits, at any rate, the geographical distribution still differed considerably from that now met with.

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  • Degraded, worm-like batrachians of still obscure affinities, inhabiting tropical Africa, south-eastern Asia and tropical America.

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  • The recent addition of a third genus of Aglossa, Hymenochirus (24) from tropical Africa, combining characters of Pipa and Xenopus, has removed every doubt as to the real affinity which connects these genera.

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  • Papyrus grows in Lake Huleh, and rice and cereals thrive on its shores, whilst below the Sea of Galilee the vegetation is almost tropical.

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  • It could have been a tropical rain forest, so densely covered with trees and without a trace of human inhabitants.

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  • The rain had quit for the day, though the tropical storm spinning around in the Gulf guaranteed another week or so of sporadic storms.

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  • The guy's sitting on some tropical beach with a babe in his lap.

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  • At Kericho we had the opportunity to walk in the Kakamega tropical rainforest, and looked at tea plantation agriculture.

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  • Tropical oils and mother's milk are by far the richest food sources of medium chain fatty acids available.

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  • It will be a natural amphitheater with waterfalls perfumed by tropical flowers.

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  • Tropical shrimp are produced either by industrial trawling in the wild or by intensive aquaculture.

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  • This book is essential reading for any marine aquarist wishing to keep tropical corals.

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  • Use casual language that will encourage guests to plunge into the fun, and be sure to include any special instructions such as encouraging guests to wear their brightest tropical shirt or sexiest swimsuit.

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  • Barbeques are great for all ages, and adults can appreciate tropical drinks and grilled seafood.

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  • For a light and delectable dessert, try sticky rice and tropical fruits.

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  • Honolulu is a wonderful vacation spot rich in history and tropical landscape.

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  • The north temperate region is more sharply separated from the other two than the south temperate region from the tropical.

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  • The western dry areas have the old-world leguminous Astragalus and Prosopis (Mesquit), but are especially characterized by the northward extension of the new-world tropical Cactaceae, Mgmmillaria, Cereus and Opuntia, by succulent Amar llideae such as A gave (of which the so-called American aloe is a type), and by arborescent Liliaceae (Yucca).

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  • It produces Indian corn and other cereals and potatoes in the colder regions, and tropical fruits, sweet potatoes and mandioca (Jatropha manihot, L.) in the low tropical valleys.

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  • The Alligator or Avocado Pear is Persea gratissima, a member of the natural order Lauraceae, and a native of the West Indies and other parts of tropical America.

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  • For the present the connivance of the senate at his coup d'etat of Nivose led to the deportation of one hundred and thirty Jacobins; some were interned in the islands of the Bay of Biscay, while fifty were sent to the tropical colonies of France, whence few of them ever returned.

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  • The southern territory held by this fauna is invaded by genera and species distinctly tropical.

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  • His colleague, Vieillot, brought out in 1805 a Histoire naturelle des plus beaux chanteurs de la Zone Torride with figures by Langlois of tropical finches, grosbeaks, buntings and other hard-billed birds; and in 1807 two volumes of a Histoire' naturelle des oiseaux de l'Amenique septentrionale, without, however, paying much attention to the limits commonly assigned by geographers to' that part of the world.

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  • The greatest disparity in size between the sexes is met with in the tropical genus Nephila, the females of which are gigantic representatives of the Argyopidae.

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  • The order is widely spread in temperate and tropical regions, and contains 85 genera with about 1200 species.

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  • The scenery in the oriental portion of the island is very beautiful, with wild mountains and tropical forests.

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  • The tropical heat and humidity of Cuba make possible a flora of splendid richness.

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  • The climate of Cuba is tropical and distinctively insular in characteristics of humidity, equability and high mean temperature.

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  • Convincing evidence is offered by the qualities of the Spanish race in Cuba that white men of temperate lands can be perfectly acclimatized in this tropical island.

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  • There are the usual malarial, bilious and intermittent fevers, and liver, stomach and intestinal complaints prevalent in tropical countries; but unhygienic living is, in Cuba as elsewhere, mainly responsible for their existence.

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  • The connexion that seemed to be first established was between variations in the quantity of water transported from the tropical to the sub-polar Atlantic and variations in the intensit y of solar radiation.

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  • In general the plankton - and especially the phyto-plankton of the polar and temperate seas - is much more abundant than is that of the sub-tropical and tropical zones.

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  • If this is admitted the poverty of tropical sea-water in mineral nitrogen compounds is explained by the higher temperature, which accelerates the activity of denitrifying bacteria.

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  • The Ptychoderidae and Spengelidae are predominantly tropical and subtropical, while the Balanoglossidae are predominantly arctic and temperate in their distribution.

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  • In 1900 a high school for shipbuilding was founded, and in 1901 an institute for seamen's and tropical diseases, with a laboratory for their physiological study, was opened, and also the first public free library in the city.

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  • About most of the residences there are many tropical trees, flowering shrubs and plants.

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  • The forests of tropical America have suffered similarly, trees having been injured or destroyed and in some cases cut down in order to secure the immediate increase of supply which was called for by a considerable rise in value.

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  • In 1909 the total production of rubber is stated to have been about 70,000 tons, of which more than one-half came from tropical America, about one-third from Africa, whilst the remainder was chiefly of Asiatic origin, including " plantation " rubber from Ceylon and Malaya, which amounted to about 3000 tons.

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  • Among these are the precise extent of demand, the limit of the inevitable fall in price with largely increased production, the cost of labour as increasing amounts are required, and the effect of changed conditions on the output of " wild " rubber and the competition of the new plantations which are being established in tropical America.

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  • They contain a few genera chiefly old world tropical and subtropical.

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  • The country is mountainous, and the vegetation of the lower heights begins to assume a tropical aspect.

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  • This region is more tropical in character, partially barren, and has an uncertain rainfall, a large part of the Sao Francisco basin and the upper Atlantic slope of its eastern rim being subject to long-continued droughts.

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  • Its climate is more tropical and its development has gone forward less rapidly than in the more temperate regions of the south.

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  • In general terms, it is a tropical country, with sub-tropical and temperate areas covering its three southern states and a great part of the elevated central plateau.

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  • The lower river valleys of the Tocantins-Araguaya, Xingu, Tapajos and Paraguay are essentially tropical, their climate being hot and humid like that of the Amazon.

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  • These animals are found only in the tropical regions of South America.

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  • Of the great inland region, which includes the arid campos of the north, the partially-wooded plateaus of Minas Geraes, Goyaz and Matto Grosso, the temperate highlands of the south, and the tropical lowlands of the Paraguay basin, no adequate description can be given without taking each section in detail, which can be done to better advantage in describing the individual states.

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  • The fibre of the piassava (Leopoldinia piassava, or Attalea funifera) is widely used for cordage, brushes and brooms. There are many other palms whose fruit, fibre and wood enter largely into the domestic economy of the natives, but the list given shows how important a service these trees rendered to the aboriginal inhabitants of tropical America, and likewise how useful they still are to the people of tropical Brazil.

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  • Besides these it might easily excel in producing many of the tropical fruits for which there is a commercial demand.

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  • But the most striking of the coast-belt flora are the tropical forms - the palm, mangrove, wild banana (Strelitzia augusta), tree-ferns, tree euphorbia, candelabra spurge and Caput medusae.

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  • More important than the cereal crops are the tropical and sub-tropical products of the coast zone.

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  • The British settlers soon realized that the coast lands were suited to the cultivation of tropical or semi-tropical products, and from 1852 onward sugar, coffee, cotton and arrow-root were introduced, tea being afterwards substituted for coffee.

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  • It contains about 40 genera with more than 1000 species, and is found in all parts of the world except the coldest, but is especially well developed in tropical Asia and tropical America.

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  • The creeping or trailing type is a common one, as in the English bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis), which has also a tendency to climb, and Calystegia Soldanella, the sea-bindweed, the long creeping stem of which forms a sandbinder on English seashores; a widespread and efficient tropical sand-binder is Ipomaea Pes-Caprae.

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  • One of the commonest tropical weeds, Evolvulus alsinoides, has slender, long-trailing stems with small leaves and flowers.

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  • In hot dry districts such as Arabia and north-east tropical Africa, genera have been developed with a low, much-branched, dense, shrubby habit, with small hairy leaves and very small flowers.

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  • The climate is tropical and generally unfavourable to white settlement, the exceptions being the elevated localities on the Amazon exposed to the strong winds blowing up that river.

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  • In the tropical district of the Limpopo valley there is some cultivation of the coffee-tree, and this region is also adapted for the growing of tea, sugar, cotton and rice.

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  • It is generally supposed that man originated in tropical or subtropical latitudes, and spread gradually towards the poles.

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  • Amongst the most northerly races the latter garb is worn by both sexes alike; farther south by the men, the women retaining the tropical form; farther south still the latter reigns supreme.

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  • The retention by women in Europe of the tropical garb can be explained by the fact that her sphere has been mainly confined to the house, and her life has been less active than that of man; consequently the adoption of the arctic dress has been in her case less necessary.

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  • The retention of the tropical pattern by the Highlanders is due directly to environment, since the kilt is better suited than trousers for walking over wet heather.

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  • On the coast and the northern slopes of the Maritime Andes the tropical heat is greatly modified by the trade-winds.

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  • The tropical vegetation extends to an altitude of about 1300 ft., above which it may be classed as semi-tropical up to about 3500 ft., and temperate up to 7200 ft., above which the vegetation is Alpine.

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  • Most bats are insect-eaters, but the tropical "flying foxes" or fox-bats of the Old World live on fruit; some are blood-suckers, and two feed on small fish.

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  • In general, tropical and semitropical conditions as to temperature, with a comparatively dry climate, give the best results.

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  • It thrives on the seaward slopes of the western range in the zone of the tropical rains, at Coffee.

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  • In tropical climates with a well-marked dry season mosquitoes pass into a semi-dormant condition during the period when there is little water in which to deposit their eggs.

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  • The genus Widdringtonia of tropical and South Africa is also known locally as cedar.

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  • In the oases of the Jerid are found several species of tropical African mammals and two or three of Senegalese birds, and the vegetation seems to have as much affinity with tropical Africa as with Europe.

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  • The montana is the region of tropical forests within the valley of the Amazon, and skirts the eastern slopes of the Andes.

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  • Most of these main streams flow through profound gorges in a tropical climate, while the upper slopes yield products of the temperate zone, and the plateaus above are cold and bleak, affording only pasture and the hardiest cereals.

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  • There is a tropical flora in the deep gorges, higher up a sub-tropical, then a temperate, then a sub-arctic flora.

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  • The third division of Peru is the region of the tropical forests, at the base of the Andes, and within the basin of the Amazon.

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  • The other products of these warm valleys are excellent coffee, cocoa, sugar, tropical fruits of all kinds, and gold in abundance.

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  • Tsetse-flies are restricted to Africa, where they occur in suitable localities throughout the greater portion of the tropical region, although not found either in the Sahara or in the veld country of the extreme south.

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  • But there are also a number of tropical species, notably among butterflies and beetles.

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  • Among butterflies (chOchO) Rein gives prominence to the broad-winged kind (Papilio), which recall tropical brilliancy.

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  • Flocks of lupa and other species swim in the wake of the tropical fishes which move towards Japan at certain seasons.

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  • Of contemporary magazines the Tropical Agriculturist was started in 1881, the Ceylon Literary Register (1886-1896), afterwards the Monthly Literary Register and the Ceylon National Review in 1893.

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  • The majority of snakes are active during the day, their energy increasing with the increasing temperature; whilst some delight in the moist sweltering heat of dense tropical vegetation, others expose themselves to the fiercest rays of the midday sun.

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  • They are widely distributed in all tropical and subtropical countries, even in such solitary places as Christmas Island, but they do not occur in New Zealand.

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  • Tortrix scytale, one of the "coral-snakes" of tropical South America, is beautiful coral-red with black rings, grows to nearly a yard in length, and is said sometimes to be worn as a necklace by native ladies.

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  • The range of the family extends over all the tropical and subtropical countries, including islands, except New Zealand.

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  • Dipsadomorphus, Dipsas, Leptognathus, Dryophis, Dendrophis and other closely allied genera are typical, very long-bodied and longtailed tree-snakes, chiefly tropical.

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  • The most beautiful of all snakes are perhaps certain varieties of Chrysopelea ornata, a species extremely common in the Indian Archipelago and many parts of the continent of tropical Asia.

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  • These snakes are all very poisonous, mostly viviparous and found in all tropical and subtropical countries, with the exception of Madagascar and New Zealand.

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  • They are the tropical American Elaps, the Indian Callophis, the African Poecilophis and the Australian Vermicella.

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  • The vegetation is also rich, and Amboyna produces most of the common tropical fruits and vegetables, including the sago-palm, bread-fruit, cocoa-nut, sugar-cane, maize, coffee, pepper and cotton.

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  • It is generally distributed in temperate and tropical regions, but especially developed in warm countries.

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  • In Arum the blade is simple, as also in the so-called arum-lily (Richardia), a South African species common in Britain as a greenhouse plant, and in Caladium, a tropical South American genus, and Alocasia (tropical Asia), species of which are favourite warm-greenhouse plants on account of their variegated leaves.

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  • In other genera the leaves are much divided and sometimes very large; those of Dracontium (tropical America) may be 15 ft.

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  • Izerbacea and arctic species generally, to 1 oo ft., and occurring most abundantly in cold or temperate climates in both hemispheres, and generally in moist situations; a few species occur in the tropical and sub-tropical portions of the three great continents.

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  • The rains descend in floods upon the heights; but in the vicinity of Tasisudon, the capital, they are moderate; there are frequent showers, but nothing that can be compared to the tropical rains of Bengal.

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  • The habitats which they affect are the hot, dry regions of tropical America, the aridity of which they are enabled to withstand in consequence of the thickness of their skin and the paucity of evaporating pores or stomata with which they are furnished, - these conditions not permitting the moisture they contain to be carried off too rapidly; the thick fleshy stems and branches contain a store of water.

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  • Mangrove swamps surround the town and epidemics of cholera, yellow fever and other tropical diseases have been frequent; but the unhealthiness of the climate is mitigated to some extent by the high tides which cover the marshes, and the invigorating breezes which blow in from the sea.

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  • Rice, cotton, sugar-cane, yucas (Manihot aipi) and tropical fruits are produced in the irrigated valleys of the coast, and wheat, Indian corn, barley, potatoes, coffee, coca, &c., in the upland regions.

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  • Most Hymenoptera are of moderate or small size, the giants of the order - certain saw-flies and tropical digging-waspsnever reach the bulk attained by the largest beetles, while the wing-spread is narrow compared with that of many dragonflies and moths.

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  • In the north tropical belt of high pressure south of the Azores the atmospheric pressure in January is o 87 in.

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  • In the region of tropical hurricanes the navies, while in the Mediterranean and in the Indian Ocean converging wind system of a circular storm causes a heaping many soundings were made in connexion with submarine up of water capable of devastating the low coral islands of the cables to the East.

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  • This variety surrounds the tropical parts of the continental shelves of South America, South Africa and eastern China.

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  • Still, according to Murray and Irvine, finely divided colloidal clay is to be found in all parts of the ocean however remote from land, though in very small amount, and there is less in tropical than in cooler waters.

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  • Observations with the xanthometer have not hitherto been numerous, but it appears that the purest blue (o--I on Forel's scale) is found in the Sargasso Sea, in the North Atlantic and in similarly situated tropical or subtropical regions in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.

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  • Over shallows even the water of the tropical oceans is always green.

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  • Brown or even blood-red stripes have been observed in the North Atlantic when swarms of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus were present; the brown alga Trichodesmium erythraeum, as its name suggests, can change the blue of the tropical seas to red; swarms of diatoms may produce olive-green patches in the ocean, while some other forms of minute life have at times been observed to give the colour of milk to large stretches of the ocean surface.

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  • Buchanan on the " Challenger " were vitiated by the incompleteness of the method employed, but they are none the less of value in showing clearly that the waters of the far south of the Indian Ocean are relatively rich in carbonic acid and the tropical areas deficient.

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  • In each of the three oceans there are two maxima of salinity-one in the north, the other in the south tropical belt, separated by a zone of minimum salinity in the equatorial region, and giving place poleward to regions of still lower salinity.

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  • Buchanan pointed out in 1876, that the great contrasts in surface salinity between the tropical maxima and the equatorial minima give place at the moderate depth of 200 fathoms to a practically uniform salinity in all parts of the ocean.

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  • The latter often gives birth to prodigious icebergs and ice islands, which are carried northward by ocean currents, nearly as far as the tropical zone before they melt.

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  • Vertical movements are also produced by difference of temperature in the water, but these can only be feeble, as below 'coo fathoms the temperature differences between tropical and polar waters are very small.

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  • The existence of a layer of water of low salinity at a depth of 500 fathoms in the tropical oceans of the southern hemisphere is to be referred to this action of the melting ice of the Antarctic regions.

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  • In a narrow strip along the Gulf there are some Mexican or tropical birds, notably the caracara and two varieties of grackle (Megaquiscalus).

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  • What may be called typical, that is to say arboreal, squirrels are found throughout the greater part of the tropical and temperate regions of both hemispheres, although they are absent both from Madagascar and Australasia.

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  • Although the English squirrel is a beautiful little animal, it is surpassed by many of the tropical members of the group, and especially by those of the Malay countries, where nearly all the species are brilliantly marked, and many are ornamented The Burmese Red-bellied Squirrel (Sciurus pygerythrus).

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  • The climate is remarkably healthy, the heat due to its tropical situation being moderated by land and sea breezes.

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  • On the low littoral zone the coast produced a rich tropical bush, in which the mangrove is very prominent.

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  • Pangani (pop. about 3500) is situated at the mouth of the river of the same name; it serves a district rich in tropical products, and does a thriving trade with Zanzibar and Pemba.

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  • There are luxuriant tropical forests in the coast region of Buganda, in Busoga, west Elgon, western Unyoro, eastern Toro, the central Semliki valley and north-west Ankole.

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  • The usual tropical food-plants are cultivated.

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  • The genus contains about two hundred species in tropical and temperate regions.

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  • On March 23rd, two weeks after he ceased to be president, Mr Roosevelt sailed for Africa, to carry out a long-cherished plan of conducting an expedition for the purpose of making a scientific collection of the fauna and flora of the tropical regions of that continent.

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  • The large river-prawns of the genus Palaemon (closely allied to Leander) found in most tropical countries are also often used as food.

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  • The majority of the species of Clupea are of greater or less utility to man; it is only a few tropical species that acquire, probably from their food, highly poisonous properties, so as to be dangerous to persons eating them.

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  • The coast region is characterized by mangroves, Pandanus, rattans, and similar palms with long flexible stems, and the middle region by the great rice-fields, the coco-nut and areca palms, and the usual tropical plants of culture.

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  • Espirito Santo is almost exclusively agricultural, sugar-cane, coffee, rice, cotton, tobacco, mandioca and tropical fruits being the principal products.

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  • The home of the vast majority of parrot-forms is unquestionably within the tropics, but the popular belief that parrots are tropical birds only is a great mistake.

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  • A large number of forms learn in captivity to talk and whistle, the well-known red-tailed grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) of tropical Africa being pre-eminent.

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  • Synetheres, or Coendu, contains some eight or ten species, known as tree-porcupines, found throughout tropical South America, with one extending into Mexico.

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  • The great warming and abundant rainfall of the island regions of the western Pacific, and the low temperature of the surface water in the east, cause a displacement of the southern tropical maximum of pressure to the east; hence we have a permanent " South Pacific anticyclone " close to the coast of South America.

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  • Beyond the tropical high-pressure belt, the winds of the North Pacific are under the control of an area of low pressure, which, however, attains neither the size nor the intensity of the " Iceland " depression in the north Atlantic. The result is that north-westerly winds, which in winter are exceedingly dry and cold, blow over the western or Asiatic area; westerly winds prevail in the centre, and south-westerly and southerly winds off the American coast.

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  • This large family contains about 400 species, with numerous genera; the greatest diversity in numbers and forms occurs in the tropical parts of the Old World, especially in the Australian region, inclusive of many of the Pacific islands.

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  • In England Robert Hooke (1635-1703) held to the theory of extinction of fossil forms, and advanced the two most fertile ideas of deriving from fossils a chronology, or series of time intervals in the earth's history, and of primary changes of climate, to account for the former existence of tropical species in England.

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  • This implies tropical and sub-tropical conditions.

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  • Descending to the lowlands on either side of the plateau, the temperature rises steadily until the upper limit of the tropical region, called tierras calientes, is reached, where the climate is hot, humid and unhealthy, as elsewhere in the forested coastal plains of tropical America.

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  • The great central plateau and its bordering lowlands form an intermediate territory in which these dissimilar types are found side by side, the tropical species extending northward along the coast to the United States, while the northern species have found their way to the southern limits of the plateau.

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  • Alligators and crocodiles are numerous in the lagoons and rivers of the coast and the iguana is to be found everywhere throughout the tropical lowlands, the large black Ctenosura acanthinurus being partly arboreal in habit when full grown.

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  • The arboreal life of the tropical forests has developed the treeclimbing habit among snakes as well as among frogs and toads, and also the habit of mimicry, their colour being in harmony with the foliage or bark of the trees which form their " hunting-grounds."

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  • This is due not only to its geographical position and its vertical climatic zones, which give it a range from tropical to arctic types, but also to its peculiar combination of humid and arid conditions in which we find an extensive barren table-land interposed between two tropical forested coastal zones.

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  • These widely divergent conditions give to Mexico a flora that includes the genera and species characteristic of nearly all the zones of plant life on the western continents - the tropical jungle of the humid coastal plains with its rare cabinet-woods, dye-woods, lianas and palms; the semi-tropical and temperate mountain slopes where oak forests are to be found and wheat supplants cotton and sugar-cane; and above these the region of pine forests and pasture lands.

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  • In southern Mexico the pine is found at even lower elevations where the tropical growth has been destroyed by cultivation and fire.

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  • The denuded mountain slopes and plateaus of southern Mexico are due to the prehistoric inhabitants who cleared away the tropical forest for their Indian corn fields, and then left them to the erosive action of the tropical rains and subsequent occupation by coarse grasses.

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  • In the valleys of some of these denuded slopes oak and pine are succeeding the tropical species where fires have given them a chance to get a good foothold.

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  • In the agricultural regions sugar, cotton, tobacco, cacao, coffee, mandioca and tropical fruits are produced.

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  • Ross (49), regarding the parasites as a quite different kind of Sporozoan, termed them Leishmania; and Wright named his variety from tropical ulcers Helcosoma tropicum.

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  • Owing to their tropical heat, low elevation above sea-level, and marshy soil, they are thinly peopled, and contain few important towns except the seaports.

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  • Fauna.Differences of temperature have produced in North America seven transcontinental life-zones or areas characterized by relative uniformity of both fauna and flora; they are the Arctic, Hudsonian and Canadian, which are divisions of the Boreal Region; the Transition, Upper Austral and Lower Austral, which are divisions of the Austral Region, and the Tropical.

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  • The Arctic, Hudsonian and Canadian enter the United States from the north and the Tropical from the south; but the greater part of the United States is occupied by the Transition, Upper Austral and Lower Austral, and each of these is divided into eastern and western subzones by differences in the amount of moisture.

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  • It is the northernmost home of the armadillo, ocelot, jaguar, red and grey cats, and the spiny pocket mouse, and in southern Texas especially it is visited by several species of tropical birds.

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  • There is some resemblance to the Tropical life-zone at the south-eastern extremity of Texas, but this zone in the United States is properly restricted to southern Florida and the lower valley of the Colorado along the border of California and Arizona, and the knowledge of the latter is very imperfect.

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  • The area in Florida is too small for characteristic tropical mammals, but it has the true crocodile (Crocodilus americanus) and is the home of a few tropical birds.

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  • The Austroriparian zone has the long-leaf and loblolly pines, magnolia and live oak on the uplands, and the bald cypress, tupelo and cane in the swamps; and in the semi-tropical Gulf strip are the cabbage palmetto and Cuban pine; here, too, Sea Island cotton and tropical fruits are successfully cultivated.

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  • The Tropical belt of southern Florida has the royal palm.

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  • On the westward slopes, especially of the Selkirks and Coast Ranges, vegetation is almost tropical in its density and luxuriance, the giant cedar and the Douglas fir sometimes having diameters of 10 ft.

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  • The bracing weather of Canadian winters is followed by the warmth and humidity of genial summers, under which crops grow in almost tropical luxuriance, while the cool evenings and nights give the plants a robustness of quality which are not to be found in tropical regions, and also make life for the various domestic animals wholesome and comfortable.

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  • In 1899 he retired from the Indian medical service, and devoted himself to research and teaching, joining the Liverpool school of tropical medicine as lecturer, and subsequently becoming professor of tropical medicine at Liverpool University.

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  • In 1913 he became physician for tropical diseases to King's College, London.

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  • The products are so diversified that, with the exception of some tropical fruits of California and Florida, almost everything cultivated in the United States can be produced.

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  • All the islands possess a very fertile soil; there are forests of coco-nut palms, and among the products are rice, maize, sweetpotatoes, yams, coffee, cotton, vanilla and various tropical fruits, the papaw tree being abundant.

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  • The tierra caliente zone of the coast is tropical, humid, and unfavourable to Europeans, while the inland plateaus vary from subtropical to temperate and are generally drier and healthful.

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  • The few representatives of this group are all very small rodents, confined to tropical Africa, the Philippines and the Malay islands.

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  • The plant is widely distributed in temperate and tropical regions, and is occasionally found in the western counties of England, the Isle of Man, and west Ireland, growing on damp rocks or walls especially near the sea.

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  • The genus Adiantum is a large one containing many handsome species both tropical and temperate, well known in greenhouse and hothouse cultivation.

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  • According to Roxburgh, the great Indian botanist, the cultivated rice with all its numerous varieties has originated from a wild plant, called in India Newaree or Nivara, which is indigenous on the borders of lakes in the Circars and elsewhere in India, and is also native in tropical Australia.

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  • Rice has been cultivated from time immemorial in tropical countries.

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  • It was very early cultivated in India, in some parts of which country, as in tropical Australia, it is, as we have seen, indigenous.

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  • Rice constitutes one of the most important articles of food in all tropical and subtropical countries, and is one of the most prolific of all crops.

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  • In tropical countries drought is the commonest cause of a failure in the harvest, and where great droughts are not uncommon - as in parts of India and Australia - the hydraulic engineer comes to the rescue by devising systems of water-storage and irrigation.

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  • Owing to its tropical situation and its almost entire dependence upon the monsoon rains, India is more liable than any other country in the world to crop failures, which upon occasion deepen into famine.

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  • This and the smaller valleys are noted for the beauty of their tropical scenery.

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  • The valleys are remarkable for beautiful scenery, - peaks, cliffs, lateral ravines, cascades and tropical vegetation.

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  • Hawaiian forests are distinctly tropical, and are composed for the most part of trees below the medium height.

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  • But the most noteworthy characteristics of the province are, perhaps, the brilliancy of its climate, the beauty of its scenery (which ranges in character from the alpine to the tropical), and the interest of its art and antiquities.

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  • Its great elevation causes the climate to be rather arctic than tropical, so that there is no gradual blending of the climates and physical conditions of India and Tibet, such as would tend to promote intercourse between the inhabitants of these neighbouring regions; on the contrary, there are sharp lines of demarcation, in a mountain barrier which is scalable at only a few points, and in the social aspects and conditions of life on either side.

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  • The greater part of the space thus enclosed is occupied by comparatively modern suburbs and gardens of almost tropical luxuriance, strongly contrasting with the huge factories and busy port of the original city in their midst.

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  • In tropical America the genus Elaps, which is both poisonous and warningly coloured, is a model for several innocuous snakes.

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  • Considering, however, the numbers of venomous and innocuous snakes that occur in most tropical countries, it might be supposed that mimicry in this order of reptiles would be of commoner occurrence than appears to be the case.

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  • This is well exemplified by the leaf-insects (Phyllium) and stickinsects (Bactra), where the likeness to the models after which they are named is procryptic; and also by various species of tropical Mantidae which resemble flowers for the purpose of alluring insects within striking distance and perhaps also for concealing their identity from enemies.

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  • The cut portions of bulky sets should be suffered to lie a short time before being planted, in order to dry the surface and prevent rotting; this should not, however, be done with such tropical subjects as caladiums, the tubers of which are often cut up into very small fragments for propagation, and of course require to be manipulated in a properly heated propagating pit.

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  • The plant is a native of tropical Africa, but it has been introduced, and is now cultivated in most tropical and in the warmer temperate countries.

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  • Hot desert conditions are primarily found along the tropical belts of high atmospheric pressure in which the conditions of warmth and dryness are most fully realized, and on their equatorial sides, but the zonal arrangement is considerably modified in some regions by the monsoonal influence of elevated land.

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  • Polish millet is P. sanguinale; P. frumentaceum, shamalo, a Deccan grass, is probably a native of tropical Africa; P. decompositum is the Australian millet, its grains being made into cakes by the aborigines.

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  • P. maximum is the Guinea grass, native of tropical Africa; it is perennial, grows 8 ft.

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  • P. spectabile is the coapim of Angola, but has been acclimatized in Brazil and other tropical countries.

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  • Of species belonging to allied genera, Pennisetum typhoideum, bajree, sometimes also called Egyptian millet or pearl millet, is largely cultivated in tropical Asia, Nubia and Egypt.

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  • Many tropical plants present on the upper surface of their leaves several layers of compressed cells beneath the epidermis which serve for storage of water and are known as aqueous tissue.

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  • In tropical countries, however, many trees lose their leaves in the dry season.

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  • The climate indeed which favours tropical profusion of jungle growth - still steaming heat - is that most favourable for the cultivation of tea, and such climate, unfortunately, is often trying to the health of Europeans.

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  • Ekholm and Arrhenius(11) claim to have established the existence of a true tropical lunar period of 27.32 days, and also of a 26-day period, or, as they make it, a 25.9 2 9 -day period.

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  • The country lies wholly within the tropics and has a characteristic tropical climate.

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  • The okapi (Ocapia), which is also African but restricted to the tropical forest-region, in place of being an inhabitant of more or less open country, represents a second genus, characterized by the shorter neck and limbs, the totally different type of colouring, and the restriction of the horns to the male sex, in which they form a pair on the forehead; these horns being more compressed than FIG.

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  • The analogy possibly may be extended to such cases as the occurrence of flora or fauna with alpine characters on the summits of mountains separated by broad zones of tropical climate.

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  • When it was first occupied by Sir Stanford Raffles, on behalf of the East India Company, the island was covered by jungle, but now all the land not reserved by government has been taken up, principally by Chinese, who plant vegetables in large quantities, indigo and other tropical products.

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  • The town is surrounded by an extensive and extremely fertile plain which produces very large quantities of rice as well as a great variety of tropical fruits, and a ready market for these products is found in Manila whither they are shipped by boat.

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  • The tongue is bifid at the tip in a few genera; usually it is pointed and varies greatly in length, being comparatively short in Andrena, long in the humble-bees(Bombus), and longest in Euglossa, a tropical American genus of solitary bees.

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  • It is unknown in the native state, but is most probably indigenous to tropical America.

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  • In the strip of low country that fringes the peninsula below the Ghats the rainfall is heavy and the climate warm and damp, the vegetation being dense and characteristically tropical, and the steep slopes of the Ghats, where they have not been artificially cleared, thickly clothed with forest.

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  • India thus becomes the type of a tropical monsoon climate.

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  • In respect to positive affinities, Sir Joseph Hooker pointed out some relations with the flora of tropical Africa as evidenced by the prevalence of such genera as Grewia and Impatiens, and the absence, common to both countries, of oaks and pines which abound in the Malayan archipelago.

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  • The ornithology of India, though it is not considered so rich in specimens of gorgeous and variegated plumage as that of other tropical regions, contains many splendid and Birds.

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  • Taking India as a whole, the staple food grain is neither rice nor wheat, but millets, which are probably the most prolific grain in the world, and the best adapted to the vicissitudes of a tropical climate.

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  • The soil is suitable for the cultivation of almost all kinds of tropical produce, and it is to be regretted that the prosperity of the colony depends almost entirely on one article of production, for the consequences are serious when there is a failure, more or less, of the sugar crop. Guano is extensively imported as a manure, and by its use the natural fertility of the soil has been increased to a wonderful extent.

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  • The island is notable for its tropical vegetation and climate.

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  • The island is mountainous and wooded, and completely shelters the harbour from easterly storms. The surroundings are highly picturesque and tropical in character, but the town itself is poorly built and unattractive.

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  • In the low country the flora differs little from that of tropical Africa generally, whilst on the plateau the vegetation is characteristic of the temperate zone.

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  • A uniformly high temperature, excessive humidity, heavy rainfalls and violent tropical storms, known as typhoons or baguios, are characteristic of the Philippine climate.

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  • Many tropical fruits grow wild but their quality is often inferior; those cultivated most extensively are mangoes and bananas.

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  • Korea produces all cereals and root crops except the tropical, along with cotton, tobacco, a species of the Rhea plant used for making grass-cloth, and the Brousonettia papyrifera.

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  • The introduction of other exotics into these zones, - made humid by irrigation, which converts them, the one into true austro-riparian the other into true humid tropical, has revolutionized the agricultural, and indeed the whole, economy of California.

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  • The possibilities of the lower Sonoran and tropical areas are still imperfectly known.

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  • But elsewhere it is distinctly tropical, with two seasons - wet from May to November on the Pacific slope, and from June to December on the Caribbean, and dry throughout the winter months.

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  • True gum-arabic is the product of Acacia Senegal, abundant in both east and west tropical Africa.

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  • The plants often bear spines, especially those growing in arid districts in Australia or tropical and South Africa.

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  • Species occur in all seas of the temperate, tropical and subtropical zones.

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  • Linseed grown in tropical countries is much larger and more plump than that obtained in temperate climes, but the seed from the colder countries yields a finer quality of oil.

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  • In the Moluccas, where the Dutch have had settlements for 250 years, some of the inhabitants trace their descent to early immigrants; and these, as well as most of the people of Dutch descent in the east, are quite as fair as their European ancestors, enjoy excellent health, and are very prolific. But the Dutch accommodate themselves admirably to a tropical climate, doing much of their work early in the morning, dressing very lightly, and living a quiet, temperate and cheerful life.

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  • The common small white butterfly of Europe (Pontia or Pieris rapae) is now established in North America; and the march of the jigger, or foot-infesting flea (Sarcopsylla penetrans) of tropical America, across Africa, has taken place in quite recent years.

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  • Esparto grass, rice, olives, the sugar-cane, and tropical fruits and vegetables are largely produced.

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  • The cold antarctic, or Humboldt, current sweeps northward along the coast and greatly modifies the heat of the arid, tropical plateaus.

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  • With this exception these regions are the most arid on the face of the globe, highly heated by a tropical sun during the day and chilled at night by the proximity of snow-covered heights and a cold ocean current.

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  • There are no alligators in the streams, and the tropical north has very few lizards.

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  • The genus Ostrea has a world-wide distribution, in tropical and temperate seas; seventy species have been distinguished.

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  • The sandy zone along the coast is nearly barren, but behind this is a more elevated region with broken surfaces and sandy soil which is amenable to cultivation and produces fruit and most tropical products when conditions are favourable.

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  • The principal agricultural products are cotton, coffee, sugar, mandioca and tropical fruits.

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  • Only along the south-eastern coast and in some of the river valleys is the climate of a markedly tropical character; here the rainfall rises to 50 in.

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  • In the Cape, Natal and the Transvaal coal mining is largely developed; in the Transvaal and the Cape tobacco is grown extensively; sugar, tea and other tropical and sub-tropical produce are largely cultivated in Natal and the Portuguese territory, and, since 1905, mealies have become an important article of export.

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  • It is the name of a tree (Crescentia Cujete) of tropical America, whose gourd-like fruit is so hard that vessels made of it can be used over a fire many times before being burned.

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  • The Bambuseae contain twenty-three genera and occur throughout the tropical zone, but very unevenly distributed; they also extend into the sub-tropical and even into the temperate zone.

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  • Tropical Asia is richest in species; in Africa there are very few.

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  • Speaking broadly, the general type of the flora of the lower, hotter and wetter regions, which extend along the great plain at the foot of the Himalaya, and include the valleys of the larger rivers which penetrate far into the mountains, does not differ from that of the contiguous peninsula and islands, though the tropical and insular character gradually becomes less marked going from east to west, where, with a greater elevation and distance from the sea and higher latitude, the rainfall and humidity diminish and the winter cold increases.

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  • The vegetation of the western part of the plain and of the hottest zone of the western mountains thus becomes closely allied to, or almost identical with, that of the drier parts of the Indian peninsula, more especially of its hilly portions; and, while a general tropical character is preserved, forms are observed which indicate the addition of an Afghan as well as of an African element, of which last the gay lily Gloriosa superba is an example, pointing to some.

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  • In the tropical zone large figs abound, Terminalia, Shorea (sal), laurels, many Leguminosae, Bombax, Artocarpus, bamboos and several palms, among which species of Calamus are remarkable, climbing over the largest trees; and this is the western limit of Cycas and Myristica (nutmeg).

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  • Of the Coniferae, Podocarpus and Pinus longifolia alone descend to the tropical zone; Abies Brunoniana and Smithiana and the larch (a genus not seen in the western mountains) are found at 8000, and the yew and Picea Webbiana at 10,000 ft.

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  • The tropical forest is characterized by the trees of the hotter and drier parts of southern India, combined with a few of European type.

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  • The herbaceous tropical and semi-tropical vegetation likewise by degrees disappears, the Scitamineae, epiphytal and terrestrial Orchideae, Araceae, Cyrtandraceae and Begoniae only occur in small numbers in Kumaon, and scarcely extend west of the Sutlej.

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  • Notwithstanding that Algarve is hotter than Alemtejo, a profuse vegetation takes away much of the tropical effect.

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  • Under the same term may be included the other species of Dasyprocta, of which there are about half a score in tropical America.

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  • At their feet and in their lower valleys the heat is intense and the vegetation is tropical.

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  • The country possesses every gradation of temperature, from that of the tropical lowlands to the Arctic cold of the snow-capped peaks directly above.

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  • The temperature is tropical, winter is unknown and the atmosphere is exceedingly humid.

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  • In the tropical yungas the ground is covered with decaying vegetation, and malaria and fevers are common.

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  • Numerous species of monkeys inhabit the forests of the tropical region, together with the puma, jaguar, wildcat, coati, tapir or anta, sloth, ant-bear, paca (Coelogenys paca) and capybara.

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  • Owing to the diversities in altitude the flora of Bolivia represents every climatic zone, from the scanty Arctic vegetation of the lofty Cordilleras to the luxuriant tropical forests of the Amazon basin.

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  • Rice is another exotic grown in the tropical districts of eastern Bolivia, but the quantity produced is far from sufficient to meet local requirements.

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  • As the stronger side of Gotama's teaching was neglected, the debasing belief in rites and ceremonies, and charms and incantations, which had been the especial object of his scorn, began to spread like the Birana weed warmed by a tropical sun in marsh and muddy soil.

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  • Not much is known of the mandrill's habits in the wild state, nor of the exact limits of its geographical distribution; the specimens brought to Europe coming from the west coast of tropical Africa, from Guinea to the Gaboon.

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  • The sperm-whale is one of the most widely distributed of animals, being met with, usually in herds or "schools," in almost all tropical and subtropical seas, and occasionally visiting the northern seas, a number having been killed around the Shetlands a few years ago.

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  • It has a cool and healthy climate, and is a resort in summer for the people of the tropical coast districts, and in winter for invalids from the north.

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  • Tropical Nature and other Essays appeared in 1878, since republished combined with the 1871 Essays, of which it formed the natural continuation.

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  • Nausithoe, a small medusa of world-wide distribution, is the type of the subfamily Nausithoidae; the subfamily Linergidae includes the genera Linerges, &c., medusae confined to tropical seas.

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  • A terrestrial habitat is less common, but the widely-distributed land Isopoda or woodlice and the land-crabs of tropical regions have solved the problem of adaptation to a subaerial life.

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  • The more modern quarter which has grown up at the southern foot of the hill has handsome broad boulevards and villas, many of them with beautiful gardens, filled with semis tropical plants.

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  • To the south-east lies the Villa Landon with magnificent gardens filled with tropical plants.

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  • Europeans are subject to the usual tropical diseases, and the country is not suited for European colonization.

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  • The species are mostly natives 'of western tropical South America; others are found in various tropical and sub-tropical districts of both hemispheres.

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  • In ancient times little difficulty was felt in this, authorities such as Aristotle and Vitruvius seeing in climate and circumstance the natural cause of racial differences, the Ethiopian having been blackened by the tropical sun, &c. Later and closer observations, however, have shown such influences to be, at any rate, far slighter in amount and slower in operation than was once supposed.

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  • In grasses of temperate climates branching is rare at the upper nodes of the culm, but it is characteristic of the bamboos and many tropical grasses.

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  • Sorghum, an important tropical cereal known as black millet or durra.

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  • Imperata, another ally, is a widespread tropical genus; one species I.

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  • Vossia, an aquatic grass, often floating, is found in western India and tropical Africa.

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  • Elionurus, a widespread savanna grass in tropical and subtropical America, and also in the tropics of the old world, is rejected by cattle probably on account of its aromatic character, the spikelets having a strong balsam-like smell.

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  • Paniceae (about 25 genera, tropical to subtropical; a few temperate), a second flower, generally male, rarely hermaphrodite, is often present below the fertile flower.

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  • Paspalum, is a large tropical genus, most abundant in America, especially on the pampas and campos; many species are good forage plants, and the grain is sometimes used for food.

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  • Pennisetum typhoideum is widely cultivated as a grain in tropical Africa.

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  • Festuceae (about 83 genera, including tropical, temperate, arctic and alpine forms) many are important meadow-grasses; 15 are British.

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  • In tropical regions, where Leguminosae is the leading order, grasses closely follow as the second, whilst in the warm and temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, in which Compositae takes the lead, Gramineae again occupies the second position.

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  • While the greatest number of species is found in the tropical zone, the number of individuals is greater in the temperate zones, where they form extended areas of turf.

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  • The bamboos are a feature of tropical forest vegetation, especially in the monsoon region.

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  • The distribution of the tropical tribe Bambuseae is interesting.

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  • The species are about equally divided between the Indo-Malayan region and tropical America, only one species being common to both.

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  • The tribe is very poorly represented in tropical Africa; one species Oxytenanthera abyssinica has a wide range, and three monotypic genera are endemic in western tropical Africa.

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  • Thus of the 90 indigenous genera (many monotypic or very small) only 14 are endemic, i extends to South Africa, 3 are common to Australia and New Zealand, 18 extend also into Asia, whilst no fewer than 54 are found in both the Old and New Worlds, 26 being chiefly tropical and 28 chiefly extra-tropical.

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  • Many remarkable endemic genera occur in tropical America, including Anomochloa of Brazil, and most of the large aquatic species with separated sexes are found in this region.

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  • In the deep valleys of the Takazze and Abai, and generally in places below 4000 ft., the conditions are tropical and fevers are prevalent.

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  • As in a day's journey the traveller may pass from tropical to almost Alpine conditions of climate, so great also is the range of the flora and fauna.

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  • They range from the tropical lowlands to heights of 10,000 ft.

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  • The distribution of the Amblypygi practically covers that of the Uropygi, but in addition they extend from India through Arabia into tropical and southern Africa.

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  • In modern zoology it is the name given to the main genus of a family of worm-shaped lizards, most of which inhabit the tropical parts of America, the West Indies and Africa.

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  • The cycads constitute a homogeneous group of a few living members confined to tropical and sub-tropical regions.

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  • The greater part of Africa north of the equator is without any representatives of the conifers; Juniperus procera flourishes in Somaliland and on the mountains of Abyssinia; a species of Podocarpus occurs on the Cameroon mountains, and P. milanjiana is widely distributed in east tropical Africa.

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  • This genus is represented by several species, most of which are climbing plants, both in tropical America and in warm regions of the Old World.

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  • The genus is confined to certain localities in Damaraland and adjoining territory on the west coast of tropical South Africa.

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  • Thus Drosophyllum occurs only in Portugal and Morocco, Byblis in tropical Australia, and, although Aldrovanda is found in Queensland, in Bengal and in Europe, a wide distribution explained by its aquatic habit, Dionaea is restricted to a few localities in North and South Carolina.

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  • The forty species of Nepenthes are mostly natives of the hotter parts of the Indian Archipelago, but a few range into Ceylon, Bengal, Cochin China, and some even occur in tropical Australia on the one hand, and in the Seychelles and Madagascar on the other.

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  • Pinguicula is abundant in the north temperate zone, and ranges down the Andes as far as Patagonia; the 250 species of Utricularia are mostly aquatic, and some are found in all save polar regions; their unimportant congeners, Genlisea and Polypompholix, occur in tropical America and south-western Australia respectively.

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  • The climate varies from the snowy regions of the Himalayas to the tropical vapour-bath of the delta and the burning winds of Behar.

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  • The climate is healthy and equable, and for a tropical country the temperature is moderate.

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  • The forests of the granitic land, of which typical patches remain, had the characteristics of a tropical moist region, palms, shrubs, climbing and tree ferns growing luxuriantly, the trees on the mountain sides, such as the Pandanus sechellarum sending down roots over the rocks and boulders from 70 to 100 ft.

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