The local church sought recovery of it before the tribunals of the Empire.
The ordinary tribunals, in their organization, personnel and procedure, are modelled very closely on those of France (see France, Law and Institutions).
army corps; it has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, a chamber of commerce, an exchange and a branch of the Bank of France.
Its public institutions include tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a council of tradearbitrators, a chamber of commerce and a branch of the Bank of France.
For the purposes of a concordat the state recognizes the official status of the church and of its ministers and tribunals; guarantees it certain privileges; and sometimes binds itself to secure for it subsidies representing compensation for past spoliations.
The theory of droit administratif lays down the principle that an agent of the government cannot be prosecuted or sued for acts relating to his administrative functions before the ordinary tribunals.
that it established itself in a set of independent tribunals which remained in standing contrast to the ordinary courts for many hundred years.
Police.Broadly, the police of France may be divided into two great branchesadministrative police (la police administrative) and judicial police (la police judic-iaire), the former having for its object the maintenance of order, and the latter charged with tracing out offenders, collecting the proofs, and delivering the presumed offenders to the tribunals charged by law with their trial and punishment.
The penal tribunals have jurisdiction in cases involving imprisonment up to ten years, or a fine exceeding 40, while the assize courts, with a jury, deal with offences involving imprisonment for life or over ten years, and have exclusive jurisdiction (except that the senate is on occasion a high court of justice) over all political offences.
Appeal may be made from the sentences of the pretori to the tribunals, and from the tribunals to the courts of appeal; from the assize courts there is no appeal except on a point of form, which appeal goes to the court of cassation at Rome.
The juntas are in this respect organs of~the administrative jurisprudence created in Italy by the law of the 1st of May 1890, in order to provide juridical protection for those rights and interests outside the competence of the ordinary tribunals.
As in 1894, excessively severe sentences were passed by the military tribunals upon revolutionary leaders and other persons considered to have been implicated in the outbreak, but successive royal amnesties obliterated these condemnations within three years.
Renard thought he would be executed, but so true a Romanist as Mary could scarcely have an ecclesiastic put to death in consequence of a sentence by a secular court, and Cranmer was reserved for treatment as a heretic by the highest of clerical tribunals, which could not act until parliament had restored the papal jurisdiction.
baptized persons, could not be exclusively claimed as of right by the Church tribunals, if the subject matter of the cause were purely temporal.
The third and fourth oecumenical synods (Ephesus, 43 1; Chalcedon, 451) were primarily tribunals for the trials of Nestorius and Dioscorus; it was secondarily that they became organs of the universal episcopate for the definition of the faith, or legislative assemblies for the enactment of canons.
The canon provides that any clerk having a complaint against another clerk must not pass by his own bishop and turn to secular tribunals, but first lay b a re his cause before him, so that by the sentence of the bishop himself the dispute may be settled by arbitrators acceptable to both parties.
Theodosius began the system of giving secular authority to Church tribunals.
With the later 9th century we enter upon a new epoch, and by the time of Gregory VII., in the 11th century, the tribunals have fallen into the hands of a regular class of canonists who are in fact professional church-lawyers in orders.
The " ordinary " ecclesiastical tribunals of the later middle ages still subsist in England, at least as regards the laity.
The tribunals thus subsisting are the courts of the bishop and archbishop, the latter sometimes called the court of appeal of the province.
c. 86 (the " Church Discipline Act ") creates new tribunals; and first a commission of inquiry appointed by the bishop of five persons, of whom the vicar-general, or an archdeacon, or a rural dean of the diocese must be one.
Both these tribunals are new.
In the case of persons in holy orders there is a concurrent jurisdiction of the two tribunals (Valancy v.
(April 8, 1802), no express provision was made for ecclesiastical jurisdictions; but several bishops did create new ecclesiastical tribunals, " officialities " (Migne, Dict.
The government in some cases recognized these tribunals as capable of judging ecclesiastical causes (Migne, ubi sup.).
The Austrian bishops, however, maintain their tribunals for spiritual purposes, and insist that such things as divorced vinculo must be granted by their authority (Aichner, Compendium juris ecclesiastici, pp. 551-553).
Certain religious houses, however, had their own final tribunals and were " peculiars," exempt from any diocesan or patriarchal jurisdiction for at least all causes relating to Church property (ib.
All matrimonial causes are heard by the secular tribunals (Lehr, op. cit.
The royal Inquisition thus started was subversive of the regular tribunals of the bishops, who much resented the innovation, which, however, had the power of the state at its back.
Other tribunals, like that of Seville and under La Suprema, were speedily established in Cordova, Jaen and Toledo.
The sovereigns saw that wealth was beginning to flow in to the new tribunals by means of fines and confiscations; and they obliged Torquemada to take as assessors five persons who would represent them in all matters affecting the royal prerogatives.
Public morality was in peril, and in May 183 2 the halls of the new sect were closed by the government, and the father, with some of his followers, appeared before the tribunals.
Secondly, he established deme law-courts to prevent people from having recourse to the city tribunals; it is said that he himself occasionally "went on circuit," and on one of these occasions was so struck by the plaints of an old farmer on Hymettus, that he remitted all taxation on his land.
The system established by the law of 1864 is remarkable in that it set up two wholly separate orders of tribunals, each having their own courts of appeal and coming in contact only in the senate, as the supreme court of cassation.
The first of these, based on the English model, are the courts of the elected justices of the peace, with jurisdiction over petty causes, whether civil or criminal; the second, based on the French model, are the ordinary tribunals of nominated judges, sitting with or without a jury to hear important cases.
This fact was recognized by the legislators of 1864, and beneath the statutory tribunals created in that year the special courts of the peasants were suffered to survive.
In the ordinary tribunals weight is given to the " customs " of the peasants, even when these conflict with the written law.
Not only was the army to be well drilled and the fleet to be carefully equipped, but railways were to be constructed, river-navigation was to be facilitated, manufacturing industry was to be developed, commerce was to be encouraged, the administration was to be improved, the laws were to be codified and the tribunals were to be reorganized.
The reformed tribunals, though incomparably better than their predecessors, did not give universal satisfaction.
Wholesale arrests were made by the police, and many of the accused were imprisoned or exiled to distant provinces, some by the regular tribunals, and others by so-called " administrative procedure " without a formal trial.
The local institutions were assimilated to those of the purely Russian provinces; the use of the Russian language was made obligatory in the administration, in the tribunals and to some extent in the schools; the spread of Eastern Orthodoxy was encouraged by the authorities, whilst the other confessions were placed under severe restrictions; foreigners were prohibited from possessing landed property; and in some provinces administrative measures were taken for making the land pass into the hands of Orthodox Russians.
Various privileges already acquired by the Christian population were confirmed; a general council, or representative body, was brought into existence, composed of deputies from every district in the island; mixed tribunals were introduced, together with a highly elaborate administrative system, under which all the more important functionaries, Christian and Mussulman, were provided with an assessor of the opposite creed.
The executive powers were placed almost entirely in his hands, as will be seen by the terms of article 41 which defined his functions: "The First Consul promulgates the laws; he appoints and dismisses at will the members of the Council of State, the ministers, the ambassadors and other leading agents serving abroad, the officers of the army and navy, the members of local administrative bodies and the commissioners of government attached to the tribunals.
In this connexion we may note that the disturbances, mainly royalist but sometimes Jacobinical, in several districts of France enabled Bonaparte to propose the establishment in the troubled districts of special tribunals for the trial of all offences tending to disturb the general peace.
The institution of the special tribunals (already referred to), which enabled Bonaparte to supersede local government in thirty-two of the departments, was another outcome of the bomb conspiracy.
His other works are mainly accounts of his travels: Sketches of the Natural, Political and Civil State of Switzerland (London, 1779), Account of the Russian Discoveries between Asia and America (London, 1780), Account of Prisons and Hospitals in Russia, Sweden and Denmark (London, 1781), Travels into Poland, Russia, Sweden and Denmark (London, 1784), Travels in Switzerland (London, 1789), Letter on Secret Tribunals of Westphalia (London, 1796), Historical Tour in Monmouthshire (London, 1801).
It has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, a lycee, training-colleges and a chamber of arts and manufactures.
The Poetelian law (326 B.C.) restricted the creditor's lien (by virtue of a nexum) to the goods of his debtor, and enacted that for the future no debtor should be put in chains; but we hear of debtors addicti to their creditors by the tribunals long after - even in the time of the Punic Wars.
The town is the seat of a bishop, a prefecture, a court of assizes, and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber of commerce, training colleges, a lycee for boys, a communal college for girls, and a branch of the Bank of France.
The preliminaries of the elections of December 1905 and March 1906 being marked by frauds and injustice, the Liberals deserted the polls at those elections, and instead of appealing to judicial tribunals controlled by the Moderates, issued a manifesto of revolution on the 28th of July 1906.1 This insurrection rapidly assumed large proportions.
Lassalle attached himself to the cause of the countess, whom he believed to have been outrageously wronged, made special study of law, and, after bringing the case before thirty-six tribunals, reduced the powerful count to a compromise on terms most favourable to his client.
Agen is the seat of a bishop. It is the seat of a court of appeal and a court of assizes, and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce and a chamber of commerce.
He is not opposed to penalties against heretics, but he would have them pronounced only by civil tribunals.
In the jury courts, the equites, thanks to Julius Caesar, already formed two-thirds of the judices; Augustus, by excluding the senators altogether, virtually gave them the sole control of the tribunals.
As to the third complaint, that the compilers of the Digest altered the extracts they collected, cutting out and inserting words and sentences at their own pleasure, this was a process absolutely necessary according to the instructions given them, which were to prepare a compilation representing the existing law, and to be used for the actual administration of justice in the tribunals.
Even from revolutionary tribunals, however, the name of Lagrange uniformly commanded respect.
Dunkirk is the seat of a sub-prefect; its public institutions include tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, an exchange, a branch of the Bank of France and a communal college; and it has a school of drawing, architecture and music, a library and a rich museum of paintings.
Tribunals and rules are, after all, only machinery.
David Dudley Field, of New York, subsequently enlarged this list, which has been continued under the title International Tribunals, by Dr W.
It also has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, an exchange and a branch of the Bank of France.
Coloured persons are not, by name, excluded from the franchise, but no persons " subject to special laws and tribunals," 1 in which category all natives are included, are entitled to vote.
This was a period of military tribunals, dragooning, wholesale T Bach confiscation 'and all manner of brutalities.'
Bar-le-Duc has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade arbitrators, a lycee, a training-college for girls, a chamber of commerce, a branch of the Bank of France and an art museum.
Aurillac is the seat of a prefect, and its public institutions include tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber of commerce, a lycee, training-colleges and a branch of the Bank of France..
Outside this territory the native tribunals survive.
The judicial power is vested in a supreme federal court, called the Corte Federal y de Casacion, and such subordinate tribunals as may be created by law.
The king's disgust at this affair (which came to an open scandal before the tribunals) was so great that he was on the point of ordering Voltaire out of Prussia, and Darget the secretary had no small trouble in arranging the matter (February 1751).
The code also contains abundant information on the organization of the tribunals (tribunal of the hundred and tribunal of the king) and on procedure.
The city is the seat of a court of cassation (for civil cases only), of a court of appeal, besides minor tribunals.
The town is the seat of a bishop, a court of assizes and a sub-prefect; it has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a lycee for boys, a communal college and a training college for girls, and an ecclesiastical seminary.
Similar tribunals were also in operation in the provinces.
There are tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, a chamber of commerce, an exchange (occupying the former cathedral of St Etienne), and an important branch of the Bank of France.
Chaumont is the seat of a prefect and of a court of assizes, and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a lycee, training colleges, and a branch of the Bank of France.
It has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber of commerce, a lycee and a naval school.
The State recognized the ecclesiastical tribunals and accorded them a wide jurisdiction that we should now deem essentially secular in its nature.
The State also admitted that large classes of its citizens - the clergy, students, crusaders, widows and the miserable and helpless in general - were justiceable only by Church tribunals.
The civil tribunals, however, practically assumed the functions of regular inquisitorial courts, in spite of the objections urged by the ecclesiastical courts.
Auch is the seat of an archbishopric, a prefect and a court of assizes, and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber of commerce, a lycee, training-colleges, a school of design, a branch of the Bank of France and an important lunatic asylum.
The means employed for its enforcement remained practically the same: spiritual penalties, such as excommunication, special ecclesiastical tribunals, sworn leagues of peace, and assistance from the temporal power.
After his resignation he was impeached for abuse of power as minister, but the supreme court quashed the impeachment by denying the competence of the ordinary tribunals to judge ministerial acts.
Meanwhile the keystone of the regulative system had been laid by the passing of the Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act, under which disputes between employers and unions of workers are compulsorily settled by state tribunals; strikes and lock-outs are virtually prohibited in the case of organized work-people, and the conditions of employment in industries may be, and in many cases are, regulated by public boards and courts.
Moreover, there are purely industrial tribunals at Miilhausen, Thann, Markirch, Strassburg and Metz.
The court may compel parties to carry out an arbitration, not only in the above cases by directly appointing an arbitrator, &c., or by allowing one appointed by a party to proceed alone with the reference, but also indirectly by staying any proceedings before the legal tribunals to determine matters which come within the scope of the arbitration.
At the time when the London chamber of arbitration was established, there was considerable dissatisfaction among the mercantile community with the delays that occurred in the disposal of commercial cases before the ordinary tribunals.
In cases of mercantile partnerships, arbitration was formerly compulsory; but in 1856 (law of the 17th of July 1856) jurisdiction in disputes between parties was conferred on the Tribunals of Commerce (as to which see Code de Commerce, arts.
The fusion of law and equity, the reorganization of the whole judicial system of England, and the association of all the supreme tribunals in one common home were works of no ordinary magnitude or importance, and give a character of unusual importance to his chancellorship. That Lord Selborne was a truly religious man it is impossible to doubt: his whole life was regulated and inspired by a sense of his duty towards God and his fellowmen, and a long life spent amid the temptations of legal and public life left not the faintest stain on his memory.
The old tribunals where customary law was administered by ignorant satellites of the great, amid unspeakable corruption, have all been replaced by organized courts with qualified judges appointed from the Bangkok law school, and under the direct control of the ministry in all except the most outlying parts.
The tribunals of the republic are the Supreme Court of Justice, which sits at Brno and is the court of final appeal both in civil and criminal causes, two high courts sitting at Prague and Brno respectively, 33 provincial courts and 410 district courts, all of which possess j urisdiction in both civil and criminal causes.
Belfort is the seat of a prefect; its public institutions include tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber of commerce, a lycee, a training-college and a branch of the Bank of France.
There are also tribunals of commerce and justices of the peace with extensive jurisdiction.
Justice is administered by a supreme court, two courts of appeal, and the court of cassation, which sit in San Jose, and are supplemented by various inferior tribunals.
It has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, a chamber of commerce, a lycee and training colleges.
The superior courts of law formed part of the palace, and there were tribunals in the principal cities, over each of which presided a supreme judge or cihuacoatl, who was irremovable, and whose criminal decisions not even the king might reverse; he appointed the lower judges and heard appeals from them; it is doubtful whether he judged in civil cases, but both kinds of suits were heard in the court below, by the tlacatecatl and his two associates, below whom were the ward-magistrates.
It has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, a branch of the Bank of France, a chamber of commerce, a lycee, a college for girls and training colleges.
When Joseph Bonaparte was made king of Naples, extraordinary tribunals were established to suppress brigandage, and a price was put on Fra Diavolo's head.
The town is the seat of a sub-prefect, and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce and a communal college.
a supreme court or court of appeal; superior courts of record; and local courts, but the particular names and relations of these several tribunals vary greatly from state to state.
Now, the functions of judicial tribunals of all courts alike, whether Federal or state, whether superior or inferioris to interpret the law, and if any tribunal finds a congressional statute or state statute inconsistent with the Constitution, the tribunal is obliged to hold such statute invalid.
This duty of interpretation belongs to all tribunals, but as constitutional cases are, if originating in a lower court, usually carried by appeal to the Supreme Court, men have grown accustomed to talk of the Supreme Court as in a special sense the guardian of the Constitution.
Compiegne is the seat of a subprefect, and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a communal college, library and hospital.
The United States government therefore proposed that the signatories should insert in the act of ratification a reservation to the effect that resort to the International Prize Court, in respect of decisions of their national tribunals, should take the form of a direct claim for compensation.
" The tribunals competent to take cognizance of infractions of the present convention are those of the country to which the vessel on board of which the offence was committed belongs " (art.
In this connexion we may mention that the secretary of the London Peace Society, Dr Evans Darby, has edited an exhaustive collection of materials called International Tribunals.
The decisions of these tribunals laboured Ix.
Statutory provision has been made in England for the summoning of expert assistance by the legal tribunals in various cases.
The word curia is more particularly reserved to the tribunals and departments which actually deal with the general business of the Church.
The constituent parts of the Roman Curia fall essentially into two classes: (1) the tribunals and offices, which for centuries Division.
Pius X., by the constitution Sapienti Consilio of the 29th of June 1908, proceeded to a general reorganization of the Roman Curia: Congregations, tribunals and offices.
In this constitution he declared that the competency of these various organs was not always clear, and that their functions were badly arranged; that certain of them had only a small amount of business to deal with, while others were overworked; that strictly judicial affairs, with which the Congregations had not to deal originally, had developed to an excessive extent, while the tribunals, the Rota and the Signatura, had nothing to do.
He consequently withdrew all judicial affairs from the Congregations, and handed them over to the two tribunals, now revived, of the Rota and the papal Signatura; all affairs concerning the discipline of the sacraments were entrusted to a new Congregation of that name; the competency of the remaining Congregations was modified, according to the nature of the affairs with which they deal, and certain of them were amalgamated with others; general rules were laid down for the expedition of business and regarding personnel; in short, the work of Sixtus V.
The Tribunals and Offices.
The following is the list of the tribunals and offices, including the changes introduced by the reorganization of the Curia by Pius X.
The tribunals are three in number: one for the forum internum, the Penitentiary; the other two for judicial matters in foro externo, the Rota and the papal Signatura.
Little is known of the condition of the subject populations of the peninsula during the Arab occupation; but we are informed that the Christians were, sometimes at least, judged according to their own laws in separate tribunals presided over by Christian judges; 2 and the mere fact of the preservation of the name alcalde, an official whose functions corresponded so closely to those of the judex or defensor civitatis, is fitted to suggest that the old municipal fora, if much impaired, were not even then in all cases wholly destroyed.
It has tribunals of first instance and of com merce, training colleges, a communal college, a museum and a library; the three latter are established in the Palais Fesch, founded by Cardinal Fesch, who was born at Ajaccio in 1763.
The administration of justice is entrusted (1) to the high council (hooge rand) at the Hague, the supreme court of the whole kingdom, and the tribunal for all high government officials and for the members of the states-general; (2) to the five courts of justice established at Amsterdam, the Hague, Arnhem, Leeuwarden and 's Hertogenbosch; (3) to tribunals established in each arrondissement; (4) to cantonal judges appointed over a group of communes, whose jurisdiction is restricted to claims of small amount (under 200 guilders), and to breaches of police regulations, and who at the same time look after the interest of minors.
Criminal and correctional procedure were formerly divided between the courts of justice and the arrondissement tribunals; but this distinction was suppressed by the penal code of 1886, thereby increasing the importance of the arrondissement courts, which also act as court of appeal of the cantonal courts.
At Brussels there are four separate chambers or tribunals in the appeal court.
There are twenty-six courts of first instance distributed among the principal towns of the kingdom, and in Antwerp, Ghent and Liege there are besides special tribunals for the settlement of commercial cases.
Of course there is the right of appeal from the decisions of these tribunals as well as of the regular courts.
Justice is represented by the gmina tribunals, which correspond to those of the mir in Russia; the justices of the peace (nominated by government); the syezd, or " court " of the justices of the peace; the district tribunals (assizes) in each government; and the Warsaw courts of appeal and cassation.
There are five courts of appeal, and inferior tribunals in all the large towns.
The procedure is loaded with many formalities, of which the historical explanation lies in the tribunals of the ancient system, and which considerably delay the progress of the causes.
Arras is the seat of a prefect and of a bishop. It has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber of commerce, a branch of the Bank of France, a communal college, training colleges, and a school of military engineering.
The electors - were granted full sovereign rights over their lands, and their subjects were allowed to appeal to the royal or the imperial tribunals only in case they could not obtain justice elsewhere.
Carcassonne is the seat of a bishop, a prefect and a court of assizes, and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber of commerce and a branch of the Bank of France.
Of the 234 district tribunals, 133 were to be Czech, 94 German and 7 mixed.
On the south side of the Ezbekia are the post office, the courts of the International Tribunals,and the opera house.
Near this building are the new courts of the native tribunals.
This multiplicity of tribunals arises from the fact that, owing to the Capitulations, which apply to Egypt as part of the Turkish empire, foreigners are almost entirely exempt from the jurisdiction of the native courts.
The grave abuse to which the consular system was subject led to the establishment, in February 1876, at the instance of Nubar Pasha and after eight years of negotiation, of International or Mixed Tribunals to supersede consular jurisdiction to the extent indicated.
The Mixed Tribunals employ a code based on the Code Napoleon with such additions from Mahommedan law as are applicable.
There are three tribunals of first instance, and an appeal court at Alexandria.
Two systems of laws are administered:(I) the Me/theme/is, (2) the Native Tribunals.
For other than the purposes indicated, the native judicial system, both civil and criminal, was superseded in 1884 by tribunals administering a jurisprudence modelled on that of the French code.
There are courts of summary jurisdiction presided over by one judge, central tribunals (or courts of first instance) with three judges, and a court of appeal at Cairo.
In the markak (district) tribunals, created in 1904 and presided over by magistrates with jurisdiction in cases of misdemeanour, the prosecution is, however, conducted directly by the police.
To render their powers effective they were given the right to sue the Egyptian government in the Mixed Tribunals for any breach of engagement to the bondholders.
The establishment of the Mixed Tribunals in 1876, in place of the system of consular jurisdiction in civil actions, made some of the courts of justice international.
Immediately the powers protested against this infraction of the law of liquidation, and the Caisse applied for a writ to the Mixed Tribunals.
What he chiefly objected to was direct interference in the provincial administration and the Relations native tribunals, and he succeeded for a time in between preventing such interference.
The new Egyptian army was so far improved that it gained successes over the forces of the Mahdi; the burden of the national debt was lightened by a successful conversion; the corve was abolished; 1 the land tax was reduced 30% in the poorest provinces, and in spite of this and other measures for lightening the public burdens, the budgetary surplus constantly increased; the quasi-judicial special commissions for brigandage, which were at once barbarous and inefficient, were abolished; the native tribunals were improved, and Mr (afterwards Sir John) Scott, an Indian judge of great experience and sound judgment, was appointed judicial adviser to the khedive.
The very necessary reform of the native tribunals was then taken seriously in hand.
mixed tribunals, was permitted, the Sudan being made absolutely free of the international fetters which bound Egypt.
had been replaced in 1876 by that of the Mixed Tribunals.
As to civil cases the proposal was to make permanent the Mixed Tribunals, hitherto appointed for quinquennial periods (so that if not reappointed consular jurisdiction in civil cases would revive).
The popular tribunals regained their authority, and a supreme court of justice, Det Kongelige Retterting, presided over by Valdemar himself, not only punished the unruly and guarded the prerogatives of the crown, but also protected the weak and defenceless from the tyranny of the strong.
He extended the competence of the ecclesiastical tribunals, suppressed unjust taxes and undertook to select the counts from the districts they had to administer.
Alais has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, a lycee and a school of mines.
There are also tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, a chamber of commerce and a branch of the Bank of France.
Epinal is the seat of a prefect and of a court of assizes and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of tradearbitrators, a chamber of commerce, training-colleges, a communal college and industrial school, and exchange and a branch of the Bank of France.
Beaune has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber of commerce, a school of agriculture and viticulture and colleges for girls and boys.
Civil justice for natives is administered, in the first instance, by the headmen of villages, provinces, tribes, or by councils of notables (Shumagalle); in appeal, by the residents and regional tribunals, and, in the last instance, by the colonial court of appeal.
The other chief public institutions are tribunals of first instance and commerce, an exchange, a chamber of commerce and a branch of the Bank of France.
The former has published a History of California, 1542-1890 (7 vols., San Francisco, 1884-1890), also California Pastoral, 1769-1848 (San Francisco, 1888), California Inter-Pocula, 1848-1856 (San Francisco, 1888), and Popular Tribunals (2 vols., San Francisco, 1887).
On this same period consult Bancroft's Popular Tribunals; D.
Bayonne is the seat of a bishopric and of a subprefect; it has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber of commerce, a lycee, a school of music, a library, an art museum with a large collection of the works of the painter Leon Bonnat, and a branch of the Bank of France.
Another exempted French subjects from Gallicaa= p subjects the jurisdiction of the Inquisition and other Roman tribunals - such as the Index of Prohibited Books.
That some offenders were acquitted on technical grounds is true; it was insisted that in dealing with the character and status of their members the church courts should proceed in as formal and punctilious a manner as civil tribunals, and should recognize the same laws of evidence; in fact, that the same securities should exist in the church as in the state for individual rights and liberties.
They repudiated the use of force, advocated a scriptural communism of goods, and asserted that Christians must always exercise love and patience towards each other and so be independent of worldly tribunals.
- Justice is administered by tribunals of three instances.
The judicial power consists of a Supreme Court of Justice of seven members located in the national capital, which exercises supervisory and disciplinary authority over all the law courts of the republic; six courts of appeal, in Tacna, Serena, Valparaiso, Santiago, Talca and Concepcion; tribunals of first instance in the department capitals; and minor courts, or justices of the peace, in the subdelegacies and districts.
The judges of the higher courts are appointed by the national executive, and those of the minor tribunals by the federal official governing the political division in which they are located.
It is the seat of a sub-prefect, and the public institutions include tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber of arts and manufactures, and a communal college.
It accepts the doctrines of the Church of England, but acknowledges none save its own ecclesiastical tribunals, or such other tribunal as may be accepted by the provincial synod - in other words it rejects the authority of the English privy council.
Bergerac is the seat of a sub-prefect and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce and a communal college.
The public institutions include tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, and a communal college.
But the chief presidency (Oberprasidium), the Consistory, the provincial schoolboard, and the board of health of the province of Brandenburg remain tribunals of last instance to which appeals lie from Berlin.
The town is the seat of a bishop and of a sub-prefect; it has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, an ecclesiastical seminary, a communal college and a chamber of arts and manufactures.
Courts of first instance have been instituted in the various districts, and there is a court of appeal at Boma which revises the decisions of the inferior tribunals.
In 1892 he was appointed associate counsel for the United States on the Bering Sea Commission, and later was American counsel or agent before several important arbitral tribunals or mixed commissions, including the Alaskan Boundary Tribunal (1903), the Hague Tribunal for Arbitration of the North Atlantic Fisheries (1910), and the Anglo-American Commission (1911) for settling outstanding claims between Great Britain and the United States.
They have original jurisdiction of civil, criminal and probate matters, not specifically assigned to other tribunals, and appellate jurisdiction from the inferior courts.
Rumania (1828-56), when magistrates were made irremovable, and new tribunals created, including a petty court in each rural commune.
sovereigns of foreign states; these were to be tried by the ordinary tribunals without jury.
He was brought before several tribunals, laughed at, caressed, reviled, menaced, but in vain.
The town is the seat of a bishop, a prefect and a court of assizes; it has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, together with a chamber of commerce, a branch of the Bank of France, a higher ecclesiastical seminary, a lycee and training colleges.
The town is the seat of a court of assizes, and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, and a branch of the Bank of France.
The right of the secular tribunals to take cognizance of the offences of ecclesiastics had been asserted in two remarkable cases; and the scope of two ancient laws of the city of Venice, forbidding the foundation of churches or ecclesiastical congregations without the consent of the state, and the acquisition of property by priests or religious bodies, had been extended over the entire territory of the republic. In January 1606 the papal nuncio delivered a brief demanding the unconditional submission of the Venetians.
Autun is the seat of a bishopric, of tribunals of first instance and of commerce, and has an ecclesiastical seminary, a communal college and a cavalry school.
Avignon is the seat of an archbishop and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a council of trade-arbitrators, a lycee, and training college, a chamber of commerce and a branch of the Bank of France.
The Convention also enacted some canons and a statute in regard to ecclesiastical tribunals (see Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction).
He even took the hazardous step of separating ecclesiastical courts and lay courts, giving the church leave to establish separate tribunals of her own, a right which she had never possessed in Saxon England.
It was not, however, on the old problems of free election, of lay investiture, that his quarrel with the clerical body broke out, but on the comparatively new question of the conflicting claims of ecclesiastical and secular courts: The separate tribunals of the church, whose erection William I.
To conciliate them the barons allowed the Provisions of Westminster to be enacted in 1259, in which the power of feudal courts Was considerably restricted, and many classes of suit were transferred to the royal tribunals, a sufficient proof that the kings judges did not share in the odium which appertained to their master, and were regarded as honest and impartial.
Besides the ordinary judges there were the extraordinary tribunals, the court of high commission nominated by the crown to punish ecclesiastical offenders, and the court of star chamber, composed of the privy councillors and the chief justices, and therefore also nominated by the crown, to inflict fine, imprisonment, and even corporal mutilation.
He now devoted himself mainly to the study of criminal law, and in 1818 published La Justice criminelle en France, in which with great courage he attacked the special tribunals, provosts' courts or military commissions which were the main instruments of the Reaction, and advocated a return to the old common law and trial by jury.
The parliaments or tribunals were nests of faction and of the deepest social incompetence.
Castres has a sub-prefecture, tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a hoard of trade-arbitrators, a chamber of commerce, a branch of the bank of France and two hospitals.
In the earlier stages of Lollardy, when the court and the clergy managed to bring Lollards before ecclesiastical tribunals backed by the civil power, the accused generally recanted and showed no disposition to endure martyrdom for their opinions.
The law against the relatives of émigrés was reenacted, and military tribunals were established to condemn émigrés who should return to France.
There are also departmental tribunals of first instance in every department, and a commercial court of first instance in Belgrade.
Boulogne is the seat of a sub-prefect, and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, a chamber of commerce and a branch of the Bank of France.
" Tenants," to quote the Cowper Commission again, " who have paid even the judicial rents have been summoned to appear before self-constituted tribunals, and if they failed to do so, or on appearing failed to satisfy those tribunals, have been fined or boycotted."
Bernay has a sub-prefecture, a communal college, tribunals of commerce and of first instance, and a board of trade-arbitrators.
For Europeans and in suits between Europeans and natives the French judicial code is applicable; suits between natives are tried by native tribunals (established 1898) presided over by a European assisted by two native assessors.
These tribunals judge according to native law and usages, except when such customs (e.g.
The Church, too, never failed to oppose itat first not so much on account of her own ambitions as in a more Christian spiritand proceeded to weaken the royal jurisdiction by repeated interventions on behalf of those under sentence, afterwards depriving it of authority over the clergy, and then setting up ecclesiastical tribunals in opposition to those held by the dukes and counts.
After Theuderichs death (737) he left the throne vacant until 742, but he himself was king in all but name; he presided over the royal tribunals, appointed the royal officers, issued edicts, disposed of the funds of the treasury and the churches, conferred immunities upon adherents, who were no longer the kings nobles but his own, and even appointed the bishops, though there was nothing of the ecclesiastic about himself.
Cambrai is the seat of an archbishop and a sub-prefect, and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of tradearbitrators, a chamber of commerce and a branch of the Bank of France.
Under his auspices laws were passed reforming and strengthening the police force, instituting industrial tribunals, regulating the work of women and children, introducing Sunday rest, early closing, and other reforms. In short, the government, whatever criticism might be levelled at its methods, had accomplished a notable work, and when on the 6th of June 1909 the Cortes adjourned, its position seemed to be assured.
The States of Holland, also by a narrow majority, refused their assent to this, and passed (August 4, 1617) a strong resolution (Scherpe Resolutie) by which all magistrates, officials and soldiers in the pay of the province were required to take an oath of obedience to the states on pain of dismissal, and were to be held accountable not to the ordinary tribunals, but to the States of Holland.
adjudicateice Cox, explained the statutory framework in some detail and set out a framework for tribunals adjudicating claims under this jurisdiction.
I think back to our teaching: tribunals are supposed to be inquisitorial, not adversarial.
chairperson of employment tribunals.
She sits as a recorder and she is also a part-time chairperson of employment tribunals.
Even the tame tribunals which have been established have exposed widespread systematic corruption.
We will have to see how the courts ' and tribunals ' decisions unfold.
informal in nature, will normally be held at the office of the Employment Tribunals Service nearest to you.
To achieve the Government's goal, tribunals will have to become more interventionist.
Tribunals: these are bodies whose functions are essentially judicial, including bodies with licensing and appeal functions.
She became a freelance writer and radio scriptwriter and has scripted training videos for the Government Independent Tribunals Service.
A military spokeswoman said Friday the Pentagon believes the tribunals allow for the review called for by the court ruling.
Instead, President Bush ordered the creation of military tribunals to try some captives.
Jeff is also a professional member of the Residential Property tribunal Service (RPTS) and sits on leasehold valuation tribunals.
Jeff is also a professional member of the Residential Property Tribunal Service (RPTS) and sits on leasehold valuation tribunals.
There are French tribunals of first instance in nine of the chief towns of the colony, and in four of these there are criminal courts.
In important industrial towns tribunals called conseils de prudhommes are instituted to deal with disputes &tween employers and employees, actions arising out of contracts of apprenticeship and the like.
In all the colonies a complete departure from principles laid down by the leading political economists of the 1 th century was dig P 9 Y made when acts were passed subjecting every branch of domestic industry to the control of specially constituted tribunals, which were empowered among other important functions to fix the minimum rate of wages to be paid to all grades of workmen.
The law of 1890 also empowers every citizen to appeal to the tribunals on behalf of the poor, for whose benefit a given charitable institution may have been intended.
St Gregory the Great seems to assume that scourging and seclusion in a monastery are in the discretion of episcopal tribunals (see Epistles, lib.
The use of irons was in Torquemada's time not allowed in the Holy Office; the use of torture was in accordance with the practice of the other royal tribunals; and when these gave it up the Holy Office did so also.
without assignment to a particular charge), the translation of clerics except for good cause, the enrolment of a cleric in two churches at once, and the performance of sacerdotal functions outside of one's diocese without letters of commendation from one's bishop; (5) confirming the jurisdiction of bishops over all clerics, regular and secular alike, and punishing with deposition any conspiracy against episcopal authority; (6) establishing a gradation of ecclesiastical tribunals, viz.
The serfs were liberated entirely from the arbitrary rule of the landowners and became proprietors of the communal land; the old tribunals which could be justly described as " dens of iniquity and incompetence," were replaced by civil and criminal lawcourts of the French type, in which justice was dispensed by trained jurists according to codified legislation, and from which the traditional bribery and corruption were rigidly excluded; and the administration of local affairs - roads, schools, hospitals, &c. - was entrusted to provincial and district councils freely elected by all classes of the population.
Phillimore, whose tenure of office covered the whole period of the queen's reign till the creation of the High Court of Justice, the valuable assistance rendered by the nautical assessors from the Trinity House, the great increase of shipping, especially of steam shipping, and the number and gravity of cases of collision, salvage and damage to cargo, restored the activity of the court and made it one of the most important tribunals of the country.
The two brothers presided over the tribunals, convoked the councils at which the Frankish Church was reformed, assembled the host and made war, jointly defeating and subduing Duke Hunald of Aquitaine.
Foreigners settled in the country are specially protected from exactions by the so-called Capitulations, in virtue of which they are exempt from the jurisdiction of the local courts and amenable for trial to tribunals presided over by their respective consuls.
Financially it formed part of the so-called pays de grande gabelle (see Gabelle), and comprised sixteen special tribunals, or greniers a sel (salt warehouses): - Angers, Beauge, Beaufort, Bourgueil, Cande, ChÃ¢teau-Gontier, Cholet, Craon, La Fleche, Saint-Florent-le-Vieil, Ingrandes, Le Lude, Pouance, Saint-Remy-la-Varenne, Richelieu, Saumur.
The town, which is the seat of an archbishop and court of appeal, and the centre of an academie (educational circumscription), numbers among its public institutions a court of assizes, tribunals of first instance and of commerce, and a chamber of arts and manufactures.
Cornelius Dolabella (in 77 B.C.) and C. Antonius (in 76 B.C.) for extortion in the provinces of Macedonia and Greece, and though he lost both cases, probably convinced the world at large of the corruption of the senatorial tribunals.
The law against the relatives of Ã©migrÃ©s was reenacted, and military tribunals were established to condemn Ã©migrÃ©s who should return to France.
The cours dassises are not separate and permanent tribunals.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.