The introduction of hyperbolic functions into trigonometry was also due to him.
In "geodesy," and the cognate subject "figure of the earth," the matter of greatest moment with regard to the sphere is the determination of the area of triangles drawn on the surface of a sphere - the so-called "spherical triangles"; this is a branch of trigonometry, and is studied under the name of spherical trigonometry.
Ptolemaei magnam compositionem (printed at Venice in 1496), and his own De Triangulis (Nuremberg, 1533), the earliest work treating of trigonometry as a substantive science.
Beyond this point, analytical methods must be adopted, and the student passes to trigonometry and the infinitesimal calculus.
By means of this instrument questions in navigation, trigonometry, &c., are solved with the aid of a pair of compasses.
Of distances between points) as belonging to geometry or trigonometry; while the measurement of curved lengths, except in certain special cases, involves the use of the integral calculus.
Complex numbers are conveniently treated in connexion not only with the theory of equations but also with analytical trigonometry, which suggests the graphic representation of a+b,l - by a line of length (a 2 +b 2)i drawn in a direction different from that of the line along which real numbers are represented.
The second and third volumes include also his correspondence with his contemporaries; and there is a tract on trigonometry by Caswell.
It is a Treatise on Trigonometry, by a Scotsman, James Hume of Godscroft, Berwickshire, a place still in possession of the family of Hume.
A trigonometry (Doctrina triangulorum,) by him was published a year after his death.
For Demoivre's Theorem see Trigonometry: Analytical.
The work on [[Trigonometry]] and Double Algebra (1849) contains in the latter part a most luminous and philosophical view of existing and possible systems of symbolic calculus.
Among these subjects were the transit of Mercury, the Aurora Borealis, the figure of the earth, the observation of the fixed stars, the inequalities in terrestrial gravitation, the application of mathematics to the theory of the telescope, the limits of certainty in astronomical observations, the solid of greatest attraction, the cycloid, the logistic curve, the theory of comets, the tides, the law of continuity, the double refraction micrometer, various problems of spherical trigonometry, &c. In 1742 he was consulted, with other men of science, by the pope, Benedict XIV., as to the best means of securing the stability of the dome of St Peter's, Rome, in which a crack had been discovered.
During this period logarithms were invented, trigonometry and algebra developed, analytical geometry invented, dynamics put upon a sound basis, and the period closed with the magnificent invention of (or at least the perfecting of) the differential calculus by Newton and Leibnitz and the discovery of gravitation.
His earliest publications, beginning with A Syllabus of Plane Algebraical Geometry (1860) and The Formulae of Plane Trigonometry (1861), were exclusively mathematical; but late in the year 1865 he published, under the pseudonym of "Lewis Carroll," Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, a work that was the outcome of his keen sympathy with the imagination of children and their sense of fun.
Todhunter also published keys to the problems in his textbooks on algebra and trigonometry; and a biographical work, William Whewell, account of his writings and correspondence (1876), in addition to many original papers in scientific journals.
With Vieta, by reason of the advance in arithmetic, the style of treatment becomes more strictly trigonometrical; indeed, the Universales Inspectiones, in which the calculation occurs, would now be called plane and spherical trigonometry, and the accompanying Canon mathematicus a table of sines, tangents and secants.'
Newton tells us himself that, when he had purchased a book on astrology at Stourbridge fair, a fair held close to Cambridge, he was unable, on account of his ignorance of trigonometry, to understand a figure of the heavens which was drawn in this book.
De Morgan's other principal mathematical works were The Elements of Algebra (1835), a valuable but somewhat dry elementary treatise; the [[Essay]] on Probabilities (1838), forming the 107th volume of Lardner's Cyclopaedia, which forms a valuable introduction to the subject; and The Elements of Trigonometry and Trigonometrical Analysis, preliminary to the Differential Calculus (1837).
His acquaintance with trigonometry, a branch of science initiated by 1 G.
During his tenure of this chair he published two volumes of a Course of Mathematics - the first, entitled Elements of Geometry, Geometrical Analysis and Plane Trigonometry, in 1809, and the second, Geometry of Curve Lines, in 1813; the third volume, on Descriptive Geometry and the Theory of Solids was never completed.
For the subjects of this heading see the articles DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS; FOURIER'S SERIES; CONTINUED FRACTIONS; FUNCTION; FUNCTION OF REAL VARIABLES; FUNCTION COMPLEX; GROUPS, THEORY OF; INFINITESIMAL CALCULUS; MAXIMA AND MINIMA; SERIES; SPHERICAL HARMONICS; TRIGONOMETRY; VARIATIONS, CALCULUS OF.
Among these may be mentioned the Treatise on the Differential and Integral Calculus (1842); the Elementary Illustrations of the Differential and Integral Calculus, first published in 1832, but often bound up with the larger treatise; the essay, On the Study and Difficulties of Mathematics (1831); and a brief treatise on Spherical Trigonometry (1834).
The best known of these, which is called Legendre's theorem, is usually given in treatises on spherical trigonometry; by means of it a small spherical triangle may be treated as a plane triangle, certain corrections being applied to the angles.
We find that geometry was neglected except in so far as it was of service to astronomy; trigonometry was advanced, and algebra improved far beyond the attainments of Diophantus.
For fuller discussion reference should be made to Geometry and Trigonometry, as well as to the articles dealing with particular figures, such as Triangle, Circle, &C.
But every quaternion formula is a proposition in spherical (sometimes degrading to plane) trigonometry, and has the full advantage of the symmetry of the method.