# How to use *Trigonometrical* in a sentence

C. Mailer's Bavaria, both based on

**trigonometrical**surveys.A

**trigonometrical**survey of British India was begun in 1800 and the country can now boast of a survey which in most respects is equal to those of most European states.In the states of Australia cadastral surveys conducted by surveyors-general have been in progress for many years, as also

**trigonometrical**surveys (Western Australia excepted), Australia.A

**trigonometrical**survey was given up and only details of immediate practical use are required.Among the contents of this book we simply mention a

**trigonometrical**chapter, in which the words sinus versus arcus occur, the approximate extraction of cube roots shown more at large than in the Liber abaci, and a very curious problem, which nobody would search for in a geometrical work, viz.AdvertisementThe

**trigonometrical**section of the book had been issued as a separate treatise (Wittenberg, 1542) under the care of Rheticus.The subject he had chosen for his Habilitationsschrift was the "Representation of a Function by Means of a

**Trigonometrical**Series," a subject which Dirichlet had made his own by a now well-known series of researches.Hero's expressions for the areas of regular polygons of from 5 to 12 sides in terms of the squares of the sides show interesting approximations to the values of

**trigonometrical**ratios.There has also been a certain amount of geographical sketching combined with

**trigonometrical**observations; and there are the route surveys of native explorers.In 1784 the base-line of the first

**trigonometrical**survey in England was laid down on the heath.AdvertisementThe treatment of an angle as generated by rotation, the investigation of the relations between

**trigonometrical**ratios and circular measure, the application of interpolation to**trigonometrical**tables, and the general use of graphical methods to represent continuous variation, all imply an analytical onlook, and must therefore be deferred to this stage.A collection of formulae relating to the circle, for instance, would comprise not only geometrical and

**trigonometrical**formulae, but also approximate formulae, such as Huygens's rule (§ 91), which are the result of advanced analysis.This is the case, for instance, with formulae which involve 7r or

**trigonometrical**ratios.The length of the arc of a circle, for instance, is known if the length of the chord and its distance from the middle point of the arc are known; but it may be more convenient in such a case to use a formula such as Huygens's rule than to obtain a more accurate result by means of

**trigonometrical**tables.If the data for any of these figures are other than those given above,

**trigonometrical**ratios will usually be involved.AdvertisementThis triangulation was the beginning of the great

**trigonometrical**survey which has since been extended all over the country.It should be mentioned that in most tables of

**trigonometrical**functions, the number io is added to all the logarithms in the table in order to avoid the use of negative characteristics, so that the characteristic 9 denotes in reality 1, 8 denotes a, io denotes o, &c. Logarithms thus increased are frequently referred to for the sake of distinction as tabular logarithms, so that the tabular logarithm =the true logarithm -IIo.The first calculation or publication of Briggian or common logarithms of

**trigonometrical**functions was made in 1620 by Edmund Gunter, who was Briggs's colleague as professor of 1 It was certainly published after Napier's death, as Briggs mentions his " librum posthumum."The calculation of the logarithms not only of numbers but also of the

**trigonometrical**functions is therefore due to Briggs and Vlacq; and the results contained in their four fundamental works - A rithmetica logarithmica (Briggs), 1624; Arithmetica logarithmica (Vlacq), 1628; Trigonometria Britannica (Briggs), 1633; Trigonometria artificialis (Vlacq), 1633 - have not been superseded by any subsequent calculations.The calculation of tables of the natural

**trigonometrical**functions may be said to have formed the work of the last half of the 16th century, and the great canon of natural sines for every 10 seconds to 15 places which had been calculated by Rheticus was published by Pitiscus only in 1613, the year before that in which the Descriptio appeared.AdvertisementIn the construction of the natural

**trigonometrical**tables Great Britain had taken no part, and it is remarkable that the discovery of the principles and the formation of the tables that were to revolutionize or supersede all the methods of calculation then in use should have been so rapidly effected and developed in a country in which so little attention had been previously devoted to such questions.In 1705 appeared the original edition of Sherwin's tables, the first of the series of ordinary seven-figure tables of logarithms of numbers and

**trigonometrical**functions such as are in general use now.Among the most useful and accessible of modern ordinary sevenfigure tables of logarithms of numbers and

**trigonometrical**functions may be mentioned those of Bremiker, Schriin and Bruhns.I „ Logarithms of the ratios of arcs to sines from 04 00000 to 0 4.05000, and log sines throughout the quadrant 4 „ Logarithms of the ratios of arcs to tangents from 0 4 00000 to 0 4.05000, and log tangents throughout the quadrant 4 The

**trigonometrical**results are given for every hundred-thousandth of the quadrant (to" centesimal or 3" 24 sexagesimal).With Vieta, by reason of the advance in arithmetic, the style of treatment becomes more strictly

**trigonometrical**; indeed, the Universales Inspectiones, in which the calculation occurs, would now be called plane and spherical trigonometry, and the accompanying Canon mathematicus a table of sines, tangents and secants.'AdvertisementThe point separating the integers from the decimal fractions seems to be the invention of Bartholomaeus Pitiscus, in whose

**trigonometrical**tables (1612) it occurs and it was accepted by John Napier in his logarithmic papers (1614 and 1619).Russian explorers and natives of India trained for geographical reconnaissance, and employed in connexion with the great

**trigonometrical**survey of India, had done so much towards clearing away the mists which enveloped the actual course of the river, that all the primary affluents were known, although their relative value was misunderstood, but the nature of the districts which bordered the river in Afghan Turkestan was so imperfectly mapped as to give rise to considerable political complication in framing the boundary agreement between Great Britain and Russia.The French academician Bouger, who was chief of the scientific commission sent to Ecuador in 1736 to measure a degree of the meridian on the equator, made a

**trigonometrical**measurement of Iliniza, and Wagner ascended to within 800 ft.In applying tests of memory, it may be legitimate to allow a candidate to pass who answers correctly from 30 to 50% of the questions; such an allowance if applied to a test of capacity, such as the performance of a sum in addition, the solution of triangles by means of

**trigonometrical**tables, or the translation of an easy passage from a foreign language, appears to be irrational.If the quadratic (38) has a negative root, the

**trigonometrical**functions in (36) are to be replaced by real exponentials, and the position x=o, y=o is unstable.AdvertisementDehra is the headquarters of the

**Trigonometrical**Survey and of the Forest Department, besides being a cantonment for a Gurkha force.He co-operated in the Danish and Hanoverian measurements of an arc and

**trigonometrical**operations (1821-1848), and wrote (1843, 1846) the two memoirs Ãœber GegenstÃnde der hÃ¶heren GeodÃsie.At first he purposed to study law; but this he abandoned on his father's death in 1794, and entered the army, obtaining a commission in the 12th regiment of foot, then stationed in India, where he rendered valuable assistance in the great

**trigonometrical**survey.Its elevation as at present determined by

**trigonometrical**observation is 2 9, 002 ft., but it is possible that further investigation into the value of refraction at such altitudes will result in placing the summit even higher.The peak possesses no distinctive native name and has been called Everest after Sir George Everest, who completed the

**trigonometrical**survey of the Himalayas in 1841 and first fixed its position and altitude.AdvertisementThis work included the "Logometria," the

**trigonometrical**theorem known as "Cotes' Theorem on the Circle" (see TRIGONOMETRY), his theorem on harmonic means, subsequently developed by Colin Maclaurin, and a discussion of the curves known as "Cotes' Spirals," which occur as the path of a particle described under the influence of a central force varying inversely as the cube of the distance.He co-operated in the Danish and Hanoverian measurements of an arc and

**trigonometrical**operations (1821-1848), and wrote (1843, 1846) the two memoirs ÃƒÅ“ber GegenstÃƒnde der hÃƒ¶heren GeodÃƒsie.