Below Kuhsan it receives fresh tributaries from the west.
Kennedy explored the northern tributaries of the Darling, and a river in S.
On the western side there are no tributaries at the present day.
Its chief tributaries on this last portion of its course are the Alz and the Salzach, and at Passau, 309 m.
reaches Benevento, near which it receives several tributaries; then curves round the mountain mass to the N.
in the north of the department; the Oise, traversing the northwest, with its tributaries the Serre and the Aisne, the latter of which joins it beyond the limits of the department; and the Marne and the Ourcq in the south.
Returning to the south of the Po, the tributaries of that river on its right bank below the Tanaro are very inferior in volume and importance to those from the north.
several large tributaries: - on the right, the Berezina, connected with the W.
The network of streams forming the tributaries of the Darling and Murray system give an idea of a well-watered country.
River transport has some local value on the upper Sao Francisco and its larger tributaries, and this will be greatly increased when the Central do Brazil railway reaches the head of navigation on that river.
m., and emptying into Upstart Bay; it receives numerous tributaries in its course, and carries a large body of fresh water even in the driest seasons.
They are flooded of ter rain, and in seasons of drought many of them, especially the tributaries of the Darling, become chains of ponds.
Dvina, which falls into the sea below Riga, is shallow above the rapids of Jacobstadt, but navigation is carried on as far as Vitebsk - corn, timber, potash, flax, &c., being the principal shipments of its navigable tributaries (the Obsha, Ulla and Kasplya).
Thence it runs westward to Florence and through the gorge of Golfolina onwards to Empoli and Pisa, receiving various tributaries in its course, and falls into the sea 71 m.
Its principal tributaries from the south are the Sungari, which the Chinese consider to be the true head-river of the Amur, and the Usuri; from the north it receives the Oldoi, Zeya, Bureya, Kur, Gorin and Amgun.
Below Aosta also the Dora Baltea receives several considerable tributaries, which descend from the glaciers between Mont Blanc and Monte Rosa.
Flowing through the narrow valley between the Cordillera and coast range, it has only short tributaries, the principal ones being the Truando, Sucio and Murri.
The chief rivers of the eastern region are the Valserine and the Seran, right-hand tributaries of the Rhone, which forms the eastern and southern boundary of the department; and the Albarine and Oignin, left-hand affluents of the Ain.
The general slope of the plateau is toward the N., and the drainage of the state is chiefly through the above-named rivers - the principal tributaries of the Araguaya being the Grande and Vermelho, and of the Upper Tocantins, the Manoel Alves Grande, Somno, Paranan and Maranhao.
Two small tributaries of the river Isker, the Perlovetz and the Eleshnitza or Boyana, flow respectively on the east and west sides of the town.
The sources of the Don interlace with the tributaries of the Oka, while the upper tributaries of the Kama join those of the N.
Dvina, and the Pripet, both very important for navigation - as well as several smaller tributaries on which rafts are floated; on the left the Sozh, the Desna, one of the most important rivers of Russia, navigated by steamers as far as Bryansk, the Sula, the Psiol and the Vorskla.
These rivers have no tributaries of importance within the territory, but the Limay receives some small streams from the Andean slopes.
The Vivarais mountains and the northern Cevennes approach the right banks of the Rhone and Saone closely, and on that side send their waters by way of short torrents to those rivers; on the west side the streams a y e tributaries of the Loire, which rises at the foot of Mont Mezenc. A short distance to the south on the same side are the sources of the Allier and Lot.
The principal tributaries of the W.
It is joined by four main tributaries, the Drina, Bosna, Vrbas and Una.
The entire plateau area is drained by the Ohio river and its tributaries.
In 1827 and the two following years, Cunningham prosecuted instructive explorations on both sides of the Liverpool range, between the upper waters of the Hunter and those of the Peel and other tributaries of the Brisbane north of New South Wales.
The other small streams east of this—of which the most considerable are the Solaro, the Santerno, flowing by Imola, the Lamone by Faenza, the Montone by ForlÃ¬, all in Roman times tributaries of the Po—have their outlet in like manner into the Po di Primaro, or by artificial mouths into the Adriatic between Ravenna and Rimini.
The Nera, which rises in the lofty group of the Monte della Sibilla, is a considerable stream, and brings with it the waters of the Velino (with its tributaries the Turano and the Salto), which joins it a few miles below its celebrated waterfall at Terni.
The minor tributaries become more numerous and more constant, until the system of torrents has impressed its own individuality on the mountain side.
The chief tributaries are the Sosna and North Donets on the right, and the Voronezh, Khoper, Medvyeditsa and Manych on the left.
The principal rivers are: the Mississippi on the western border, and its tributaries, the Yazoo and the Big Black; the Pearl and Pascagoula, which drain much of the southern portion of the state and flow into the Gulf; and the Tombigbee, which drains most of the north-eastern portion.
None of the tributaries of the La Plata system thus far mentioned is navigable except the lower Pilcomayo and Bermejo for a few miles.
The plateau portion of West Virginia is largely covered by hardwood forests, but along the Ohio river and its principal tributaries the valuable timber has been removed and considerable areas have been wholly cleared for farming and pasture lands.
Among its many small tributaries are the Catuche, Caroata and Anauco, which flow down through the city from the north and give it a natural surface drainage.
This is especially the case with the tributaries of the Darling on its left bank, where in seasons of great rains these rivers overspread their banks and flood the flat country for miles around and thus reach the main stream.
From the sources of its various tributaries to the town of Bourke, the river may be described as draining a watershed.
The chief streams are the Werra, which traverses the south and east of the duchy, and various tributaries of the Main and the Saale, so that Saxe-Meiningen belongs to the basins of the three great rivers Weser, Rhine and Elbe.
Its chief tributaries are the Mundo and Arroyo del Jua on the left, and the Caravaca, Quipar and Sangonera on the right.
This plateau region is watered by numerous tributaries of the Parnahyba, chief of which are the Urussuhy, the Caninde and its tributary the Piauhy, the Gurgueia and its tributary the Parahim, which drains the large inland lake of Parnagua, the Longa, and the Poty, which has its source in the state of Ceara.
The tributaries of the Rio Doce cover the slopes of the Serra do Espinhago for a distance north and south of about 200 m.
On the eastern side of the river, on the other hand, there are several important tributaries descending from the Persian mountains: the Khabur, a little north of 37° N., navigable for rafts; the Great Zab, at 36° N., just below Nimrud, the ancient Calah; the Little Zab, about 35° 15' N.; the 'Adhem at 34° N.
The rapid smaller tributaries of the Dniester supply numerous flour-mills with motive power.
Its principal tributaries are the Gail on the right, and the Mdll, the Lieser, the Gurk with the Glan, and the Lavant on the left.
Steamers ascend this river as far as Bilyutai, near the Mongolian frontier, and bring back tea, imported via Kiakhta, while grain, cedar nuts, salt, soda, wool and timber are shipped on rafts down the Khilok, Chikoi and Uda (tributaries of the Selenga), and manufactured goods are taken up the river for export to China.
4 and 5); Dybowski and Godlewski on "Fauna," in same periodical (1876); Witkowski, on "Seals"; Yakovlev's "Fishes of Angara," in same periodical (1890-1893); "Fishing in Lake Baikal and its Tributaries," in same periodical (1886-1890); and La Geographie (No.
Its principal tributaries are the Thaya, the Hanna, the Iglawa with the Zwittawa and the Schwarzawa, &c. The Oder also rises among the mountains in the north-east of Moravia, but soon turns to the north and quits the country.
The northern part of Eure-et-Loir is watered by the Eure, with its tributaries the Vegre, Blaise and Avre, a small western portion by the Huisne, and the south by the Loir with its tributaries the Conic and the Ozanne.
In northern Alberta, on the northern slope, gathering its tributaries from rills in the Rocky Mountains, the river Athabasca runs north and empties into Lake Athabasca near 58° N.
The northern part can best be regarded as a low plateau (once marine sediments) sloping southward, traversed by the large diluvial valleys of the Mississippi, Red and Ouachita rivers, and recut by smaller tributaries into smaller plateaus and rather uniform flat-topped hills.
Lakes of this class are sometimes formed by the choking of the mouth of feeble tributaries by silt deposited by the Red river where the currents meet.
by the Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Ontario, being separated from the latter by the Lake of the Woods, Rainy River and Rainy Lake, and certain of their tributaries and outlets, and on the E.
Its two principal tributaries are the St Croix and the Minnesota.
The Hebrus, together with its tributaries which flow into it from the north, east and west, drains almost the whole of Thrace.
marched against north Syria, and among his tributaries mentions Menahem 2 together with Rezin of Damascus, and kings of Tyre, Gebal, &c. (c. 738 B.C.).
Somewhat later, their king Amminadab was among the tributaries who suffered in the course of the great Arabian campaign of Assurbanipal.
Its main source is in a great glacier-mass of the northernmost chain of the Himalayas, called Kubigangri, about 82° N., and receives various tributaries including one formerly regarded as the true source from the pass of Mariam La (15,500 ft.), which separates its basin from the eastern affluents of the Mansarowar lakes, at least ioo m.
Its early beginnings take their rise amidst a mighty mass of glaciers which cover the northern slopes of the watershed, separating them from the sources of the Gogra on the south; and there is evidence that two of its great southern tributaries, the Shorta Tsanpo (which joins about 150 m.
From the north it receives five great tributaries, namely, the Chu Nago, the Chachu Tsanpo and the Charta Tsanpo (all within the first 200 m.
Gold is found in the sands of all its upper tributaries, and coal and petroleum are amongst the chief mineral products which have been brought into economic prominence.
" Para " rubber, which takes the first position in the market, is derived from species of Hevea, principally Hevea brasiliensis, of which there are enormous forests in the valleys of the Amazon and its tributaries, and also in Peru, Bolivia, Venezuela and Guiana.
Gold is found on the high plateau in the basin of the upper Vitim, on the lower plateau in the Nerchinsk district, and on the upper tributaries of the Amur (especially the Oldoi) and the Zeya, in the north-east continuation of the Nerchinsk Mountains.
The Amur, the upper tributaries of which rise on the eastern border-range of the high plateau, is similar.
The tributaries of the Amur (the Shilka with its affluent the Ingoda) become navigable only on the lower terrace of the plateau.
During the winter the smaller tributaries freeze to the bottom, and about 1st January Lake Baikal becomes covered with a solid crust of ice capable of bearing files of loaded sledges.
As Lake Baikal is approached the stream of Russian immigration becomes narrower, being confined mostly to the valley of the Angara, with a string of villages up the Irkut; but it widens out again in Transbaikalia, and sends branches up the Selenga and its tributaries.
The native populations of the Amur - Golds and Gilyaks - support themselves chiefly by fishing, when the salmon enters the Amur and its tributaries in dense masses.
It was supposed at that time that this line would form part of the projected trans-Siberian railway; but it was finally decided, in 1885, to give a more southerly direction to the railway and to continue the Moscow-Samara line to Ufa, Zlatoust in the Urals, and Chelyabinsk on the west Siberian prairies, at the head of one of the tributaries of the Ob.
LINTH, or LIMMAT, a river of Switzerland, one of the tributaries of the Aar.
Novibazar is a mountainous region, watered by the Lim, which flows north into Bosnia, and by several small tributaries of the Servian Ibar.
Forty miles lower down the Orange is joined by the first of its large tributaries, the Caledon (230 m.), which, rising on the western side of the Mont aux Sources, flows, first west and then south, through a broad and fertile valley north of the Maluti Mountains.
These usually dry sandy beds, which on many maps appear rivers of imposing length, for a few hours or days following rare but violent thunderstorms, are deep and turbulent streams. The northern system consists of the Nosob and its tributaries, the Molopo and the Kuruman.
Below the Siamese Shan town of Chieng Sen the river takes its first great easterly bend to Luang Prabang, being joined by some important tributaries.
From Chieng Khan the river again turns eastwards along the 18th parallel, forcing its way through its most serious rapid-barrier, and receiving some important tributaries from the highlands of Tung Chieng Kum and Chieng Kwang, the finest country in Indo-China.
to enclose the basin of the Essequibo and its tributaries, thence it turns east and north of east along the Serra Acaria to unite with the unsettled boundary line of Dutch Guiana near the intersection of the 2nd parallel north with the 56th meridian.
The western part of this plain is drained by the Uruguay and its tributaries, which places it within the river Plate (La Plata) basin.
There has been considerable denudation toward the west, the eastern tributaries of the Parana rising very near the coast.
It includes the river basins of the Tocantins-Araguaya, Xingu, Tapajos, and the eastern tributaries of the Guapore-Madeira.
Outside the two great river systems of the Amazon and river Plate (Rio de la Plata), which are treated under their respective titles, the rivers of Brazil are limited to the numerous small streams and three or four large rivers which flow eastward from the plateau regions directly into the Atlantic. The Amazon system covers the entire north-western part of the republic, the state of Amazonas, nearly the whole of Para and the greater part of Matto Grosso being drained by this great river and its tributaries.
The more important rivers of the first division, which are described in more detail under the titles of the Brazilian states through which they flow, are the following: the Gurupy, Tury-assu, Mearim, Itapicuru and Balsas, in the state of Maranhao; the Parnahyba and its tributaries in Piauhy; Jaguaribe in Ceara; and the Apody and Piranhas in Rio Grande do Norte.
The Sao Francisco, which belongs to the inland plateau region, is the largest river of the eastern coast of Brazil and exists by virtue of climatic conditions wholly different from those of the coast where it enters the Atlantic. The tributaries of the lower half of this great river, which belong to the Atlantic coast region, are small and often dry, but the upper river where the rainfall is heavier and more regular receives several large affluents.
Those of the Paraguay drain the south-western part of Matto Grosso, and the tributaries of the Parana cover the western slopes of the Serra do Mar from Rio Grande do Sul north to the south-west part of Minas Geraes, and include the south-east part of Matto Grosso and the south part of Goyaz within their drainage basin.
Between the two great waterfalls of the Parana there is an open channel of 276 m., passing through a rich and healthy country, and receiving large tributaries from one of the most fertile regions of Brazil.
Though the Uruguay plays a less important part, its relations to the country are similar to those of the Parana, and its tributaries from the plateau region are similarly broken by falls and rapids.
The crystalline rocks are succeeded by beds which have been referred to the Cambrian and Silurian systems. In the valley of the Trombetas, one of the northern tributaries of the Amazon, fossils have been found which indicate either the top of the Ordovician or the bottom of the Silurian.
Geographically it belongs to the Amazon basin, as its western and southern slopes are drained by tributaries of that great river.
The higher valleys of the Parana and its tributaries, and of the rivers which flow northward, are sub-tropical in character, having high sun temperatures and cool nights.
They are very numerous in the Amazon and its tributaries and in the Paraguay, and are found in all the rivers of the Atlantic coast.
The visit of Professor Louis Agassiz to the Amazon in 1865 resulted in a list of 1143 species, but it is believed that no less than 1800 to 2000 species are to be found in that great river and its tributaries.
In the northern temperate zone we find forests of a single species, others of three or four species; in this great tropical forest the habit of growth is solitary and an acre of ground will contain hundreds of species - palms, myrtles, acacias, mimosas, cecropias, euphorbias, malvaceas, laurels, cedrellas, bignonias, bombaceas, apocyneas, malpigias, lecythises, swartzias, &c. The vegetation of the lower river-margins, which are periodically flooded, differs in some particulars from that of the higher ground, and the same variation is to be found between the forests of the upper and lower Amazon, and between the Amazon and its principal tributaries.
India-rubber is derived principally from the Hevea guayanensis, sometimes called the Siphonia elastica, which is found on the Amazon and its tributaries as far inland as the foothills of the Andes.
The southern districts and the Amazon and its tributaries were often raided by slave-hunting expeditions, and their Indian populations were either decimated, or driven farther into the inaccessible forests.
(an English corporation), whose service covers the main river and several of its principal tributaries.
The collection of Brazil nuts along the Amazon and its tributaries is essentially a poor man's industry, requiring no other plant than a boat.
The largest and longest, the Tugela, with the Buffalo, Mooi, Klip and other tributaries is treated separately.
The only point still remaining undecided is whether the valleys of the Bom-kemchik (a tributary of the Yenisei) and its left-hand tributaries do not belong geographically to the Altai region.
In the same way the Kentei (or Gentei) Mountains, as they are called, to the north of Urga, and the Yablonoi Mountains of Transbaikalia, separate the higher terrace of north-west Mongolia (drained by the tributaries of the Selenga) from the lower terrace of the Gobi, which is drained by the upper tributaries of the Onon and the Kerulen, both belonging to the basin of the Amur.
The Pest Basin extends over the greater portion of central and southern Hungary, and is traversed by the Theiss (Tisza) and its numerous tributaries.
The principal tributaries of the Danube in Hungary, of which some are amongst the largest rivers in Europe, are, on the right, the Raab, Drave and Save, and, on the left, the Waag, Neutra, Gran, Eipel, Theiss (the principal affluent, which receives numerous tributaries), Temes and Cserna.
They carry an immense volume of water during the summer rains, but are very small streams in the winter, when several of their tributaries are completely dry.
Along the Brazilian frontier and about the sources of the Orinoco tributaries on the eastern slops of the Andes there are extensive forests, sometimes broken with grassy campos.
When the Orinoco is reached its lower basin is contracted between the Guiana highlands and the northern sierras, and its tributaries begin to come in more nearly at right angles, showing that the margins of the actual valley are nearer and higher.
The Orinoco is supposed to have 436 tributaries, of which, among the largest, the Caroni-Paragua, Aro, Caura, Cuchivero, Suapure, Sipapo and Ventuari have their sources in the Guiana highlands; the Suata, Manapere and Guaritico in the northern sierras; and the Apure, Uricana, Arauca, Capanaparo, Meta, Vichada and Guaviare (the last three being Colombian rivers) in the llanos and Andes.
The Apure receives two large tributaries from the northern sierras - the Guarico and Portuguesa.
The climatic conditions are not so favourable as in Argentina, but these are counterbalanced to some extent by the great river system of the Orinoco, whose large navigable tributaries cross the plains from end to end, and whose smaller streams from the surrounding highlands provide superior opportunities for water storage and irrigation.
The rubber forests are on the Orinoco and its tributaries of the Guiana highlands.
The river is well stocked with fish, both salt-water and fresh-water species being found in its waters, and several varieties of fresh-water fish in its tributaries.
BOBER, a river of Germany, the most considerable of the left bank tributaries of the Oder; it rises at an altitude of 24 4 0 ft., on the northern (Silesian) side of the Riesengebirge.
The smaller tributaries of these rivers of Sonora are often only dry canyons in the dry season.
The Rhine is said to receive, directly or indirectly, the waters of upwards of 12,000 tributaries of all sizes.
In the upper Rhenish basin, between Basel and Mainz, the tributaries, though numerous, are mostly short and unimportant.
Single tree trunks sent down to the Rhine by the various tributaries are united into small rafts as they reach the main stream; and these again are fastened together to form one large raft about Andernach.
almost straight N.W., with the plain of the Po (Padus) and its tributaries on the right, and the Apennines on the left.
The main tributaries of the Thames from the north, to east and west of those described, are not covered, nor is any tributary of importance from the south entirely concealed.
importance which has tributaries coming from north of the main stream; the rest of the very numerous affluents have their rise in the hilly country which stretches from Albert Nyanza in a general north-west direction as far as 23° E., and forms the water shed between the Nile basin and that of the Congo.
The efforts to destroy the slave trade in the Ghazal province led (1879-1881) to the further exploration of the river and its tributaries by Gessi Pasha, the Italian governor under General C. G.
Wilhelm Junker about the same period also explored the southern tributaries of the Ghazal.
Comyn partly explored the northern and western affluents of the Ghazal, and threw some light on the puzzling hydrography and nomenclature of those tributaries.
The district is watered by the Geuk Su (Calycadnus and its tributaries), and is covered to a large extent by forests, which still, as of old, supply timber to Egypt and Syria.
All the streams to the south of that range are tributaries of the Godavari.
Loch Laggan and Loch Ericht are the principal lakes, and the district is abundantly watered by the Spey and its numerous tributaries.
Duwan, one of the main southern tributaries of the Hadramut valley, and pushed on to the edge of the great southern desert; on his return to the W.
Hamd and the extent of the area drained by its tributaries was for the first time brought to light.
a succession of villages and towns surrounded by fields and date groves extends along the main valley and into the tributaries which join it from the south.
Its more important tributaries are the Enz, Eschach and Glatt (left), and the Fils, Rems, Kocher and Jagst (right).
tributaries rise in the Majerda and Aures mountains.
The eastern range is cut through by six rivers in Peru, namely, the Maranon and Huallaga, the Perene, Mantaro, Apurimac, Vilcamayu and Paucartambo, the last five being tributaries of the Ucayali.
The other great rivers are tributaries of the Ucayali.
The most important means of communication in the republic is that of its river system, comprising, as it does, the navigable channels of the Maranon, or upper Amazon, and its tributaries.
Of the rivers farther south, which discharge into the Amazon through the Madeira, the Madre de Dios alone offers an extended navigable channel, together with some of its larger tributaries, such as the Heath and Chandless.
The Hevea is found along the water-courses of the lowlands, which includes the large tributaries of the Maranon, while the caucho species flourish on higher ground, above 900 ft.
In addition to the foregoing the government has a few small river boats on the Maranon and its tributaries, which are commanded by naval officers and used to maintain the authority of the republic and carry on geographical and hydrographical work.
In the case of Ecuador and Colombia a dispute arose in 1894 concerning the ownership of large tracts of uninhabited country in the vicinity of the headwaters of the Amazon and its tributaries.
The principal tributaries of the Main from the Frankenwald are the Rodach and Hasslach, and of the Saale, the Selbitz.
The table-land consists of a series of fertile plains, of varying size and elevation separated from each other by upland tracts or mountains, and it is drained almost entirely by the river Iris (Yeshil Irmak) and its numerous tributaries, the largest of which are the Scylax (Tchekerek Irmak) with many affluents and the Lycus (Kalkid Irmak), all three rising in the highlands near, or on, the frontier of Armenia Minor and flowing first in a westerly and then in a north-westerly direction to merge their waters in a joint stream, which (under the name of the Iris) pierces the mountain-wall and emerges on the east of Amisus (Samsun).
The greater part of Baden belongs to the basin of the Rhine, which receives upwards of twenty tributaries from the highlands; the north-eastern portion of the territory is also watered by the Main and the Neckar.
The number of tributaries is given by Aristophanes as 1000, but this is greatly in excess of those named in the tribute lists.
Its principal tributaries are - from the right hand the Jalon with its affluent the Jiloca, the Huerva, Aguas, Martin, Guadalope and Matarrana; from the left the Ega, Aragon, Arba, Gallego, and the Segre with its intricate system of confluent rivers.
The Ebro and its tributaries have been utilized for irrigation since the Moorish conquest; the main stream becomes navigable by small boats about Tudela; but its value as a means of communication is almost neutralized by the obstacles in its channel, and seafaring vessels cannot proceed farther up than Tortosa.
It receives many tributaries from the sides of the rift-valley, and is navigable for canoes.
To the north this province comprises the middle portion of the Inn Valley, with its tributaries, as well as the upper portion of the Lech valley, all flowing towards the Danube and so to the Black Sea, while south of the pass is the great upper valley of the Adige or Etsch, with many tributaries, as well as (since 1500) a portion of the upper Drave valley, which physically belongs to Carinthia - all these (save the Drave) flow to the Adriatic Sea.
Seventy-two kings, reigning over as many kingdoms, were his tributaries.
The principal rivers, besides the Cher and its tributaries, are the Grande Sauldre and the Petite Sauldre on the north, but the Loire and Allier, though not falling within the department, drain the eastern districts, and are available for navigation.
Moreover, the largest streams have numerous tributaries, and nearly all alike flow circuitously between steep if not vertical cliffs or in deep craggy ravines overlooked by distant hills, among which the wagon road has wound its way with difficulty.
to Wayne county in the south central part of Iowa, divides the state into two drainage systems. That to the E., comprising about two-thirds of the whole area, is drained by tributaries of the Mississippi, of which the Des Moines, the Skunk, the Iowa with its tributary the Cedar, and the Wapsipinicon are the largest, streams of long courses and easy fall over beds frequently pebbly in the N.
is drained by tributaries of the Missouri, mostly short streams taking their rise from numerous rivulets, flowing quite rapidly over muddy beds through much of their courses, and in the bluff belt along the Missouri having steep but grassy banks 200 ft.
Coal is found on the banks of the Tenasserim and its tributaries, but is still unworked.
The narrower part of the Tagus basin lies to the south, and the left-hand tributaries which drain it are almost all mere brooks, dry in summer.
The principal right-hand tributaries, besides the Gallo and Zezere, are the Jarama, descending from the tableland of New Castile a little below Aranjuez, the Alberche and the Tietar, which collect their head waters from opposite sides of the Sierra de Gredos, and the Alagon, from the rough and broken country between the Sierras de Gredos and Gata.
The Ruhuhu, which enters Nyasa in 10° 30' S., and its tributaries drain a considerable area west of 36° E.
Two large tributaries from the N., the Afrin and Kara Su, here reach it through the former Lake of Antioch, which is now drained through an artificial channel (Nahr al-Kowsit).
The government is drained by the Don and its tributaries, of which the Donets, Chir and Mius enter from the right and the Khoper and Medvyeditsa from the left.
The chief tributaries of the Oder on the left bank are the Oppa, Glatzer Neisse, Katzbach, Bober and Lausitzer Neisse; on the right bank the Malapane, Bartsch and Warthe.
Its king Hanun had fled to Musri, but was pursued and captured; Ascalon, Judah and Edom appear in a list of tributaries.
The Algonquin-Iroquois took up the journey at Bear Lake and its tributaries, and by means of paddling and portages traversed the area of middle and eastern Canada, including the entire St Lawrence drainage.
The principal rivers are the Aras and Kizil Uzain, both receiving numerous tributaries and flowing into the Caspian, and the Jaghatu, Tatava, Murdi, Aji and others, which drain into the Urmia lake.
Its principal tributaries are the Kundaur, Saglair, Cheyair, and Papagni rivers.
The surface of the country is beautifully diversified, undulating tracts and well-wooded hills alternating with fertile valleys watered mainly by the Aar and its tributaries.
The plateau of Odenpah, drained by tributaries of the Embach river, which flows for 93 m.
The Hudson (q.v.) is essentially a New York stream, though it receives some drainage from the New England States through its small eastern tributaries.
The principal tributaries on the right are the Aller, Wi mme, Drepte, Lune and Geeste, and on the left the Diemel, Nethe, Emmer, Werra, Aue and Hunte.
The other rivers are chiefly tributaries of the Vistula, as the Drewenz on its right bank and the Brahe on its left.
There are also deep canyons which have been cut by the rivers in their present courses, especially by the Snake river and its tributaries.
portion of the Puget Sound Basin are drained b y the Columbia and its tributaries.
boundary) are its principal tributaries from the E.; the Yakima (a little above the mouth of the Snake) from the W.; and the Okanogan (in the north central part of the state), from the N.
The whole country forms part of the drainage basin of the Orange river, its streams, with insignificant exceptions, being tributaries of the Vaal or Caledon affluents of that river.
The chief tributaries of the Vaal (q.v.) wholly or partly within the province are, going from east to west, the Klip (this stream from near its source to its confluence with the Vaal divides the Free State from the Transvaal), the Wilge, Rhenoster, Vet, Modder and Reit.
It lies at an altitude of nearly 6000 ft., and is well watered by the Caledon and its tributaries.
The principal rivers east of the Rockies are the Missouri and three of its tributaries; the Yellowstone in the south-east, the Musselshell in the middle, and the Milk in the north.
Comparatively few of the numerous smaller streams of Saxony flow directly to the Elbe, and the larger tributaries only join it beyond the Saxon borders.
The Elbe produces excellent pike, salmon and eels, its tributaries trout in considerable quantities, while the marshy ponds lying on the left bank furnish a good supply of carp, a fish held in great esteem by the inhabitants.
They are most abundant in the plains of northern Italy traversed by the Po and its tributaries, though similar constructions have been found in Hungary in the valley of the Theiss.
The plains, except in the south-east corner, are underlaid by sheets of water-bearing sandstone, which carry a volume of water under such pressure that in the valleys of the James river and the Missouri river and its western tributaries a strong surface flow may be obtained from artesian wells.
The area irrigated by streams was confined largely to the Black Hills region, the water being supplied by the North Fork and the South Fork Rivers, which are tributaries of the Cheyenne.
The main watershed follows a tortuous course which crosses the mountainous belt just north of New river in Virginia; south of this the rivers head in the Blue Ridge, cross the higher Unakas, receive important tributaries from the Great Valley, and traversing the Cumberland Plateau in spreading gorges, escape by way of the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers to the Ohio and Mississippi, and thus to the Gulf of Mexico; in the central section the rivers, rising in or beyond the Valley Ridges, flow through great gorges (water gaps) to the Great Valley, and by southeasterly courses across the Blue Ridge to tidal estuaries penetrating the coastal plain; in the northern section the water-parting lies on the inland side of the mountainous belt, the main lines of drainage running from north to south.
Former tributaries have given place to others developed with reference to the distribution of more or less easily eroded strata, the present longitudinal valleys being determined by the out-crop of soft shales or soluble limestones, and the parallel ridges upheld by hard sandstones or schists.
With their followers of both German and Scotch-Irish origin, they worked their way southward and soon occupied all of the Virginia Valley and the upper reaches of the Great Valley tributaries of the Tennessee.
of the sea on the north-eastern escarpment of the Futa Jallon highlands, the massif where also rise the head-streams of the Senegal and some of the Niger tributaries, besides the Rio Grande and many other rivers flowing direct to the Gulf of Guinea.
It flows first N.N.E., receiving many left-hand tributaries, but about 12° 35 N.
There are three drainage systems within the state: the Red river (of the North) and its tributaries, the Mouse, or Souris, river and its tributaries.
and the Missouri river and its tributaries.
Its tributaries are small, and are remarkable chiefly for the fact that they at first flow in a direction almost opposite to that of the main stream, and make a great bend to the N.E.
Trees are found ' The peculiar bow shape of these western tributaries of the Red river is due to the fact that these streams originally flowed S.E.
As the Red river valley is the bed of the extinct Lake Agassiz, its soil is composed of the fine detritus and silty deposits carried into the lake by its tributaries.
(For map, see Indo-China.) The country may be best considered geographically in four parts: the northern, including the drainage area of the four rivers which unite near Pak-Nam Po to form the Menam Chao Phaya; the eastern, including the drainage area of the Nam Mun river and its tributaries; the central, including the drainage area of the Meklong, the Menam Chao Phaya and the Bang Pakong rivers; and the southern, including that part of the country which is situated in the Malay Peninsula.
long, has a large number of tributaries, chief of which is the Nam Si.
A good way farther north two small rivers, the Nam Kum and the Nam Song Kram, also tributaries of the Mekong, drain a small part of eastern Siam.
Central Siam is supplied with an exceptionally complete system of water communications; for not only has it the three rivers with their tributaries and much-divided courses, but all three are linked together by a series of canals which, running in parallel lines across the plain from E.
It is interspersed with many islands, and with its numerous smaller tributaries affords easy and rapid communication.
He often had occasion, on his own business, or on that of Froben's press, to send special couriers to a distance, employing them by the way in collecting the free gifts of his tributaries.
Having received all its important tributaries, the Dnieper is here a broad (400 to 580 yds.) and navigable stream; but as it approaches the town it divides into two arms and forms a low grassy island of considerable extent called Tukhanov.
from the foot of the volcano Purace, near the source of the Cauca and on one of its small tributaries, 5712 ft.
All rivers of Western Maryland flow south into the Potomac except in the extreme west, where the waters of theYoughiogheny and its tributaries flow north into the Monongahela.
Tide-water Maryland is afforded rather unusual facilities of water transportation by the Chesapeake Bay, with its deep channel, numerous deep inlets and navigable tributaries, together with the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, which crosses the state of Delaware and connects its waters with those of the Delaware river and bay.
The Shelif, which has many tributaries, is about 430 m.
On its right hand the Garonne is swelled by its two chief tributaries, the Tarn, near Moissac, and the Lot, below Agen; farther down it is joined by the Drot (or Dropt), and on the left by the Ciron.
As Lynn (Lun, Lenne, Bishop's Lynn) owes its origin to the trade which its early settlers carried by the Ouse and its tributaries its history dates from the period of settled occupation by the Saxons.
Its chief right-hand tributaries are the San Carlos and Sarapiqui.
The Hissar range, a westward continuation of the Alai Mountains, separates the Zarafshan from the tributaries of the Oxus - the Surkhan, Kafirnihan and Vakhsh.
Its chief tributaries on the right are the Ruchil, Machany, Ruthven, May and Farg, and on the left, the Lednock and Turret.
Its larger Mexican tributaries are the Rio de los Conchos, Salado and Pesqueria.
The country about the Laguna de Terminos is low and flat, and is traversed in all directions by deep, sluggish streams. Many of the rivers crossing the lowlands bordering the Gulf have short navigable channels, the most important of which is the Panuco and its tributaries.
of which the state is drained southward into Long Island Sound by the Connecticut and its tributaries and E.
Other streams are tributaries of the Limpopo, which for some distance is the frontier between Bechuanaland and the Transvaal.
above sea-level, and falls geographically into two parts separated by the Halys (Kizil Irmak), - a small eastern district lying chiefly in the basin of the Delije Irmak, the principal affluent of the Halys, and a large western region drained almost entirely by the Sangarius (Sakaria) and its tributaries.
Deep gorges, through which tributaries of the Chorokh force their passage to the main river, intersect these highlands, forming most picturesque gorges.
The great river receives an abundant load of silt from its tributaries, and takes up ano lays down silt from its own bed and banks with every change of velocity.
The floods of the Mississippi usually occur in spring or aummer; Owing to the great size of the drainage basin, it seldom happens that the three upper tributaries are in flood at the same time; the coincident occurrence of floods in only two tributaries is of serious import in the lower river, which rises 30, 40, or occasionally 50 ft.
The abundant records by the Mississippi River Commission and the United States Weather Bureau (by which accurate and extremely useful predictions of floods in the lower river course are made, on the basis of the observed rise in the tributaries) demonstrate a num~ bar of interesting features, of which the chief are as follows: the fall of the river is significantly steepened and its velocity isaccelerated down stream from the point of highest rise; conversely, the fall and the velocity are both diminished up stream from the same point.
The central section of the plains thus presents a marked contrast to the northern section; for while the northern section owes its smoothness to the removal of local gravels and sands from a formerly uneven surface by the action of degrading rivers and their inflowing tributaries, the southern section owes its smoothness to the deposition of imported gravels and sands upon a previously I uneven surface by the action of aggrading rivers and their outgoing distributaries.
The river Sabarmati and its tributaries, flowing from north-east to south-west into the Gulf of Cambay, are the principal streams that water the district.
Its main tributaries from the right are the Griindlach and the Wiesent, and from the left the Zenn, the Aurach and the Aisch.
The St Lawrence varies only a few feet in the year and always has pellucid bluish-green water, while the Mississippi, whose tributaries begin only a short distance south of the Great Lakes, varies 40 f t.
North of the divide between the St Lawrence system and Hudson Bay there are many large rivers converging on that inland sea, such as Whale river, Big river, East Main, Rupert and Nottaway rivers coming in from Ungava and northern Quebec; Moose and Albany rivers with important tributaries from northern Ontario; and Severn, Nelson and Churchill rivers from the south-west.
The parallel of 49° approximately separates the Saskatchewan waters from the streams going south to the Missouri, though a few sn1all tributaries of the latter river begin on Canadian territory.
The Fraser, next in size but farther north, follows a similar course, entering the sea at Vancouver; while the Skeena and Stikine in northern British Columbia are much shorter and smaller, owing to the encroachments of Peace and Liard rivers, tributaries of the Nelson, on the Cordilleran territory.
In most cases they reach the coast through deep valleys or profound canyons, and the transcontinental railways find their way beside them, the Canadian Pacific following at first tributaries of the Columbia near its great bend, and afterwards Thompson river and the Fraser; while the Grand Trunk Pacific makes use of the valley of the Skeena and its tributaries.
The divide between the rivers flowing west and those flowing east and north is very sharp in the southern Rocky Mountains, but there are two lakes, the Committee's Punch Bowl and Fortress Lake, right astride of it, sending their waters both east and west; and there is a mountain somewhat south of Fortress Lake whose melting snows drain in three directions into tributaries of the Columbia, the Saskatchewan and the Athabasca, so that they are distributed between the Pacific, the Atlantic (Hudson Bay) and the Arctic Oceans.
The Arkansas ordinarily receives little water from its tributaries save in time of floods.
by the Tennessee river and its tributaries; all other parts of the state are drained to the S.W.
West of where the escarpment dies out, the Great Valley Region and a considerable portion of the Appalachian Mountains Region are drained by the Coosa, the Tallapoosa and their tributaries, into Mobile Bay, but the Cumberland Plateau, like that part of the Appalachian Mountains Region which lies directly N.
The principal rivers are the Spree with its tributaries, the Black Elster and the Neisse.
The greater part of the state is drained by the Rio Grande de Lerma (called the Santiago on its lower course) and its tributaries, chief of which is the Rio Verde.
The Yeres, a tributary of the Seine, and the Grand Morin and Petit Morin, tributaries of the Marne, are the chief rivers, but the region is not abundantly watered and the rainfall is only between 20 and 24 in.
It is situated on a slight eminence (210 ft.) near the Ombrone, one of the tributaries of the Arno.
The three chief rivers of the province are the Elbe in the north-east, where it mainly forms the boundary and receives the navigable tributaries Jeetze, Ilmenau, Seve, Este, Luhe, Schwinge and Medem; the Weser in the centre, with its important tributary the Aller (navigable from Celle downwards); and in the west the Ems, with its tributaries the Aa and the Leda.
The principal rivers of the state are the Maracassume and Tury-assu, the Mearim and its larger tributaries (the Pindare, Grajahu, Flores and Corda) which discharge into the Bay of Sao Marcos, and the Itapicuru and Monim which discharge into the Bay of Sao Jose.
The Sind, with its tributaries the Kuwari, Asar and Sankh, flows through the northern division.
The Guadalquivir rises among the mountains of Jaen and flows in a south-westerly direction to the Gulf of Cadiz, receiving many considerable tributaries on its way.
Lying south and east of the main stream is a vast, densely forested region called Venezuelan Guiana, diversified by ranges of low mountains, irregular broken ridges and granitic masses, which define the courses of many unexplored tributaries of the Orinoco.
Two other large tributaries of the Orinoco flow north from the interior of this mysterious Guiana region, the Caura and the Caroni.
But it is no less certain that Innocent attempted to subject the kings of Europe by making them his tributaries and vassals.
KirkKilisseh is built near the headwaters of several small tributaries of the river Ergene, and on the western slope of the Istranja Dagh.
The Vistula touches the province on the south-east, and receives a few small tributaries from it, while on the west the Spree and Black Elster belong to the system of the Elbe.
The Pocono plateau, nearly all of the central and south-east provinces and the north-east portion of the Alleghany plateau are drained by the Susquehanna and Delaware river-systems into the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays; the greater part of the Alleghany plateau is drained by the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers into the Ohio river; the extreme southern portion of the central province and the extreme western portion of the south-east province are drained by tributaries of the Potomac; the Erie plain is drained by short streams into Lake Erie; and a very small section of the Alleghany plateau, in the northern part of Potter county, is drained by the Genesee river into Lake Ontario.
The Susquehanna is a wide and shallow stream with a zigzag course and numerous islands, but both the Susquehanna and the Delaware, together with their principal tributaries, flow for the most part transverse to the geological structure, and in the gorges and water-gaps through which they pass ridges in the mountain region, is some of the most picturesque scenery in the state; a number of these gorges, too, have been of great economic importance as passages for railways.
In the mountain region and in the vicinity of Lake Erie there is often a fall of several inches of snow during the winter months and the rapid melting of this produces floods on the Delaware, Susquehanna and Ohio rivers and some of their tributaries.
are the Veyle, the Reyssouze and the Seille, all tributaries of the SaOne.
As a whole the system forms the watershed between rivers flowing to the Indian Ocean - the Indus and its tributaries, Brahmaputra and its tributaries, and Salweenand the streams flowing into the undrained salt lakes to the north.
This watershed was found to lie much farther north than had been supposed, and to consist of very lofty mountains, in complicated ranges, from which large tributaries descend to the Tsangpo (Brahmaputra).
The richest portion of the vilayet lies east of the capital in the rolling plains watered by tributaries of the Tigris.
In the Hellenic age the water was derived wholly from the Cladeus and from the small lateral tributaries of its valley.
The most notable of the tributaries is the Spree (227 m.
It includes the basins of the Oldoi, Zeya and Bureya, left-bank tributaries of the river Amur, and has the governments of Transbaikalia on the W., Irkutsk and Yakutsk on the N., the Maritime province on the E., and Manchuria on the S.
Cold north-west winds prevail from October to March, while in July and August torrential rains fall, resulting in a sudden and very considerable rise in the Amur and its right-bank tributaries.
The Lesse receives altogether in its short course the water of thirteen tributaries.
The district watered by the southern tributaries of the Danube consists for the most part of an extensive plateau, with a mean elevation of 2390 ft.
The Black Volta, and lower down the Volta, form the northern frontier, and various tributaries of the Volta, running generally in a northerly direction, traverse the eastern portion of the country.
In the central parts are the upper courses of the Ofin and of some tributaries of the Prah.
The rest of Toungoo forms the upper portion of the valley of the Sittang, the only large river in the district, the chief tributaries of which are the Shwa, Hkabaung, Hpyu Thank-ye-Kat and Yank-thua-wa, all navigable for a great portion of their course.
MIzRAIM) among their tributaries.
Of the numerous tributaries which join the Rhine within the province, the most important are the Nahe, the Mosel and the Ahr on the left bank, and the Sieg, the Wupper, the Ruhr and the Lippe on the right.
Fishing is carried on remuneratively, more particularly on the Vistula and its tributaries.
The tributaries that flow westward to the Paraguay are consequently to some extent navigable, while those that run eastward to the Parana are interrupted by rapids and falls, often of a formidable description.
side of the same range; these two districts being among the head waters of the Rio de San Francisco and its tributaries; (3) Diamantina, on and about the watershed separating the Rio de San Francisco from the Rio Jequitinhonha; and (4) Grao Mogul, nearly 200 m.
The diamond here occurs in river gravels and sands associated with the same minerals as in Minas Geraes; since 1844 the richest mines have been worked in the Serra de Cincora, where the mountains are intersected by the river Paraguassu and its tributaries; it is said that there were as many as 20,000 miners working here in 1845, and it was estimated that 54,000 carats were produced in Bahia in 1858.
The principal tributaries are the Lys and the Dender.
Its chief rivers are the Lot in the north, the Aveyron in the centre and the Tarn in the south, all tributaries of the Garonne.
India possesses no great lakes from which to draw rivers and canals, but through the plains of northern India flow rivers which are fed from the glaciers of the Himalaya; and the Ganges, the Indus, and their tributaries are thus prevented from diminishing very much in volume.
Behar abounds in great rivers, such as the Ganges, with its tributaries, the Ghagra, Gandak, Kusi, Mahananda and Sone.
The Ganges and its northern tributaries are navigable by country boats of large burden all the year round.
wards from the Bavarian Alps is watered by the Lech, the Tsar and the Inn, tributaries of the Danube, all three rising beyond the limits of German territory.
above Passau; and its tributaries the Lech, Isar, Inn and Altmuhl are also navigable.
The Fulda, navigable for 63 m., and the Werra, 38 m., above the point where they unite, form by their junction the Weser, which has a course of 271 m., and receives as navigable tributaries the Aller, the Leine from Hanover, and some smaller streams. Oceangoing steamers, however, cannot get as far as Bremen, and unload at Bremerhaven.
The navigable tributaries of the Elbe are the Saale (below Naumburg), the Havel, Spree, Elde, Sude and some others.
from its mouth, receiving as navigable tributaries the Glatz Neisse and the Warthe.
as are also its tributaries.
The Oder and some of the tributaries of the Elbe abound in crayfish, and in the stagnant lakes of East Prussia leeches are bred.
All parts of Ontario are well provided with lakes and rivers, the most important chain being that of the St Lawrence and the Great Lakes with their tributaries, which drain the more populous southern districts, and, with the aid of canals, furnish communication by fairly large vessels between the lower St Lawrence and the Lake Superior.
All the other rivers in southern Ontario are tributaries of the lakes or of the St Lawrence, the Ottawa, navigable in many parts, being the largest, and the Trent next in importance.
The people of Gela and Camarina were allowed to occupy their unwalled towns as tributaries of Carthage.
In the south-east of the colony the streams - of which the chief are the Dscha and Bumba - are tributaries of the Sanga, itself an affluent of the Congo.
The Moy is a notable salmon river for rodfishing and its tributaries and the neighbouring lakes contain trout.
- In India (including the valleys of the Kabul and its northern tributaries, then inhabited by an Indian, not, as now, by an Iranian, population) Alexander planted a number of Greek towns.
Tributaries of the Niger traverse the western portion of the country, the most noteworthy being the Gulbin Kebbi or Sokoto river and the Kaduna, which flows through a valley not more than 500 ft.
Of the tributaries of the Benue the most important is the Gongola.
There is ample water power from the Blackstone river and its tributaries, and among the manufactures of Grafton are cotton-goods, boots and shoes, &c. Within what is now Grafton stood the Nipmuck Indian village of Hassanamesit.
The principal rivers of Transylvania, which are either tributaries of the Theiss, or flow direct into the Danube, are: the Maros, which rises in the mountains forming the eastern wall of Transylvania, and taking first a northern course flows through the country from east to west; its principal affluents are the Gbrgenv, the Great and Little Kokel or Nagy and Kis Kiiki1116, the Strell (Sztrigi) and the Cserna on the left, and on the right the Ampoly and the Aranyos, which is rich in auriferous sediments.
The Aluta (Alt or Olt) rises not far from the Maros, but takes a southerly direction and pierces the Carpathians at the Roteturm pass, to enter Rumania; its principal tributaries in Transylvania are the Vargyas, the Homorod, the Cibin and the Burzen.
The fish of Lake Aral belong to fresh-water species, and in some of its rapid tributaries the interesting Scaphirhynchus, which represents a survival from the Tertiary epoch, is found.
A king Kisu of Silna (Salamis) is mentioned in a list of tributaries of Assur-bani-pal of Assyria in 668 B.C., and Assyrian influence is marked in the fine terra-cotta figures from a shrine at Toumba excavated in 1890-1891.
Straths are broad expanses of low ground between bounding hills and are usually traversed by one main stream and its tributaries - e.g.
Great part of southern and western Phrygia is drained by the Maeander with its tributaries, Sandykly Tchai (Glaucus), Banaz Tchai, Kopli Su (Hippurius), and Tchuruk Su (Lycus); moreover, some upland plains on the south, especially the Dombai Ova (Aulocra), communicate by underground channels with the IVlaeander.
3 Trees are exceedingly scarce in the country; and the pine-woods on the western tributaries of the Sangarius and the valonia oaks in parts of the Banaz Ova and a few other districts form exceptions.
The final survey of the Pamir region (wherein the heads of all the chief tributaries of the river lay hidden), by the Pamir boundary commission of 1895 established the following topographical facts in connexion with this question.
This at any rate is the action of the Burgutai stream during certain seasons of the year, so that the glaciers and snowfields of the Nicolas range may be regarded as the chief fountain-head of at least two of the upper tributaries of the Oxus, namely, the Aksu (or Murghab) and the Pamir river, and as contributing largely to a third, the Ab-i-Panja.
If the Aksu (or Murghab) and the Pamir river from Lake Victoria are to be considered in the light of independent tributaries, it is probable that the Ab-i-Panja contributes as large a volume of glacial flood to the Oxus as either of them.
At this point the measurement of the comparative lengths of the chief Pamir tributaries of the Oxus is as follows: To the head of the Aksu at Lake Chakmaktin.
Besides the great muddy affluents from Karateghin on the north, the Kabadian, the Surkhan, and the Darbant are all of them very considerable tributaries from Bokhara.
Like most of the large Amazon tributaries, its discharge into the Maranon is through several distinct channels.
The principal tributaries of the Napo are the Coca and Aguarico from the north, and the Curaray from the south.
The Napo and its tributaries are celebrated in the early history of South America as the route by which Gonzalo Pizarro and Oreliana first reached the Amazon, and it was afterwards the principal route by which the early expeditions across the continent at this point connected the Andean Plateau with the Amazon.
Its length below this confluence is 416 m., into which are received 109 tributaries, the largest of which are the Pucacuro and Corrientes.
One of its plateau tributaries, Rio Pedregal, rises on the slopes of Cotopaxi and is celebrated for its three beautiful cascades, the highest of which is about 220 ft.
The Reptilia include countless numbers of alligators in the Guayas and its tributaries and in the tide-water channels of many of the smaller rivers; many species of lizards, of which Mr Whymper found three in the Quito basin; snakes of every description from the huge anaconda of the Amazon region down to the beautifully marked coral snake; and a great variety of frogs and toads.
Commerce.-Ecuador has no merchant marine beyond a few small vessels engaged in the coastwise traffic, some eighteen or twenty river steamers on the Guayas and its tributaries, and a number of steam launches, towboats and various descriptions of barges engaged in the transportation of produce and goods on the rivers.
There is also steamboat connexion with the producing districts of the province on the Guayas river and its tributaries, on which boats run regularly as far up as Bodegas (80 m.) in the dry season, and for a distance of 40 m.
The most important fisheries on the Illinois river and its tributaries were at Havana, Pekin and Peoria, which in 2907-1908 were represented by a total catch of about 10,000,000 lb, out of a total for this river system of 27,570,000 lb.
(745-728): proand anti-Assyrian parties now make themselves felt, and when north Syria was taken in 738, Tyre, Sidon, nance of Damascus (under Rezin), " Samaria " (under Menahem) and a queen of Aribi were among the tributaries.
Numerous tributaries of the Shari flow through the country, but much of the water is absorbed by swamps and sand-obstructed channels, and seasons of drought are recurrent.
It is traversed by the chain of the Jura, and is watered by the Birs and the Ergolz, both tributaries (left) of the Rhine.
The Ogoki and Kenogami rivers are the principal tributaries.
in height (Shah Fuladi, the highest, is 16,870), and from them to the south-west long spurs divide the upper tributaries of the Helmund, and separate its basin from that of the Farah Rud.
North of the main water-parting of Afghanistan the broad synclinal plateau into which the Hindu Kush is merged is traversed by the gorges of the Saighan, Bamian and Kamard tributaries of the Kunduz, and farther to the west by the Band-i-Amir or Balkh river.
Thus the main routes from Kabul to Afghan Turkestan must cross either one or other of these ranges, and must traverse one or other of the terrific defiles which have been carved out of them by the upper tributaries of the rivers running northwards towards the Oxus.
Between the Oxus and the hills there has already been formed a rise or flexure in the ground, which extends more or less parallel to the northern edge of the hills, and, shutting in the cultivated area of the plains, arrests all tributaries seeking to effect a junction with the Oxus from the south, and leads to the formation of marshes and swamps.
One of these routes follows the Balkh river to its head from Tashkurghan, and then, preserving a high general level of 8000 to 9000 ft., it passes over the water-divides separating the upper tributaries of the Kunduz river, and drops into the valley formed by another tributary at Bamian.
Between Kabul and Herat there is no " royal " road, the existing route passing over the frequently snowbound wastes that lie below the southern flank of the great Koh-iBaba into the upper valleys of the Hari Rud tributaries.
The state lies in the lowlands of the Baltic, is diversified by gently swelling hills, and watered by the Trave and its tributaries, the Wakenitz and the Stecknitz.
On the west, in the dry region, this is occupied partly by the alluvial deposits of the Indus and its tributaries and the saline swamps of Cutch, partly by the rolling sands and rocky surface of the desert of Jaisalmer and Bikaner, and the more fertile tracts to the eastward watered by the Luni.
follows that river and its tributaries the Belesa and Muna, until within 42 m.
Each of these has a great number of small tributaries, and along the coast of this lowland basin are many small tide water streams. The Pasig is a short but commercially important stream connecting Laguna de Bay with Manila Bay.
The fauna of the lake and of its tributaries - explored by Nikolsky - is more akin to the fauna of the rivers of the Tarim basin than to that of the Aral; it also does not contain the common frog.
The main streams are tortuous, and their dendritic tributaries have cut the region into ridges.
Its chief tributaries in Eisenach are the Hdrsel and the Ulster.
On the eastern side of both rivers are various important tributaries, fed by the more abundant rains and melting snows of the western flank of the Sierra; but these streams also shrink greatly in the dry season.
COLMAR, or Kolmar, a town of Germany, in the imperial province of Alsace-Lorraine, formerly the capital of the department of Haut-Rhin in France, on the Logelbach and Lauch, tributaries of the Ill, 40 m.
To the north of the mountains lie the basins of the Wei-ho and of several other tributaries to the Hwang-ho.
of the state, and in Laramie, Albany and Carbon counties in the S.E., though there are large tracts around the headwaters of the Bighorn river, in Fremont county in the west-central part, along the North Platte river and its tributaries in Converse county in the central part, and along the Green river and its tributaries in Sweetwater and Uinta counties in the S.
Among its considerable tributaries may be mentioned the southern Melawi with its affluent the Penuh.
as far as 85° W., and constitutes the frontier until it reaches the sea at Cape Gracias a Dios, after a course of more than 450 m., during which it receives many tributaries.
East of the Bulgar Dagh the range is pierced by the Sihun and Jihun rivers, and their tributaries, but its continuity is not broken.
The most important rivers which flow to the Black Sea are the following: - the Boas (Churuk Su) which rises near Baiburt, and flows out near Batum; the Iris (Yeshil Irmak), with its tributaries the Lycus (Kelkit Irmak), which rises on the Armenian plateau, the Chekerek Irmak, which has its source near Yuzgat, and the Tersakan Su; the Halys (Kizil Irmak) is the longest river in Asia Minor, with its tributaries the Delije Irmak (Cappadox), which flows through the eastern part of Galatia, and the Geuk Irmak, which has its sources in the mountains above Kastamuni.
Its tributaries are the Pursak Su (Tembris), which has its source in the Murad Dagh (Dindymus), and, after running north to Eski-shehr, flows almost due east to the Sakaria, and the Enguri Su, which joins the Sakaria a little below the junction of the `Pursak.
Its principal tributaries are - the Phrygius (Kum Chai), which receives the waters of the Lycus (Giirduk Chai), and the Cogamus (Kuzu Chai), which in its upper course is separated from the valley of the Maeander by hills that were crossed by the Roman road from Pergamum to Laodicea.
Its principal tributaries are the Glaucus, the Senarus (Banaz Chai), and the Hippurius, on the right bank.
Its importance was still further increased during the latter part of the 19th century in consequence of the growth of manufacturing industry in the Oka basin, the rapid development of steamboat traffic on the Volga and its tributaries, the extension of the Russian railway system and the opening of Central Asia for trade.
Its one large river is the Guadiana, which traverses the north of the province from east to west, fed by many tributaries; but it is only at certain seasons that the river-beds fill with any considerable volume of water, and the Guadiana may frequently be forded without difficulty.
The fruitful departments watered by the Loire and its tributaries produce considerable quantities of wine.
The wines grown in the Rheingau, Rheinhessen and in parts of the Palatinate are generally known by the name of Rhine wines, although e many of these are actually produced on tributaries of that river.
Some of the tributaries of the Moselle also produce wines which in quality approach those of the parent river.
The Southern Park, which runs into New Mexico, is traversed by the Rio Grande del Norte and more than a dozen of its mountain tributaries.
The scenery on the head-waters of the White and Bear, the upper tributaries of the Gunnison, and on many of the minor rivers of the south-west is wonderfully beautiful.
Colorado was practically an unknown country when in 1858 gold was discovered in the plains, on the tributaries of the South Platte, near Denver.
Next in importance is the Ramganga, which receives as its tributaries most of the hill torrents of the Kumaon mountains.
Extensive plateaus (1500-1750 ft.), into which Lake Enare, or Inari, and the valleys of its tributaries are deeply sunk, and which take the character of a mountain region in the Saariselka (highest summit, 2360 ft.), occupy the remainder of Lapland.
7 Danube, which comes next to it, being only 1775 m., while the Rhine (760 m.) is shorter even than two of the chief tributaries of the Volga - the Oka and the Kama.
Its tributaries are navigable for an aggregate length of nearly 20,000 m.
ft.); of its numerous tributaries, the Unzha (365 m., 330 navigable), from the north, is the most important.
It rises in the government of Orel, among hills which also send tributaries to the Dnieper and the Don, and receives on the left the Upa, the Zhizdra, the Ugra (300 m.), the Moskva, on which steamers ply up to Moscow, the Klyazma (J95 m.), on whose banks arose the middle-Russian principality of Suzdal, and on the right the navigable Tsna (255 m.) and Moksha.
Every one of these tributaries is connected with some important event in the history of Great Russia.
m.), as well as in the aggregate length of its tributaries, the Volga is the inferior stream.
long, of which 365 are navigable), from the forest-tracts of Yaroslavl, and many smaller tributaries.
Here the Volga receives no tributaries; its right bank is skirted by low hills, but on the left it anastomoses freely with the Akhtuba when its waters are high, and floods the country for 15 to 35 m.
No positive result was, however, arrived at, principally on account of the want of regular measurements of the volume of the Volga and its tributaries - measurements which began to be made on scientific principles only in 1880.
In winter the numberless tributaries and subtributaries of the Volga become highways for sledges.
The following table shows the principal river ports, with the movement of shipping in an average year :- Formerly tens of thousands of burlaki, or porters, were employed in dragging boats up the Volga and its tributaries, but this method of traction has disappeared unless from a few of the tributaries.
But in the meantime a flow of Novgorodian colonization had moved eastward, along the upper portions of the left-bank tributaries of the Volga, and had reached the Urals.
P. P. Semenov's Geographical and Statistical Dictionary (5 vols., St Petersburg, 1863-85) contains a full bibliography of the Volga and tributaries.
Assam is a fertile series of valleys, with the great channel of the Brahmaputra (literally, the Son of Brahma) flowing down its middle, and an infinite number of tributaries and watercourses pouring into it from the mountains on either side.
Its first tributaries in Assam, after crossing the frontier, are the Kundil and the Digaru, flowing from the Mishmi hills on the north, and the Tengapani and Dihing, which take their rise on the Singpho hills to the south-east.
long and has a number of important tributaries, including the McLeod, Pembina, Lesser 1 This is by some authorities divided into two.
All the rivers of the department flow into the Seine, - on the right bank the Andelle and the Epte, and on the left the Eure with its tributaries the Avre and the Iton, and the Risle with its tributary the Charentonne.
The water of its upper course and tributaries is sweet, and is conducted across the desert in pipes to some of the coast towns, but in its lower course, as in all the rivers of this region, it becomes brackish.
The Aisen also has its source in Argentine territory near the 46th parallel, and drains a mountainous region as far north as the 45th parallel, receiving numerous tributaries, and discharging a large volume of water into the Moraleda channel in about lat.
The rivers are the Tolten on the northern boundary, the Valdivia, or Calle-Calle, with its large tributaries in the central part of the province, and the Bueno on the southern frontier.
Harauvati), in the district of the Helmand and its tributaries, round Kandahar.
The Yarkand-Darya and its numerous tributaries, which are fed by the glaciers of the mountain regions, as also many rivers which are now lost in the steppe or amidst the irrigated fields, bring abundance of water to the desert; one of them is called Zarafshan ("gold-strewing"), as much on account of the fertility it brings as of its auriferous sands.
The ruins of the Artemision, after serving as a quarry to local builders, were finally covered deep with mud by the river Cayster, or one of its left bank tributaries, the Selinus, and the true site remained unsuspected until 1869.
Lying in the midst of them, on an open plain formed by the high-level tributaries of the Lora (which have also raised the Pishin valley to the north), 55 00 ft.
Being fed by tributaries which for the most part drain narrow valleys where gradual denudation has washed bare the flat-backed slopes of limestone ridges, and which consequently send down torrents of rapidly accumulating rainfall, both these central lines of water-course are liable to terrific floods.
An irregularly-shaped block of upland territory, which includes all the upper Lora tributaries, and the Toba plateau beyond them; resting on the Kwaja Amran (Kojak) Range (with an British.
Between the Naushirwanis of the Kharan desert and Mashkel, and the fish-eating population of the coast, enclosed in the narrow valleys of the Rakshan and Kej tributaries, or about the sources of the Hingol, are tribes innumerable, remnants of races which may be recognized in the works of Herodotus, or may be traced in the records of recent immigration.
The northern tributaries of the Gilgit river, which joins the Indus near its south-westerly bend towards the Punjab, take their rise from a glacier system which is probably unequalled in the world for its extent and magnificent proportions.
It is but lately, however, that any adequate conception of the magnitude and majesty of the most stupendous of the mountain groups which mass themselves about the upper tributaries and reaches of the Indus has been presented to us in the works of Sir F.
Lesser ranges, which are included in the Beirene system and vary in height from 2000 to 4000 ft., are the Mesas, between the rivers Coa and Zezere; the Guardunha and Moradal, separating the Zezere from the Ponsul and Ocreza, tributaries of the Tagus; the Serra do Aire, and various ridges which stretch south-westward as far as the mountains of Cintra (q.v.).
The chief Portuguese tributaries of the Douro are the Tamega, Tua and Sabor on the north, the Agueda, Coa and Paiva on the south; of the Tagus, the Ocreza, Ponsul and Zezere on the north, the Niza and Sorraia on the south, while into the Guadiana, on its right or Portuguese bank, flow the Caia, Degebe, Cobres, Oeiras and Vascao.
Its estuary contains the important harbour of Figueira da Foz; its chief tributaries are the Dao on the right, and the Alva, Ceira and Arunca on the left; its length is 125 m.
North of this elevation, which formed the southern shore of the ancient Mojos Lake, are the llanos of Guarayos and Mojos, occupying an extensive region traversed by the Guapore, San Miguel, Guapay, Mamore, Yacuma, Beni and Madre de Dios rivers and their numerous tributaries.
The principal tributaries of the Guapay are the Mizque, Piray or Sara and Yapacani, the last rising on the east slopes of the Cordillera Real, flowing east by Cochabamba to the sierras of that name where it breaks through with a great bend to the north.
The other large Bolivian tributaries of the Mamore, all rising on the north-east flanks of the Andes, are the Chapare, Secure, Manique or Apere and Yacuma, the last draining a region of lakes and swamps north of the Sierra Chamaya.
Several of its south tributaries belong to Bolivia.
Its Brazilian tributaries are comparatively unimportant, but from Bolivia it receives the Baures and the San Miguel, both rising in the Sierras de Chiquitos and flowing north-west across the llanos to the Guapore.
Nothing definite is known of its tributaries in the Chaco, but in the sierra region it possesses a number of small tributaries, the largest of which are the Cachimayo, Mataca and Pilaya or Camblaya, the latter formed by the Cotagaita and San Juan.
The Bolivian tributaries of the upper Paraguay are small and unimportant.
The Desaguadero is navigable for small craft, and has two or three small tributaries from the west.
Pueblo ruins are plentiful in the basins of the Gila and Colorado rivers and their tributaries.
The first includes the Guapay or Rio Grande, Piray or Sara, Yapacani and Marac6, upper tributaries of the Mamore, and the San Miguel, Blanco, Baures and Paragua, tributaries of the Guapore - both draining the western and northern parts of the department.
Of the tributaries of the Dnieper the following are navigable, - the Berezina and the Pripet from the right, and the Sozh and the Desna from the left.
The chief tributaries of the Salween in British territory are the Nam Yu and the Nam Oi or Nam Mwe on the right bank, and the Hsipa Haw on the left.
Below this the tributaries are again only mountain streams till the Thaung-yin comes in from the S.E.
Between Henry's Fork and Malade (or Big Wood) river, a distance of 200 m., the river apparently has no northern tributaries; but several streams, as the Camas, Medicine Lodge and Birch creeks, and Big and Little Lost rivers, which fail to penetrate the plain of the Snake after reaching its border, are believed to join it through subterranean channels.
The scenery on some of these tributaries is almost as beautiful as that of the Snake, though lacking the grandeur of its greater scale.
The Tom and its numerous tributaries rise on the northern slopes of the Kuznetsk Ala-tau, and their fertile valleys are occupied by a 1 Mr S.
Its principal tributaries are the Paglia, the Nera and the Anio or Teverone, and it is generally navigable by boats up to the confluence of the Nera, a distance of 104 m., though, owing to the rapidity of the current, there is very little navigation above Rome.
The chief tributaries of the lake on the U.S. side are Thunder bay river, Au Sable river and Saginaw river.
Of the tributaries to the Delaware river the northernmost is Flat Brook, 25 m.
On account of the rapid fall of its tributaries, the union of so many of them with the main stream near its middle course and the obstructions to the flow of the water in the lower course, the Passaic is subject to disastrous floods.
The chief tributaries of the Murray are the Darling and the Murrumbidgee, which is joined by the Lachlan.
In its upper course the Darling receives numerous tributaries.
Those on the right bank all come from Queensland and bring down enormous volumes of water in flood time; on the left bank the most important tributaries are the Gwydir, Namoi, Castlereagh, Bogan and Macquarie.
On the north the district is watered by the Godavari and its tributaries the Prawara and the Mula; on the north-east by the Dor, another tributary of the Godavari; on the east by the Sephani, which flows through the valley below the Balaghat range; and in the extreme south by the Bhima and its tributary the Gor.
Lagoons fringe the lower course of the Pruth and the coast of the Black Sea, and marshy ground exists beside the Reuth and other tributaries of the Dniester.
for their numerous important tributaries.
It sinks lowest where the estuary of the Humber gathers in its main tributaries, and the greater part of the surface is covered with recent alluvial deposits.
The Thames is the one great river of the division, rising on the Jurassic Belt, crossing the Chalk country, and finishing its course in the Tertiary London Basin, towards which, in its prevailing west-to-east direction, it draws its tributaries from north and south.
The trout-fishing in the upper Thames and many of its tributaries (such as the Kennet, Colne and Lea) is famous.
broad, is fed by 26 tributaries, 20 of which are each greater than the!Mer de Glace, and pushes its bergs into the sea from ice cliffs almost 2 m.
Both the main streams and the smaller tributaries often flow through deep canyons.
from the mouth), along the great tributaries of the Yukon, and, so far as explorations have revealed, along every stream in central Alaska; and the woods of the interior consist almost entirely of spruce.
long, running to highlands dividing the Ristigouche and the tributaries of the Metis; and there was a further disagreement with regard to the side of the highlands on which the boundary should be, and as to what stream was the " north-westernmost head of Connecticut river."
On arriving in the Peiho he was given to understand that he could only be admitted to the emperor's presence on condition of performing the ko-tou (kow-tow), a ceremony which Western nations consider degrading, and which is, indeed, a homage exacted by a Chinese sovereign from his tributaries.
Beyond, once more beyond, spreads the Scythian steppe, not the dead level of Lombardy, but an expanse of long low modulations, which would be reckoned hills in our home counties, seamed by long shining ribbons, which mark the courses of the tributaries of the Terek..
Arid upland plains and parched hillsides take the place of the rich verdure and luxuriant arborescent growth of Imeretia, Svanetia and Mingrelia, the districts which occupy the valleys of the Ingur and Rion and the tributaries of the latter.
The Lyakhva and Aragva, tributaries of the Kura, carry off the waters of the main range south of Kasbek, and other tributaries, such as the Yora and the Alazan, collect the surplus drainage of the main Caucasus range farther east.
The first station was founded in February 1880 at Vivi, and before returning to Europe in August 1884 Mr Stanley had established twenty-two stations on the Congo and its tributaries.
A conventional basin of the Congo was defined, which comprised all the regions watered by the Congo and its affluents, including Lake Tanganyika, with its eastern tributaries, and in this conventional basin it was declared that "the trade of all nations shall enjoy complete freedom."
It may roughly be divided into four zones: - (1) the small coast zone west of the Crystal Mountains, through which the Congo breaks in a succession of rapids to the Atlantic; (2) the great central zone, described below; (3) the smaller zone east of the Mitumba range (including the upper coursesof some of the Congo tributaries which have forced their way through the mountains), and west of Lake Mweru and the upper course of the Luapula; and (4) an area which belongs geographically to the Nile valley.
For a description of its course, and a list of its principal tributaries see Italy.
All along its course from Chivasso (below Turin) down to the delta the river is connected with several of its tributaries by canals, and at the same time other canals connect the tributaries and carry off their waters and the waters of the Po purely for purposes of irrigation.
The Abai has many tributaries.
The right-hand tributaries, rising mostly on the western sides of the plateau, have steep slopes and are generally torrential in character.
- The soil is exceedingly fertile, as is evident from the fact that Egypt owes practically all its fertility to the sediment carried into the Nile by its Abyssinian tributaries.
The Chiers, the Semois, the Lesse, the Sambre, the Ourthe and the Roer are its most important tributaries.
In the northern districts the rivers run along the valleys, receive the drainage from the country on !l either side, absorb broad tributaries and rush forward with an ever-increasing volume.
It receives a number of tributaries, sends off several offshoots, and is navigable throughout the year by native cargo boats of the largest size.
Among its many tributaries in Backergunje the most important is the Kacha, itself a considerable stream and navigable by large boats all the year round, which flows in a southerly direction for 20 m., when it falls into the Baleswar.
Many interesting mammalian fossils, rhinoceros, mammoth, &c., with palaeolithic implements, have been found in the valley gravels of the river Ouse and its tributaries.
It is fed by many tributaries, which rise in the Carpathians as mountain torrents, growing broad and sluggish as they flow south-eastward through the central Rumanian plain.
Its chief Rumanian tributaries are the Basheu (Baseii) and Jijia, rivers of the north.
These mountains separate the southern half of the department, which comprises the basin of the Ardeche, from the northern half which is watered by numerous smaller tributaries of the Rhone, the chief of which are the Erieux and the Doux.
Nearly one half its area lies south-east of the Andes and consists of extensive llanos and forested plains, traversed by several of the western tributaries of the Amazon and Orinoco.
of navigable channels, including its tributaries, although the river itself is only 190 m.
The principal tributaries are the Piendamo, Ovejas, Palo, Amaime and Nechi, from the central Cordillera, of which the last named is the most important, and the Jamundi and a large number of small streams from the Western.
Its principal tributaries, so far as known, are the Tuca, Chire and Casanare.
There are many large tributaries of these rivers in the unexplored regions of south-eastern Colombia, but their names as well as their courses are still unsettled.
Farther north, on the open llanos of the Orinoco tributaries, the year is divided into equal parts, an alternating wet and dry season, the sun temperatures being high followed by cool nights, and the temperatures of the rainy season being even higher.