In J4 he impeached unsuccessfully C. Porcius Cato, who in his tribunate (56) had acted as the tool of the triumvirs.
The final and all-important act of selection from among these men was, however, to be made by a personage, styled the proclamateur-electeur, who chose all the important functionaries, and, conjointly with the notabilities of the nation, chose the members for the Council of State (wielding the chief executive powers), the Tribunate and the Senate.
These two bodies nominally formed the legislature, the Tribunate merely discussing the bills sent to it by an important body, the Council of State; while the Corps Legislatif, sitting in silence, heard them defended by councillors of state and criticized by members of the Tribunate; thereupon it passed or rejected such proposals by secret voting.
It is significant that Bonaparte proposed this bill (drafted in the Council of State) to the Tribunate and the Corps Legislatif on the very day on which it was first certainly known that France had accepted the new constitution.
The opposition in the Tribunate was sharp, but was paralysed by the knowledge of the fact just named and by the lack of a free press.
Here again the Tribunate offered a vehement opposition to the measure, and in spite of official pressure passed the bill only by a majority of eight.
Nevertheless his proposal met with strong opposition in the Corps Legislatif and Tribunate, where members saw that it portended a revival of the older distinction.
This body received the right of deciding by senatus consulta all questions not provided for by the constitution; the Corps Legislatif and Tribunate might also thenceforth be dissolved at its bidding.
Other official addresses of the same general tenour flowed in; and even the tribunate showed its docility by proposing that the imperial dignity should be declared hereditary in the family of Bonaparte (3rd of May).
The senate and the tribunate each appointed a commission to deal with the matter, with the result which every one foresaw.
Carnot alone in the tribunate protested against the measure.
Napoleon's chief aversion, the tribunate, was also divided into three sections, dealing with legislation, home affairs and finance - a division which preluded its entire suppression in 1807.
Napoleon also suppressed the Tribunate; and in the year 1808 instituted an order of nobility.
During the first consulate he was called to the tribunate, but was excluded in 1802.
These were (i) the command of an auxiliary cohort; (2) the tribunate of a legion; (3) the command of an auxiliary cavalry squadron, this order being as a rule strictly adhered to.
In 1801 he was made a member of the Tribunate, and in 1805 a senator.
De Chenier in his La Write sur la famille de Chenier (1844) the Council of Five Hundred, and had voted for the death of Louis XVI.; he had a seat in the tribunate; he belonged to the committees of public instruction, of general security, and of public safety.
His purely political career ended in 1802, when he was eliminated with others from the tribunate for his opposition to Napoleon.
He lived in retirement until the establishment of the Consulate, when he entered the tribunate, of which he was for some time president.
He had by this time established his reputation as a publicist, and, when the consular government was established in the year VIII (1799), he was selected as one of the hundred members of the tribunate, and resigned, in consequence, the direction of the Decade.
The First Consul, finding his plans of seizing Lisbon frustrated, remonstrated with his brother, who thereupon resigned his post, and returned to Paris, there taking part in the opposition which the Tribunate offered to some of Napoleon's schemes.
Daru now returned, for a time, mainly to civil life, and entered the tribunate, where he ably maintained the principles of democratic liberty.
Caesar made the most of his divine ancestry and built a temple in his forum to Venus Genetrix; but his patrician descent was of little importance in politics and disqualified Caesar from holding the tribunate, an office to which, as a leader of the popular party, he would naturally have aspired.
Suetonius tells us that he threw himself into the agitation for the restoration of the ancient powers of the tribunate curtailed by Sulla, and that he secured the passing of a law of amnesty in favour of the partisans of Sertorius.
The tribunate called into existence a purely plebeian assembly, firstly, for the election of plebeian magistrates; secondly, for jurisdiction in cases where these magistrates had been injured; thirdly, for presenting petitions on behalf of the plebs through the consuls to the comitia centuriata.
In December 1799, he was nominated a member of the Tribunate, where he showed from the outset an independence quite unacceptable to Napoleon, by whom he was removed in the "creaming" of that assembly in 1802.
They were excluded from the tribunate and the council of the plebs, which had become important instruments of government, and were only eligible for one place in the consulship and censorship, while both were open to plebeians.
But the adoption of P. Clodius Pulcher into a plebeian family in J9 B.C. with a view to election to the tribunate shows that a rejection of patrician rights (transitio ad plebem) was not difficult to effect by any patrician who preferred actual power to the dignity of ancient descent.
A member of the council of the Ancients, then of the Tribunate, he was president of the latter when the peace of Amiens was signed.
The following year saw the work of Sulla undone; the tribunate was restored, and the administration of justice was no longer left exclusively to the senate, but was to be shared by it with the wealthier portion of the middle class, the equites and the tribuni aerarii.
Parliamentary institutions annulled by the The concomplication of three assembliesthe Council of State aiftutlon which drafted bills, the Tribunate which discUssed oi the them without voting them, and the Legislative year VIII.
Tribunate, the platitudes of the servile Senate, the silence of the press.