Tribal wars were incessant.
Almost all trace of tribal custom has already disappeared from the law of the Code.
She just returned from a trip to Ireland, where she got her tribal tattoo.
The tribal organization of the Australians was based on that of the family.
Natives enjoying tribal government were not enslaved, but nothing could exceed in ferocity the measures taken to reduce recalcitrant tribes to submission.
In its plural form, Swahili, the word has become the tribal name of the natives inhabiting the coast strip opposite Zanzibar.
In the tribal division of Roman Britain given by Ptolemy their land included Camulodunum (Colchester), but nothing more is known of them.
Roman municipalities were not indeed unknown, but very few: the local authorities were the magistrates of the old tribal districts.
The feud did not long survive Shane's return to Ireland, where he quickly re-established his authority, and in spite of Sussex renewed his turbulent tribal warfare against the O'Donnells and others.
Here they constituted themselves a free confederacy of many distinct tribal groups, each preserving the traditional customs, religious rites and even the very names of their original villages.
When the Semitic tribes settled in the cities of Babylonia, their tribal custom passed over into city law.
Katie smiled in return, deciding she liked the Amazon with the British accent and wild tribal tattoos.
Think of it as a tribal warrior society that's kinda backwards or antiquated in its customs.
Some of the tattoos of the dead still glowed, the eerie red tribal patterns punctuating the landscape.
Tribal lands were held in common and each man was entitled to a share in the products.
The word Rus, in former times wrongly connected with the tribal name Rhoxolani, is more probably derived from Ruotsi, a Finnish name for the Swedes, which seems to be a corruption of the Swedish rothsmenn, " rowers " or " seafarers."
When Lord Curzon reorganized the frontier in 1900, British garrisons were withdrawn from the Samana forts, which are now held by a corps of tribal police 450 strong, called the Samana Rifles.
The tribal feeling may be expressed as friendly within the tribe, courteous to other Andamanese if known, hostile to every stranger, Andamanese or other.
The tribal names Gad and Asher are suggestive of the worship of a deity of fortune (Gad) and of the male counterpart of the goddess, Asherah.
These tribal dynasties of Rajputs were gradually supplanted by the Moslem invaders of the 11th century and weakened by internal feuds.
But as tribal names they invited explanation, and of the many characteristic traditions which were doubtless current a number have been preserved, though not in any very early dress.
Both Moab and Ammon, as well as Edom, had their separate tribal deities.
Its investigations pointed to the loosening of tribal ties and to the corresponding growth of a spirit of individual independence.
Their internal or tribal affairs were in the hands of the princes, those which concerned a whole aimak being settled at gatherings of the princes under the eldest of them, named khan.
Although he broke off the Magyar tribal system, encouraged the private ownership of land, and even made grants of land on condition of military service... he based his new principle of government, not on feudalism, but on the organization of the Frankish empire, which he adapted.
But they attest their tribal relations by their appellations, which are commonly drawn from the name of the tribe and not of the town itself.
Properly speaking, the individual was related to God only through the externalities of the clan or tribal life, its common temple and its common sacrament.
The story of the settlement of the national and tribal ancestors in Palestine is interrupted by an account of the southward movement of Jacob (or Israel) and his sons into a district under the immediate influence of the kings of Egypt.
It is possible, therefore, that one early account of David was that of an entrance into the land of Judah, and that round him have gathered traditions partly individual and partly tribal or national.
Inscriptions and coins show that its civilization consisted of a layer of Roman ideas and customs superimposed on Celtic tribal characteristics.
The Natal natives have preserved their tribal organization to a considerable extent.
The tribal organization in northern Albania is an interesting survival of the earliest form of social combination; it may be compared in many respects with that which existed in the Scottish highlands in the time of the Stuart kings.
Unity of aim and effort, however, seems foreign to the Albanians, except in defence of local or tribal privileges.
The old Illyrian population was rapidly absorbed or expelled, its Latin institutions being replaced by the autonomous tribal divisions, or Zupanates, of the Slays.
Only faint outlines can be traced of the condition of Rajputana previous to the invasion of Upper India by the Mahommedans, and these indicate that the country was subject for the most part to two or three powerful tribal dynasties.
The mark set upon Cain is usually regarded as some tribal mark or sign analogous to the cattle marks of Bedouin and the related usages in Europe.
On the western border, where the natives were of less warlike character than those on their southern and northern frontiers, intrigues were already going on with petty tribal chiefs, and the Boers drove out a portion of the Barolongs from their lands, setting up the so-called republics of Stellaland and Goshen.
The sacred book is only to be read by tribal leaders, people who have the wisdom to understand.
The higher parts of the plains, which are deeply trenched by the upper tributaries of the rivers, are inhabited by various Caucasian races - Kabardians and Cherkesses (Circassians) in the west, Ossetes in the middle, and several tribal elements from Daghestan, described under the general name of Chechens, in the east.
Of the tribal distribution of this race, of its linguistic, social and political characteristics, and of the history of its relation to the other peoples of Spain, we have only the most general, fragmentary and contradictory accounts.
Many Chinese style tattoos have a very stylized, almost tribal quality to them.
This may be explained by a variety of causes, of which the chief is the maintenance by the Slays down to a very late period of gentile or tribal organization and gentile marriages, a fact vouched for, not only in the pages of the Russian chronicler Nestor, but still more by visible social evidences, the gens later developing into the village community, and the colonization being carried on by large co-ordinated bodies of people.
On the Congo, if a man commits a murder, the community votes whether he shall die or be expelled; if the latter, a victim is killed, of which all must partake; but this is not, as might be imagined, a case of Robertson Smith's piaculum for the re-establishment of the tribal bond; for the criminal is driven out of the community.
The name does not indicate a social caste, or a religious sect; it is not even tribal.
Over the headman, whose authority may extend to more than one kraal, is the tribal chief, and above the tribal chief was the king, whose authority is now exercised by a British commissioner.
The commissioners urged that the tribal system should be maintained.
The system of "compositions" or fines, paid in many cases with the help of kinsmen, finds its natural place in the ancient, tribal period of English history and loses its vitality later on in consequence of the growth of central power and of the scattering of maegths.
It is tribal in its origin, and differentiated, not according to boundaries between states, but on national and provincial lines.
There may be the folk-right of West and East Saxons, of East Angles, of Kentish men, Mercians, Northumbrians, Danes, Welshmen, and these main folk-right divisions remain even when tribal kingdoms disappear and the people is concentrated in one or two realms. The chief centres for the formulation and application of folkright were in the 10th and iith centuries the shire-moots, while the witan of the realm generally placed themselves on the higher ground of State expediency, although occasionally using folkright ideas.
Tribal Custom in AngloSaxon Law; Marquardsen, Haft and Biirgschaft im Angelsachsischen Recht; Jastrow, "Uber die Strafrechtliche Stellung der Sklaven," Gierke's Untersuchungen, i.; Steenstrup, Normannerne, iv.; F.
The identification of the northern and southern Hittites, however, presents certain difficulties not yet fully explained; and it seems that we must assume Heth to have been the name both of a country in the north and of a tribal population not confined to that country.
Tallahassee's name is of Seminole origin, and means, it is said, "tribal land."
As the continent of America was opened up and explored, it became evident that the consumption of tobacco, especially by smoking, was a universal and immemorial usage, in many cases bound up with the most significant and solemn tribal ceremonies.
The chief of these was perhaps the fact that it was not confined to king or tribal chief, but that every noble was able in the Roman practice to surround himself with his organized private army.
Tribal tattoos have been in existence for millennia, with many different cultures putting their own spin on this art form.
Most of the tattoos commonly thought of today as "tribal" are tattoos that originated in the Polynesian islands.
In actuality, the tribal styles from each island are quite different from one another.
For instance, while the Maori tribe may have inked their faces in order to show their tribal origins (a process known as moko), other Polynesian islands did not follow the same practice.
Today, as in the past, tribal tattoos are inked using only black (or occasionally, other very dark) inks.
Further evidence of the antiquity of Australian man is to be found in the strict observance of tribal boundaries, which would seem to show that the tribes must have been settled a long time in one place.
How far totemism, or belief in deified animal ancestors, existed in prehistoric Israel, as evidenced by the tribal names Simeon (hyena, wolf), Caleb (dog), IIamor (ass), Rahel (ewe) and Leah (wild cow), as well as by the laws respecting clean and unclean animals, is too intricate and speculative a problem to be discussed here.
They are divided into the Persian Nestorians of the plain of Azerbaijan, and the Turkish Nestorians, inhabiting chiefly the sanjak of Hakkiari in the vilayet of Van, who are subdivided into the Rayat or subject, and the Ashiret or tribal, the latter being semi-independent in their mountain fastnesses.
Tribal traditions declare they migrated from the St Lawrence region together with the Ottawa and Potawatomi, with which tribes they formed a confederacy known as "The Three Fires."
They had many tribal myths, which were collected by Henry R.
It has been tribal, national, class and individual.
The tribal system of family organization, universal in America, dominated the dwelling.
Powell sets forth the laws of real and artificial kinship among the North American tribes, as well as tribal organization and government, the formation of confederacies, and the intricate rules of artificial kinship by which rank and courtesy were established.
(3) That the regulative side of the spirit world was the natural outcome of the clan social system and the tribal government in each tribe.
B ut more important and less speculative is the hero's aspect as a national type or an amalgamation of tribal types of physical force, of dauntless effort and endurance, of militant civilization, and of Hellenic enterprise, " stronger than everything except his own passions," and " at once above and below the noblest type of man " (Jebb).
They were hindered by murderous tribal wars in which imported muskets more than decimated the Maori.
There is no doubt that it contains an element of truth; as among the Romans the gradual deification of ancestors and the apotheosis of emperors were prominent features of religious development, so among primitive peoples it is possible to trace the evolution of family and tribal gods from great chiefs and warriors.
The description of Solomon's administration not only ignores the tribal divisions which play an important part in the separation of Israel from Judah (xii.
Civilized Indians who have severed their tribal relations two years before an election are entitled to vote.
There is only one answer; the principal cause of this complete and irretrievable collapse is to be sought for in the folly, egotism and selfishness of the Polish gentry, whose insane dislike of all discipline, including even the salutary discipline of regular government, converted Poland into something very like a primitive tribal community at the very time when every European statesman, including the more enlightened of the Poles themselves, clearly recognized that the political future belonged to the strongly centralized monarchies, which were everywhere rising on the ruins of feudalism.
The unit among the Mahommedans is the douar, a tribal division administered by a cadi.
Before doing this, however, it was necessary to define the limits of tribal properties already existing - a work of great difficulty - with a view to their ultimate division, and at the same time to guard against any premature traffic in the rights of Arabs in the lands about to be divided.
A senatus-consulte of 1863 laid the basis for the change in the land system by providing (I) for the delimitation of the territory of each tribe, (2) for the repartition of the territory thus delimited among newly formed tribal divisions (douars or communes), and (3) for the recognition of private ownership by the issue of title deeds for such individual or family property (melk) as already existed.
A law was passed in 1873, and amended in 1887, legalizing the immediate conversion of tribal and family property into private freehold.
consists mostly of tribal genealogies, partly based upon data contained in the older books (Gen.
That the national or tribal god is the creator is an idea often found in very low religions.
Neglect of their children, unsanitary habits and surroundings, tribal intermarriage and peonage are the principal causes of the decreasing Indian population.
The tribal organization of the Bechuana is maintained, and native laws and customs, with certain modifications, are upheld.
Seebohm, Tribal Custom in Anglo-Saxon Law (London, 1902).
Three Indian villages bore the name Chillicothe, each being in turn the chief town of the Chillicothe, one of the four tribal divisions of the Shawnee, in their retreat before the whites; the village near what is now Oldtown in Greene county was destro y ed by George Rogers Clark in 1780; that in Miami county, where Piqua is now, was destroyed by Clark in 1782; and the Indian village near the present Chillicothe was destroyed in 1787 by Kentuckians.
The country was in a state of confusion under the weak rule of the amir Yusef, a mere puppet in the hands of a faction, and was torn by tribal dissensions among the Arabs and by race conflicts between the Arabs and Berbers.
The Indus enters the province between tribal territory and Hazara district.
Personal religious conviction grows out of the tribal (corporate) religious bond.
Seebohm, Tribal Custom in Anglo-Saxon Law (London, 1903); P. Vinogradoff, The Growth of the Manor (London, 1905); H.
The concilium or tribal assembly figures largely in Tacitus's account of the Germani, and he represents it as the final authority on all matters of first-rate importance.
Further, Tribal it was here that the principes were chosen, serious charges brought against members of the tribe and youths admitted to the rights of warriors.
The duties of opening the proceedings and maintaining order belonged not to the king but to the priests, from which we may probably infer that the gathering itself was primarily of a religious character and that it met, as among the Swedes in later times, in the immediate neighbourhood of the tribal sanctuary.
After his time tribal assemblies are seldom mentioned, and though we hear occasionally, both in England and elsewhere, of a concourse of people being present when a king holds court on high days or religious festivals, there is no evidence that such concourses took part in the discussion of state affairs.
From Caesar we learn that it was customary at tribal assemblies for one or other of the chiefs to propose an expedition.
It appears also in the tenure of land, and according to Tacitus the tribal armies were drawn up by kindreds.
Some of the deities known to us from German and English sources seem also to have been of a local or tribal character.
Seebohm, Tribal Custom in AngloSaxon Law (London, 1902); P. Guilhiermoz, Essai sur l'origine de la noblesse en France (Paris, 1902); M.
The tribal divisions have little or no organization.
The descriptions of their bodily appearance, tribal divisions, manner of life and methods of warfare are such as are applied to either race.
It should be added here in passing that the geographical or tribal significance of these two Sumerian dialects has never been established.
The supply of this demand in earlier times led to such severe competition as to terminate in tribal pillages and even national wars; and in modern times it has led to commercial ventures on the part of individuals and companies, the account of which, told in its plainest form, reads like the pages of romance.
tribal system the affairs of the Kumasi were adminis tered by chiefs under British guidance.
Moreover, the maintenance of the tribal system and the support given to the lawful chiefs did much to win the confidence and respect of a people naturally suspicious, and mindful of their exiled king.
The beginnings of Celtic monachism are obscure, but it seems to have been closely connected with the tribal system.'
Besides these political divisions there are certain parts of Germany which, not conterminous with political boundaries, retain appellations derived either from former tribal settlements or from divisions of the old Holy Roman Empire.
During the wars of Drusus, Tiberius and Germanicus the Romans had ample opportunity of getting to know the tribal geography of Germany, especially the western part, and though most of our authorities lived at a somewhat later period, it is probable that they derived their information very largely from records of that time.
It will be convenient, therefore, to give an account of the tribal geographyof Germanyin thetimeof Augustus, as our knowledge of the subject is much more complete for his reign than for several centuries later.
After his death in 548, however, the Frankish power in Germany sank to very minute proportions, a result due partly to the spirit of tribal independence which lingered among the German races, but principally to the paralysing effect of the unceasing rivalry between Austrasia and Neustria.
The armies of Charlemagne contained warriors from all parts of Germany; and although tribal law was respected and codified, legislation common to the whole empire was also introduced.
The tribal dukes had all disappeared, and their duchies were split up into districts ruled by counts (q.v),whose tendencies to independence the emperor tried to check by the visits of the missi dominici.
To counteract it celibacy was finally imposed on the clergy, and the great mendicant orders evolved; while the constant polemic of the Cathar teachers against the cruelty, rapacity and irascibility of the Jewish tribal god led the church to prohibit the circulation of the Old Testament among laymen.
The efforts of the administration to better the condition of the natives without undue interference with customary law met with encouraging results, and the submission of the Aros to the government in 1902 brought to an end the system of tribal warfare for the purpose of making slaves, while the enforcement of a proclamation of 1901 prohibiting the buying, pawning or selling of slaves had a salutary effect.
If Upper and Lower Egypt represented ancient kingdoms, the nomes have been thought to carry on the traditions of tribal settlements.
It is quite possible that the divisions are geographical in the main, but it seems likely that there were also religious, tribal and other historical reasons for them.
The era of peace thus inaugurated brought with it a rapid progress in all branches of civilization; and there soon emerged not only a national art and a condition of material prosperity shared by the entire land in common, but also a state religion, which gathered up the ancient tribal cults and floating cosmical conceptions, and combining them as best it could, imposed them on the people as a whole.
The gods of the pre-dynastic period may be divided into two chief groups, the tribal or local divinities and the cosmic or~ explanatory deities.
In course of time the tribes became localized in particular districts, under the influence of a growing central authority, and their gods then passed from tribal into local deities.
As towns and villages gradually sprang up, they too adopted as their patron some one or other of the original tribal gods, so that these came to have different seats of worship all over Egypt.
my n the innermost principle of their existence, as patrons and wit tectors of restricted communities, the primitive tribal gods and not differ from one another.
Nor are we much wiser in respect of those duc nitive tribal gods that are represented on the oldest monu- his ats in animal form.
and else a cosmic god might assume an animal shape through ave milation with some tribal god, as when Re was identified in I Es Horus and therefore depicted as a falcon.
The Irish barrows occur in groups in certain localities, some of which seem to have been the royal cemeteries of the tribal confederacies, whereof eight are enumerated in an ancient Irish manuscript, the Leabhar na h-UidhPi, compiled c. A.D.
The barrows of the bronze period, like some of those of the Stone Age, appear to have been used as tribal or family cemeteries.
In the matter of justice, royal succeeded to tribal authority.
The negative, un-Aryan, is used of each of the two low aims. It is possible that this rendering should have been introduced into the translation; but the ethical meaning, though still associated with the tribal meaning, had probably already become predominant in the language of the time.
On leaving the Senate, in 1893, he became chairman of the Commission to the Five Civilized Tribes (sometimes called the Dawes Indian Commission), and served in this capacity for ten years, negotiating with the tribes for the extinction of the communal title to their land and for the dissolution of the tribal governments, with the object of making the tribes a constituent part of the United States.'
In the last case the analogy of the Wergeld of the German tribal codes was commonly followed.
On the whole, there was everywhere a common foundation of culture and thought, with local, tribal and national developments; and it is useful to observe the striking similarity of religious phraseology throughout the Semitic sources, and its similarity with the ideas in the Egyptian texts.
In property succession there is a feeling of tribal aloofness which would not be favourable to a central authority; and in fact the legal machinery is rude, and the carrying out of the law depends not so much upon courts and officials as upon religious considerations.
There was no place for tribal exclusiveness, and the upkeep of a monarchy (including the Temple) and the occasional payment of tribute would require duly appointed officials and a central body.
An enormous gap severs the pre-monarchical period from this age, and while the tribal schemes and tribal traditions can hardly be traced during the monarchies, the inclusion of Judah among the " sons " of Israel would not have originated when Judah and Israel were rival kingdoms. Yet the tribes survive in post-exilic literature and their traditions develop henceforth in Jubilees, Testament of the XII Patriarchs, &c.
invasions, tribal movements, rival kingdoms) and religion (e.g.
There had indeed been previous immigrations, but the passage from the desert into the midst of Palestinian culture led to the adoption of the old semi-heathenism of the land, a declension, and a descent from the relative simplicity of tribal life.
The separate tribal units of Arabia, more or less impotent when divided and at war with one another, received for the first time an indissoluble bond of union from the prophet Mahomet, whose perfect knowledge of human nature (at least of Arab human nature) enabled him to formulate a religious system that was calculated.
Wampum also served a mnemonic use as a tribal history or record.
Meantime his difficulties with the Irish tribal leaders remained unsolved.
However this may be, tribal titles, Barabara and Beraberata, appear in Egyptian inscriptions of 1700 and 1300 B.C., and the Berbers were probably intimately related with the Egyptians in very early times.
The invaders who have most affected the Berber race are the Arabs, but the two races, with a common religion, often a common government, with the same tribal groupings, have failed to amalgamate to any great extent.
They are possessed of certain privileges, such as exemption from the chief taxes and the duty of bearing arms. They, however, often take a foremost part in tribal administration, and are frequently called upon to perform the office of arbitrators in questions of disputed policy, &c. In the Jemda, too, the Marabout at times takes the place of honour and keeps order.
The Gomal is the great central trade route between Afghanistan and India; and the position, which is held by a tribal post at Wana, will do much to ensure its continued popularity.
Besides their division into clans and tribes, the whole Afghan people may be divided into dwellers in tents and dwellers in houses; and this division is apparently not coincident with tribal divisions, for of several of the great clans at least a part is nomad and a part settled.
With this object a council of state for tribal affairs was established; and it was arranged that a representative of each tribe should be associated with the provincial governors for the adjudication of tribal cases.
About the beginning of the 6th century B.C. the settled country between the Himalaya mountains and the Nerbudda river was divided into sixteen independent states, some monarchies and some tribal republics, the most important of which were the four monarchies of Kosala, Magadha, the Vamsas and Avanti.
When Lord Curzon became viceroy in 1898, he reversed the policy on the north-west frontier which had given rise to the Tirah campaign, withdrew outlying garrisons in tribal country, substituted for them tribal militia, and created the new North-West Frontier province, for the purpose of introducing consistency of policy and firmness of control upon that disturbed border.
An administrative tribunal settles, without appeal, questions of tribute, disputes concerning family, village or tribal landmarks, as well as suits involving the colonial government.
HOREB, the ancient seat of Yahweh, the tribal god of the Kenites, adopted by His covenant by Israel.
Possibly its use was not confined to a single tribal section, occurring as it does in conjunction with the distinct dynastic names of Mokomba and Mambo, but the Karanga is the only tribe to which the Portuguese chroniclers attribute it.
To these elements of discord we must add: - (r) That the Arabs, notwithstanding the bond of Islam that united them, maintained their old tribal institutions, and therewith their old feuds and factions; (2) that the old antagonism between Ma`adites 1 - (original northern tribes) and Yemenites (original southern tribes), accentuated by the jealousy between the Meccans, who belonged to the former, and the Medinians, who belonged to the latter division, gave rise to perpetual conflicts; (3) that more than one dangerous pretender - some of them of the reigning family itself - contended with the caliph for the sovereignty, and must be crushed collie que collie.
The Abbasids, on the contrary, were a Persian dynasty, under which the Arab tribal system, as regulated by Omar, fell to pieces; the Persians of Khorasan were the real rulers, and the government became despotic as in the days of Chrosroes."
In its ancient stories were remnants of primitive religion, of tabu, of anthropomorphic gods, of native forms of worship, of magic and divination, of local and tribal cults.
The new synthesis reveals a universal decline from the 5th to the 10th centuries, while the Germanic races were learning the rudiments of culture, a decline that was deepened by each succeeding wave of migration, each tribal war of Franks or Saxons, and reached its climax in the disorders of the 9th and 10th centuries when the half-formed civilization of Christendom was forced to face the migration of the Northmen by sea, the raids of the Saracen upon the south and the onslaught of Hungarians and Sla y s upon the east.
As yet, however, the tribal community would still feel one in race and traditional usage.
It is interesting to note that the existing four Welsh sees of Bangor, St Asaph, St Davids and Llandaff correspond in the main with the limits of these four tribal divisions.
The laws of Howel Dda throw a flood of interesting light upon the ancient customs and ideas of early medieval Wales, but as their standard of justice is founded on a tribal arid not a territorial system of society, it is easy to understand the antipathy with which the Normans subsequently came to regard this famous code.
The object of these rites is primarily to impart mystic virtue to the novice, such virtue, in the eyes of the primitive man, being always something more than social usefulness, amounting as it does to a share in the tribal luck by means of association with all it holds sacred.
Thus in Australia the initiation ceremonies, concerned as they partly are with marriage, always an affair between the kin-groups, are tribal, whilst the totemic rites are the prime concern of the members of the totem clans.
The tribal poets were supposed to have " seen " the heavenly originals; elaborate arguments were devised to explain how the names of particular objects like rivers and mountains could have existed in the Eternal; while the grounds of belief in the infallibility of the sacred verses were enforced with the double weight of philosophy and tradition.
In so far as tribal eminence depends on superior skill or courage or wisdom, the germs of ethical differentiation may be discovered even here.
Outside the city are a number of model villages (each of the principal tribes of the Sudan having its own settlement) in which the dwellings are built after the tribal fashion.
Geatas) are first mentioned by Ptolemy (under the form Goutai for Gautoi), together with a number of other tribal names, most of which unfortunately cannot be identified, owing to the corrupt state of the text.
As there was no gold in the country the number of settlers was small, the loose tribal organization of the natives made it impossible to inflict a vital defeat on them, and the mountainous and thickly wooded country lent itself admirably to a warfare of surprises and ambuscades.
Probably it was the old tribal name; Arachosia being the local designation.
The origin of the word is obscure, derived perhaps from an obsolete tribal name.
For an universal empire, however, the forces of Macedonia and Greece were insufficient; the monarch of a world-empire could not be bound by the limitations imposed on the tribal king of Macedon or the general of a league of Hellenic republics.
Hazm the Abbasids were a Persian dynasty which destroyed the old tribal system of the Arabs and ruled despotically as Chosroes had done.
As a tribal name Vandali occurs first in connexion with the Marcomannic War.
The tribal system of government is maintained, and the authority of the chiefs has been strengthened by the British.
The Bechuanas, who occupy by far the largest domain, and preserve the totemic tribal system, were probably the first arrivals from the north or the north-sea coastlands.
The second class comprises three subdivisions, namely areas directly administered, native states and tribal areas.
Some portions are held on lease from the khan of Kalat; while others are tribal areas in which it has been decided for various reasons that revenue shall be taken.
Tribal areas, in the possession of the Marri and Bugti tribes, cover 7129 sq.
It is true that the Indian government interferes as little with the internal jurisdiction of the tribal chiefs amongst the Pathans of the Suliman Range as it does with that of the northern chiefs; but the occupation of a line of posts on the Zhob river, which flanks that range almost from end to end on the west, places the doors of communication with Afghanistan in British hands, and gives command of their hills.
Amongst the Pathans, the Kakars and Dumars of Pishin, with the Mando Khel of Zhob, are the most prominent tribal divisions.
Taking the Rind Baluch as the type opposed to the Afridi Pathan, the lialuch is easier to deal with and to control than the Pathan, owing to his tribal organization and his freedom from bigoted Pathan tribes of the Suliman hills are held in check by the occupation of the Zhob valley; whilst the central dominant position at Quetta safeguards the peace and security of Kalat, and of the wildest of the Baluch hills occupied by the Marris and Bugtis, no less than it bars the way to an advance upon India by way of Kandahar.
It is probably to climatic changes (whatever their origin may have been), rather than to the effects of tribal disturbances, that the Arab's disappearance from the field of trade and agriculture must be attributed.
Owing partly to the tribal system, and partly to the levelling effect of Islam, nothing similar to the Brahmanical system of social precedent is to be found in Baluchistan.
of the city of Lawrence is Haskell institute (1884), one of the largest Indian schools in the country, maintained for children of the tribal Indians by the national government.
The Semnones claimed to be the chief of the Suebic peoples, and Tacitus describes a great religious festival held in their tribal sanctuary, at which legations were present from all the other tribes.
Its tribal deity, the god of the mountain, the Puy de Dome, rechristened in Roman phrase Mercurius Dumias, was famous far beyond its territory.
As a philosopher Clifford's name is chiefly associated with two phrases of his coining, "mindstuff" and the "tribal self."
These latter appear to have been used as tribal or family cemeteries.
We may indeed with Mr Andrew Lang explain the many myths of the bestial transformations of Zeus on the theory that the God was the tribal ancestor and assumed the shape of the animal-totem in order to engender the tribal patriarch; 7 but on the actual cults of Zeus theriomorphism has left less trace than on those.
They are chiefly hunters, passionately loving their taiga, or wild forests, and have maintained their Shaman religion and tribal organization into suoks.
Kara Khitai Empire in the early part of the 13th century (the legendary Prester John) was a member of a Christian tribe called Naiman, which is one of the four chief tribal divisions mentioned by Ney Elias.
Ignorant of agriculture, with no dwellings but rough huts or breakwinds of sticks and bark, without dogs or other domestic animals, these savages, until the coming of civilized man, roamed after food within their tribal bounds.
Tyrconnel, the district named after the Cinel Connell, where the O'Donnells held sway, comprised the greater part of the modern county of Donegal except the peninsula of Inishowen; and since it lay conterminous with the territory ruled by the O'Neills of Tyrone, who were continually attempting to assert their supremacy over it, the history of the O'Donnells is for the most part a record of tribal warfare with their powerful neighbours, and of their own efforts to make good their claims to the overlordship of northern Connaught.
Although the characteristic titles of voivode, knez and ban (all implying military as well as civil authority) are of Slavonic origin, and perhaps derived from the practice of the later Bulgarian (or Bulgaro-Vlachian) empire, the growth of Vlach feudal institutions is attributed to German influences, which permeated through Hungarian channels into the Vlach world, and transformed the primitive tribal chiefs into a feudal aristocracy of boiars or boyards 2 (nobles).
The tribal organization of the Hottentots has been broken up, and probably no pure bred representatives of the race survive in the colony.
A share in tribal occupancy does not qualify for a vote.
contradiction to native tribal law, which recognized the great son, or son of the chief wife, as heir.
The town retained its position as a tribal centre in the reorganization of Augustus, whose name it bears, and was erected on a systematic plan.
Five years later there arrived from Rome the great organizer, Archbishop Theodore of Tarsus, who bound the hitherto isolated churches of the English kingdoms into a well-compacted whole, wherein the tribal bishops paid obedience to the metropolitan at Canterbury, and met him frequently in national councils and synods.
Such amalgamations became possible after a time, when many of the local royal lines died out, and unifying influences, of which a common Christianity was the most powerful, sapped the strength of tribal pride.
The state of the island was much like that of England in the days of the Heptarchy: occasionally a High King succeeded in forcing his rivals into a precarious submission; more usually there was not even a pretence of a central authority in the island, and the annals of objectless tribal wars formed its sole history.
came to the throne when the country was exhausted by more than a generation of tribal conflict among the Arabs, and of strife between them and the Mahommedans of native Spanish descent.
Regarding the social tendency as originally itself an instinct developed out of parental or filial affection, he seems to suggest that natural selection, which was the chief cause of its development in the earlier stages, may very probably influence the transition from purely tribal and social morality into morality in its later and more complex forms. But he admits that natural selection is not necessarily the only cause, and he refrains from identifying the fully developed morality of civilized nations with the " social instinct."
Throughout the Old Testament history, however, Galilee as a whole cannot be said to have a history; the unit of territorial subdivision was tribal rather than provincial, and though such important events as those associated with the names of Barak, Gideon, Gilboa, Armageddon, took place within its borders, yet these belong rather to the histories of Issachar, Zebulon, Asher or Naphtali, whose territories together almost correspond with Galilee, than to the province itself.
Many of the Indians of these tribes brought slaves with them from the Southern states and during the Civil War they supported the Confederacy, but when that war was over the Federal government demanded not only the liberation of the slaves but new treaties, partly on the ground that the tribal lands must be divided with the freedmen.
In the meantime negotiations were begun for acquiring a clear title to the unoccupied portion of the Cherokee Strip, for individual allotments to the members of the several small tribes who had received tribal allotments since 1866, and for the purchase of what remained after such individual allotments had been made.
By the treaties with the five southern tribes they were to be permitted to make their own laws so long as they preserved their tribal relations, but since the Civil War many whites had mingled with these Indians, gained control for their own selfish ends of such government as there was, and made the country a refuge for fugitives from justice.
Their tribal home seems to have been south of Oran in Algeria, and they seem to have early claimed an Arab origin, though it was alleged by the Arabs that they were descendants of Goliath, i.e.
The jealousy with which the hereditary antiquaries guarded the tribal genealogies naturally leads us to hope that the records whichhave come down to us may shed some light on the difficult problems connected with the early inhabitants of these islands and the west of Europe.
The tuath bishop in later centuries corresponded to the diocesan bishop as closely as it was possible in two systems so different as tribal and municipal government.
Many of the old dioceses represent ancient tuatha, and even enlarged modern dioceses coincide with the territories of ancient tribal states.
The isolated position of Ireland, and the existence of tribal organization in full vigour, explain fully the anomalies of Irish discipline, many of which were also survivals of the early Christian practices before the complete organization of the church.
In 697 an assembly was held at Tara in which a law known as Cain Adamnain was passed, at the instance of Adamnan, prohibiting women from taking part in battle; a decision that shows how far Ireland with its tribal system lagged behind Teutonic and Latin countries in civilization.
Again, such tribal forces were only levies gathered together for a few weeks at most, unprovided with military stores or the means of transport, and consequently generally unprepared to attack fortifications of any kind,' and liable to melt away as quickly as they were gathered together.
The condition of the country afforded full scope for the jealousy, hatred, cupidity and vanity which characterize the tribal state of political society.
The death of Maelsechlainn in 1022 afforded an opportunity for an able and ambitious man to subdue Ireland, establish a strong central government, break up the tribal system and further the gradual fusion of factions into a homogeneous nation.
It is likely that Strongbow had no conception of this, and that his first collision with the tribal system was an unpleasant surprise.
him, to Robert and Maurice and their heirs for ever; and here begins the conflict between feudal and tribal law which was destined to deluge Ireland in blood.
[From Anglo-Norman Invasion] Butler and Geraldine, O'Neill and O'Donnell, continued to spill each other's blood, but the feudal and tribal systems were alike doomed.
The main body of the Croats, whose tribal and racial names respectively are perpetuated in the names of Croatia and Slavonia, entered Croatia between 634 and .638, and were encouraged by the emperor Heraclius to attack the Avars.
The Croats brought with them their primitive tribal institutions, organized on a basis partly military, partly patriarchal, and identical with the Zhupanates of the Serbs (see Servia); agriculture, war and hunting were their chief pursuits.
In 877 the Croats were temporarily subdued by the Byzantine emperor, but after successive insurrections which tended to centralize their loosely knit tribal organization, and to place all power in the hands of a military chief, they regained their independence and founded a national kingdom about 910.
The island may be divided into districts or provinces, which in the main indicate tribal divisions.
Of these tribal territories the following may be distinguished, taking them in three main divisions, from north to south: (1) Eastern: Antankarana, occupying the northern peninsula; the country of the Betsimisaraka, who inhabit a long extent of the coast plains, about Soo m.
There are no distinctly marked boundaries between any of these tribal territories; and west of Imerina and Betsileo there is a considerable extent of country with hardly any population, a kind of " no-man'sland."
2 This is a special and restricted use of the word, Hova in its widest sense being a tribal name, including all ranks of people in Imerina.
entirely to individual or tribal achievements.
27 seq.), and in the references to separate tribal or family exploits: xv.
of other conflicting traditions representing independent tribal efforts which were not successful, and the Israelites are even said to live in the midst of Canaanites, intermarrying with them and adopting their cult (Judges i.
But Joshua as a tribal hero does not belong to the earliest phase in the surviving traditions.
What was the origin of the tribal dances, or of this or that law of custom or etiquette?
As an almost universal rule, in the lowest culture, no prayers are addressed to this being; he has no sacrifices, no dwelling made with hands; and the images of him, in clay, that are made and danced round with invocations of his name at the tribal ceremonies of initiation, are destroyed at the close of the performances.
Strehlow in Globus, ut supra), originated the tribal rites of initiation.
Stories of heroic ancestors and of tribal eponyms intermingle; personal, tribal and national traits are interwoven.
To these and a hundred other questions the national and tribal stories - of which no doubt only a few have survived, and of which other forms, earlier or later, more crude or more refined, were doubtless current - furnish an evidently adequate answer.
Bethuel the father of Rebekah is the brother of the tribal names Uz and Buz (xxii.
In so far as the traditions can be read in the light of biblical history it is evident that they belong to different ages and represent different national, tribal, or local standpoints.
The first of these is the comparative absence of natural barriers in the interior, owing to which intercommunication between tribes, the dissemination of culture and tribal migration have been considerably facilitated.
Ancestor-worship occurs most naturally among a people where tribal organization has reached a fairly advanced stage, and is the natural outcome of patriotic reverence for a successful chief and his councillors.
As has been said earlier, the history of Africa reaches back but a short distance, except, of course, as far as the lower Nile valley and Roman Africa is concerned; elsewhere no records exist, save tribal traditions, and these only relate to very recent events.
African Tribal Distribution >>
In some districts the inhabitants reverted to a state of tribal independence.
The Arab was incurably anarchical, and was a noble who had no political idea except the tribal one.
They fought out the old tribal rivalries of Arabia on the banks of the Guadalquivir and on the Vega of Granada: They planted the Berber down on the bleak, illwatered, and wind-swept central plateau.
In 1908, however, almost all the tribal lands had been distributed in severalty: the Niobrara Reservation (under the Santee government boarding school for the Santee Sioux and the Ponca) had only 1130 .
16-18a) among other tribal names, the exact original reference of which had probably been forgotten.
South of this independent tribal territory the principal places are Amran and Shibam on the road leading N.
After tribal and priestly lists (t Chron.
Each of the principal divisions is dealt with separately in this work under its tribal name.
The Cherokee have the largest tribal affiliation in the US, but most are of mixed ancestry and do not speak the language.
We wanted to get away from basing the building on our tribal allegiances.
Uthman, from the Umayya clan, represented the tribal aristocracy of Mecca, and his victory annoyed a loyalist old guard.
chasms in the earth and free tribal societies are exterminated or assimilated.
The Clan is basically an extended family group (or tribe) which has a chieftain - the tribal head man.
tribal chieftain who was located in budding skier to to science the.
There was no " people " until the tribal confederation portrayed in Joshua 24.
The mother of his wife has decided that according to tribal custom, the wife must now be cleansed.
dative plural of OE Hrype, a tribal name, found also in Repton.
The band are good, ' Wolves ' like a Tom Waits with tribal drums and howling harmonies.
The book is punctuated with pictures of him engaging in shooting competitions with the tribal elders, dressed in full headgear.
I wince; her face expressionless, tracks of eye make-up like tribal marks across her cheeks.
Thus began the Norman occupation which was to replace much of Irish tribal society with medieval feudalism.
Finally it is also the case that inter-village friction is great and that tribal unity is dependent on very formalized relations between the villages.
The pattern of tribal grouping in Gabon was severely disrupted by slave raiding which continued well into the nineteenth century.
Thousands of Pakistani troops, backed by helicopter gunships, have cornered the militants in the mountainous tribal region of South Waziristan.
It is interesting to see that the duties of the tribal headman in Freetown were almost identical.
In 1878 Cheyennes under Dull Knife and Little Wolf left their reservation in Oklahoma and headed north to their former tribal homeland.
initiatory sickness in tribal culture is recognized as a difficult, but potentially useful developmental process.
In Assam a separatist insurgency killed hundreds; so have tribal clashes in other states.
Journalists in Pakistan also faced difficulties, mainly reporting from the often lawless and extremely dangerous tribal regions that border Afghanistan.
In other words, the sense of ethnic identity and tribal loyalty of many remains strong.
massacre of the tribal inhabitants of an isolated village like Conestoga.
minster parishes and on the development of hundreds and Iron Age tribal territories.
papyrusan buy anything from African tribal charms to Roman swords, Egyptian papyri to fossils.
They then took those songs and infused them with elements of their Latino heritage, including tribal percussion, flamenco guitars and Spanish lyrics.
Tribal patriotism is a powerful vaccine that immunizes the body politic against self-criticism.
prefigured in the tribal past.
A two-chamber council would administer the province and represent the interests of the 250 tribal groups who live there.
In the past decade several tribal revolts have been reported, all brutally suppressed.
In tribal societies in which climate and custom permit scant clothing, body scarification is common and considered as artistically and socially valuable.
Pakistani security forces in Balochistan are fighting armed tribal separatists who say the province's natural wealth is being plundered.
Here, the African artist Chief Oloruntoba assumes a higher role than his western counterpart; that of medicine man and tribal shaman.
Aimed at more tribal floors, it's the ' Dub ' mix which is the true standout.
Tribal tattoos are usually abstract designs or patterns often designed to fit the body.
The pole displayed the tribal totem at the top.
His style is primarily progressive and tech house but often plays tribal, trance and funky sets.
trekking through the jungle to a Toda tribal hamlet.
tribal elders that a lie repeated often enough comes to be believed.
tribal tattoos are usually abstract designs or patterns often designed to fit the body.
tribal warfare continued.
tribal loyalty or personal history.
I feel like it is a cross between something from the 60s and almost tribal music.
It was very North African, a very tribal sound: very electronic.
Working, miles away from the tourist trail, with the still predominantly tribal Swazi people made me feel extremely privileged.
But unlike Fathers Raymond Murray and Des Wilson, and although nicknamed " The Provo Priest ", Faul was not tribal.
Ancient, even tribal attachments were not vanishing in the globalized 21st century; on the contrary, they were becoming more intense.
The task, however, was simplified by the strictly tribal disposition of the forces.
Ask a Wiganer about pies and they become very tribal.
upriver in a longtail boat to a tribal village.
For each modern urbanite, their personal communication network remains virtually at the tribal level.
The coopting of tribal leaders also lends a veneer of respectability to the occupation forces.
Macbeth lacks political skill, and turns the gracious office of king into the rule of a bloody tribal warlord.
yelling voice and sparse, tribal drumming.
Most Ionian states exhibit also traces of the fourfold tribal divisions named after the " children of Ion "; but additional tribes occur locally.
Towards the south the tribal organization becomes looser and is gradually supplanted by a kind of feudal system; among the powerful aristocratic houses may be mentioned the Vliores at Avlona, who are stated to own over 150 sq.
6), and though they may naturally possess property as private individuals, they alone of all the tribes of Israel possess no tribal inheritance (Num.
3 They take their place in Israel as the tribe set apart for sacred duties, and without entering into the large question how far the tribal schemes can be used for the earlier history A.
The name Volsci belongs to what may be called the -COgroup of tribal names in the centre, and mainly on the west coast, of Italy, all of whom were subdued by the Romani before the end of the 4th century B.
True, there are legends and tales of tribal migrations and early tribal history, but nothing, as A.
They were probably not definite massed movements, such as would permit of the survival of distinctive lines of custom between tribe and tribe; but rather spasmodic movements, sometimes of tribes or of groups, sometimes only of families or even couples, the first caused by tribal wars, the second to escape punishment for some offence against tribal law, such as the defiance of the rules as to clan-marriages.
Nevertheless the Local side of tribal life in time tended to overwhelm the Social and to organize the tribe irrespective of matriarchy, and inclined towards hereditary chieftainship.
7, where Cush is the "father" of certain tribal and ethnical designations, all of which point very clearly to Arabia, with the very doubtful exception of Seba, which Josephus (Ant.
It was on that occasion pointed out that the ethnica or tribal and oppidan names of communities belonging to the Sabine stock were marked by the use of the suffix -NOas in Sabini; and that there was some linguistic evidence that this stratum of population overcame an earlier population, which used, generally, ethnica in -CO-- or -TI- (as in Marruci, Ardeates, transformed later into Marrucini, A rdeatini).
For the view connecting Naphtali (perhaps a geographical rather than a tribal term), or rather its Israelite inhabitants, with the south see the full discussion by H.
(a) Both Moab and Ammon as well as Edom had their separate tribal deities, viz.
(b) The tribal names Gad and Asher are suggestive of the worship of a deity of fortune (Gad) and of the male counterpart of the goddess, Asherah.
How far totemism, or belief in deified animal ancestors, existed in prehistoric Israel, as evidenced by the tribal names Simeon (hyena, wolf), Caleb (dog), IIamor (ass), Rahel (ewe) and Leah (wild cow), &c., 6 as well as by the laws respecting clean and unclean animals, is too intricate and speculative a problem to be discussed here.
clan and tribal life.
Properly speaking, the individual was related to God only through the externalities of the clan or tribal life, its common temple and its common sacra.
Nevertheless, the enmity of Judah is passed over, and when the kingdom is divided for administrative purposes into twelve districts, which ignore the tribal divisions, the centre of David's early power is exempt from the duty of providing supplies (r Kings iv.).
On the other hand, the reconstructions which allow a gradual settlement (perhaps of distinct groups), and an intermingling with the earlier inhabitants, certainly find support in biblical evidence, and they have been ingeniously built up with the help of tribal and other data (e.g.
On the reconstructions of the tribal history, see especially T.
The usual tendency has been to regard it in the light of the criticism of early Israelite history, which demands some reconstruction (§ 8), and to discern distinct tribal movements previous to the union of Judah and Israel under David.
The name Bruttii was used by the Lucanians to mean "runaway slaves," but it is considerably more likely that this signification was attached to the tribal name of the Bruttii from the historical fact that they had been conquered and expelled by the Samnite invaders (cf.
P. Tate and others has resulted in quite a new appreciation of the tribal origin of the great conglomeration of Baluch peoples.
The higher parts of the plains, which are deeply trenched by the upper tributaries of the rivers, are inhabited by various Caucasian races - Kabardians and Cherkesses (Circassians) in the west, Ossetes in the middle, and several tribal elements from Daghestan, described under the general name of Chechens, in the east; while nomadic Nogai Tatars and Turkomans occupy the steppes.
The old Illyrian population was rapidly absorbed or expelled, its Latin institutions being replaced by the autonomous tribal divisions, or Zupanates, of the Sla y s.
Suffice it to say here that the land belonged to the tribes, and that the success of Patrick's undertaking depended 'entirely on his ability to gain the goodwill of the tribal kings and chiefs of clans.
Inscriptions and coins show that its civilization consisted of a layer of Roman ideas and customs superimposed on Celtic tribal characteristics, and that it is not until c. A.D.
Although he broke off the Magyar tribal system, encouraged the private ownership of land, and even made grants of land on condition of military service - in order to secure an armed force independent of the national levy - he based his new principle of government, not on feudalism, but on the organization of the Frankish empire, which he adapted to suit the peculiar exigencies of his realm.
The Old English "books" are derived in a roundabout way from Roman models, and the tribal law of real property was deeply modified by the introduction of individualistic notions as to ownership, donations, wills, rights of women, &c. Yet in this respect also the Norman Conquest increased the store of Roman conceptions by breaking the national isolation of the English Church and opening the way for closer intercourse with France and Italy.
Both among the nomad and settled Arabs the organization is essentially tribal.
In Yemen and Hadramut many villages are occupied exclusively by this religious hierarchy, who are known as Ashraf, Sada or Kudha (i.e.Sharifs, Seyyids or Kadhis); the religious affairs of the tribes are left in their hands; they do not, however, interfere in tribal matters generally, or join in fighting.
Ephraim's strength lay in the possession of famous sites: Shechem, with the tomb of the tribal ancestor, also one of the capitals; Shiloh, at one period the home of the ark; TimnathSerah (or Heres), the burial-place of Joshua; and Samaria, whose name was afterwards extended to the whole district (see Samaria) .
The early history is therefore contracted into a series of tribal and priestly genealogies, which were doubtless by no means„ the least interesting part of the work at a time when every contained also matter not derived from these works, for it is pretty clear from 2 Kings xxi.
The acts of religion partake of the general simplicity of desert life; apart from the private worship of household gods and the oblations and salutations offered at the graves of departed kinsmen, the ritual observances of the ancient Arabs were visits to the tribal sanctuary to salute the god with a gift of milk, first-fruits or the like, the sacrifice of firstlings and vows (see Nazarite and Passover), and an occasional pilgrimage to discharge a vow at the annual feast and fair of one of the more distant holy places (see MEccA).
Allowance must be made for the shifting of boundaries or of spheres of influence (Egypt, Edom, Moab), for the incorporation of tribes and of their own tribal traditions, and in particular for other movements (e.g.
ARAUCANIANS (or AuCA), a tribal group of South American Indians in southern Chile (see above).
The names are written by special emblems placed on standards, such as an ibis ~ a jackal ~ a hare ~, a feathered crown ~ a sistrum a blade ~, &c., suggesting tribal badges.
They reflect tribal rivalry and jealousy (cf.
The amir Abdur Rahman died on the 1st of October 1901; and two days later his eldest son, Habibullah, formally announced his accession to the rulership. He was recognized with acclamation by the army, by the religious bodies, by the principal tribal chiefs and by all classes of the people as their lawful sovereign; while a deputation of Indian Mahommedans was despatched to Kabul from India to convey the condolences and congratulations of the viceroy.
Thus the tribal distinctions began to recede, and the ground was prepared for that amalgamation of the Iranians into a single, uniform nation, which under the Sassanids was completely perfectedat least for west of Iran.
In the desert (as among the Arabian and Turanian nomads), in wild and sequestered mountains (as in Zagros in north Media, and Mysia, Pisidia, Paphlagonia and Bithynia in Asia Minor), and also in many Iranian tribes, the old tribal constitution, with the chieftain as its head, was left intact even under the imperial suzerainty.
The other phrase, "tribal self," gives the key to Clifford's ethical view, which explains conscience and the moral law by the development in each individual of a "self," which prescribes the conduct conducive to the welfare of the "tribe."
An act passed in 1892, at the instance of Rhodes, imposed an educational test on applicants for registration, and made other provisions, all tending to restrict the acquisition of the franchise by " tribal " natives, the possible danger arising from a large native vote being already obvious (see section Constitution).
According to MacNeill the Firbolg tribal names are formed with the suffix -raige, e.g.
According to one view (Stade, Wellhausen, Guthe, &c.) only the Joseph tribes were in Egypt, and separate tribal movements (see JuDAH) have been incorporated in the growth of the tradition; the probability that the specific traditions of the Joseph tribes have been excised or subordinated finds support in the manner in which the Judaean P has abridged and confused the tribal lists of Ephraim and Manasseh.
Pakistani security forces in Balochistan are fighting armed tribal separatists who say the province 's natural wealth is being plundered.
Aimed at more tribal floors, it 's the ' Dub ' mix which is the true standout.
The project is located in the Mandla district of central India, where the predominantly tribal population subsists mainly on forest produce.
Rajeev, a local guide, took us trekking through the jungle to a Toda tribal hamlet.
But Dr. Goebbels has taught us tribal elders that a lie repeated often enough comes to be believed.
In the east, however, fighting between rival factions and tribal warfare continued.
Some archeologists have seen the pottery as relating to tribal affiliations.
To counter this he has staffed the upper ranks with individuals tied to him by bonds of tribal loyalty or personal history.
A highlight of any visit to Sarawak is a voyage upriver in a longtail boat to a tribal village.
During this time there is a yelling voice and sparse, tribal drumming.
Thesacredbook is only to be read by tribal leaders, people who have the wisdom to understand.
They are all authentic and the site has an interesting selection of tribal rugs.
If you love primitive, tribal cultures such as Native American, Aboriginal and African, this might be the color palette for you.
These rich, earthy colors are inspired by natural elements, such as animal prints and skins, accents in fringe, bone and feather, ethnic patterns and tribal influences.
This type of color palette would go well with homes that display tribal artifacts and cultural artwork.
Add a few final touches with exotic animal figurines, African tribal masks and some decorative candleholders.
Heavy Games - Death Star Battles, World Domination, Tribal Wars and Unification Wars are a few of the popular war game titles you'll find on this website.
They should be flouncy and light, in either tribal prints or neutrals.
Seminole Tribal Police said there was no wrong-doing in Smth's death.
Like many other community colleges, Everett Community College offers associate's degrees and certification in a wide variety of majors including aviation, graphic design, nursing, tribal enterprise management and many more.
In the early 2000s, people living in small-scale tribal societies all around the world, including Africa, the Pacific Islands, North and South America, and the Himalayas, still used penis sheaths.
What tribal men report and what ethnographers interpret can differ.
However, some anthropologically sound functions of the penis sheath can be identified, such as it acting as a carrying pouch, protection, display, or a marker of age, status, or tribal identity.
There are tattoo practitioners who specialize in "tribal tattoos" and "primitive technologies."
"Tribal tattoos" are typically heavy black ink and focus on designs that resemble Polynesian designs, ancient Celtic knotwork, or archaic languages.
Return to the Tribal: A Celebration of Body Adornment.
Choose something you like, such as scrolls and flowers or tribal markings.
This tribal art rendition depicts two stylized wolves that are decorated with black enamel tattoos on gold-plated metal.
The stone was so valued that it was often given in trade and as a leverage in tribal treaty negotiations.
Two Dogs: If you're looking for specific tribal jewelry, this shop is a great place to find pieces by Cherokee, Navajo, and Hopi artisans.
In addition to the many discounts, you can find Navajo and Zuni tribal jewelry collections made by Native American artisans.
Tribal Hollywood: Tribal Hollywood specializes in men's jewelry and has some Celtic-themed cross fashion jewelry.
This practice encourages equal trade agreements and a disassociation with West African cocoa production, which is under suspicion for its connection to tribal slavery and terrorism.
The use of these herbs has been traced to Native American tribal medicine and Native Canadian medicine.
As riders draw closer to the boarding platform, they are surrounded by tribal masks, 40 foot high burning torches, and other exotic theming that sets the mood for this challenging ride.
This anticipation is further enhanced by the tribal music playing in the area that sets the blood pumping and gears up riders' nerves for the ultimate endurance and immunity challenge.
As the ride begins, riders are "challenged" to perform tribal chants and dances, and the losing "tribe" is sprayed with water from mounted tribal masks facing the ride.
Tribal Phase: Now that your creature has evolved a little further, it is able to work as a team with others like it.
Civilization Phase: Going even further, your creature's tribal camp has grown to the size of a city.
While not useful at all during the cellular phase, money becomes very important when you get to the tribal and civilization phases.
About 40 percent of the 127,000 adoptions in 2000 and 2001 were primarily private agency, kinship, or tribal adoptions.
From the more primitive tribal routines to modern day ethnic dance styles, Africa has always been a strong contributor to the world of movement, and will continue to do so in the years to come.
While more developed portions of the continent certainly have formal dance studios, traditional African dance is almost exclusively taught through observation and various tribal events rather than via professional technique training.
Since dance is incorporated into tribal rituals, it is often a defining moment when it comes to gender roles.
African tribal dance originated with some of the earliest people groups found on the vast continent, however it is still enjoyed today in forms both modern and traditional.
While tribal dances vary with each culture throughout the continent, there are a few components that are the same wherever you go.
First of all, tribal dance is very lively.
While deep in the heart of Africa is still the place to go for authentic dance styles, African tribal dance has evolved into other forms throughout the world, including being responsible for the inspiration behind some American groups.
Below are a few dance troupes worth checking out if you're interested in seeing urban and modern versions of tribal dance right here on the homefront.
Infused with tribal dance moves from Africa, Heavy Hips is a belly dancing studio for women, located in Santa Cruz, California.
Over in Montreal, Canada, you will find the Tribal Dance Community, which allows participants to occasionally join in interpretive movement accompanied by world rhythms.
Back in the United States, tribal fusion style dancing is becoming popular in places like Florida.
Founded by a dancer who goes simply by the name Lacey, Florida Tribal's journey began with her inspired interest in tribal belly dance at the age of 15.
Tribal belly dance borrows moves from Africa as well as other cultures, however the African style of theatrical emotion while dancing is very prominent in Lacey's style.
Traditional African dance, as well as its varying tribal forms is certainly not limited to these three locations.
You will find tribal dance groups and studios all over North America.
Like most things tribal, the dances of the Indians were passed down through generations, rich in tradition and quite lacking in formal records.
Those tribes located in the Great Plains region of the United States danced to celebrate a tribal boy's passage into manhood, and also to worship the summer solstice.
Whether you plan on taking dance lessons in one of their tribal styles, or attending a pow wow or festival, learn what is going on prior to attending.
Bharat Natyam, African, Gypsy/Rom...and Tribal Fusion belly dance."
One of the common characteristicof this dance regardless of tribal origin is that it is performed by both men and women as opposed to most other dances, which are performed only by the men of the tribe.
Orchid Noir Creations offers a beautiful red and white tribal dragon emblem on a lovely assortment of tee shirts and gift items.
Tribal Pages provides you with a webpage to add names, photos, and stories.
The country's official language is English, but tribal languages such as Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo) and Fulani are commonly used.
Native indigenous population in the Bay Area prior to the arrival of the Spanish Europeans consisted of two different tribal groups, the Miwoks and the Ohlones.
The island was not habitable, but according to Miwok legend, was possessed by evil spirits, and banished tribal members were exiled here.
Tropical foliage is contrasted against tribal geometrics.
Among the many other draping methods are the Maharashtrian, Dravidian, Madisaara, Gond, Mundum Neryathum and tribal styles, among others.
They award grants for various environmental protection activities such as water pollution prevention, wetlands protection, tribal preservation, testing new environmental safety products, engine emission reduction programs and more.
History books and encyclopedias are wonderful references for tribal facts and common dress.
Add notions: Once the basic costume has been constructed, you can go crazy adding small cultural adornments such as beading, embroidering, feathers, or tribal symbols.
Head pieces: Although an elaborate head-piece is rather intensive to construct, you can add a feathered piece to your costume to complete your tribal look.
The most significant tribal members usually wore elaborate headdress pieces only during ceremonial festivities, so keep this adornment simple and focus your time more on the costume embellishment and design.
Your local historical society or any local tribal member group may be able to assist you in your quest of creating a homemade Indian costume.
The tribal culture lived in parts of Eastern and Western Europe, with large settlements in Ireland, Scotland, Wales as well as in Cornwall, England and Brittany, France.
Expect a lot of beads, hanging cords, contrasting and flamboyant colors with patterns and drawings that look both exotic and tribal.
Unless you are from Africa or have a reputation for being a world traveler, it is difficult to pull off the whole trendily tribal look and not appear like a freshman anthropology major with a penchant for pot and weird subtitled films.
Most fans of African leather handbags would never try to swap their Birkin for the tribal effect.
For instance, putting a child on a schedule and incorporating routines into his life may make sense in the context of the Western world, but in tribal cultures, many parents work with the child's natural rhythm.
The easiest way to locate a WIC office is to visit your state or tribal organization website.
In fact, Native Americans often used the shoes' patterns as a way to determine the tribal affiliation of others.
Neo'kis'tomi: Created by Blackfeet tribal members, the moccasins on this site are indicative of the elegant handiwork that went into each Plains' shoe.
While Mike Tyson can show up for work with a large tribal tattoo on his face, this would likely not be advisable for you.
The sharp slashes and edges of a traditional tribal tattoo are surprisingly easy to modify into a fairy figure, especially when it comes to the wings.
Tattoos in the tribal genre often look terrific on the lower back or shoulder.
Use tribal designs to suggest the image of a fairy.
Place a fairy in the center of a standard tribal motif.
Dragons are one of the most perfect images to depict in a tribal design.
The bold black lines of tribal style tattoos work perfectly in the shape of a dragon.
Past articles include a review of tattoo shops in Mexico City, a visit to Omaha, Nebraska, to learn about tattooing in the heartland and an account of tribal tattooing in Borneo.
Just about anything can be done in a tribal style.
If minimalism or tribalism is your thing, it's as simple as asking your artist to craft a dolphin in a tribal style.