Fruit trees trained as espaliers, fans or cordons against walls, trellises or fences, are not only pruned carefully in the winter but must be also pruned during the early summer months.
For tying plants to trellises and stakes soft tarred string or raffia (the fibre from the Raphia palm of Madagascar) is used.
Very durable trellises for greenhouse climbers are made of slender round iron rods for standards, having a series of hooks on the inner edge, into which rings of similar metal are dropped; the rings may be graduated so as to form a broad open top, or may be all of the same size, when the trellis will assume the cylindrical form.
Raspberries, grape vines, &c., that have been laid down may now be uncovered and tied up to stakes or trellises, and all new plantations of these and other fruits may now be made.
The vines are sometimes trained on trellises, but most frequently over ridges of earth 8 or io ft.
Climbers are trained from the bottom around or across trellises, of which the cylindrical or the balloon-shaped, or sometimes the flat oval or circular, are the best forms. The size should be adapted to the habit of the plant, which should cover the whole by the time flowers are produced.
Tomatoes should be tied up to trellises or stakes if fine-flavoured and handsome fruit is desired, for if left to ripen on the ground they are apt to have a gross earthy flavour.
The bush vines of this region are more exposed to the attacks of Oidium Tuckeri, which invaded the country in 1851, and of Phylloxera vastatrix, which followed in 1863, than the more deeply-rooted vines trained on trellises or trees.