Treatises sentence example
Two encyclopaedic treatises, dealing with philosophy, are often mentioned.
In England, Robert Recorde had indeed published his mathematical treatises, but they were of trifling importance and without influence on the history of science.
He translated the works of Bahya, Halevi, Saadiah and the grammatical treatises of Janah.
For this patron several of his treatises were written; and the commencement of his Canon of Medicine also dates from his stay in Hyrcania.
About loo treatises are ascribed to Avicenna.Advertisement
Scarcely any member of the Arabian circle of the sciences, including theology, philology, mathematics, astronomy, physics and music, was left untouched by the treatises of Avicenna, many of which probably varied little, except in being commissioned by a different patron and having a different form or extent.
His Logic, Metaphysics, Physics, De Caelo, are treatises giving a synoptic view of Aristotelian doctrine.
Eight masterly treatises on its movements were published by him in the Berlin Abhandlungen (1829-1859).
His great fame as a professor of civil law at the university of Bologna caused Balduinus to be elected podestd of the city of Genoa, where he was entrusted with the reforms of the law of the republic. He died at Bologna in 1225, and has left behind him some treatises on procedure, the earliest of their kind.
Only two systematic treatises on mathematical subjects were completed by Boole during his lifetime.Advertisement
We do not propose to concern ourselves here with those technical subjects which are the chief concern of standard treatises on instrumentation.
In 1872 he was elected master of conferences at the Ecole Normale, and was made doctor of philosophy in recognition of his two treatises, Platonis Hippias Minor sive Socratica contra liberum arbitrium argumenta and La Liberte et le determinisme.
From a linguistic point of view, these treatises with their appendages, the more mystic and recondite Aranyakas and the speculative Upanishads, have to be considered as forming the connecting link between the Vedic and the classical Sanskrit.
Powell wrote several treatises and also some hymns, but his chief gifts were those of a preacher.
It will thus be seen that the term brahmanam applies not only to complete treatises of an exegetic nature, but also to single comments on particular texts or rites of which such a work would be made up.Advertisement
The Bridgewater treatises have little more than historical interest to-day.
The fifth Nikaya is a miscellaneous collection of treatises, mostly very short, on a variety of subjects.
Of these, eleven volumes had by 1910 been edited for the Pali Text Society by various scholars, the Jatakas and two other treatises had appeared elsewhere, and two works (one a selection of lives of distinguished early Buddhists, and the other an ancient commentary), were still in MS.
Of the seven treatises contained in the Abhidhamma Pitaka five, and one-third of the sixth, had by 1910 been published by the Pali Text Society; and one, the Dhamma Sangani, had been translated by Mrs Rhys Davids.
Amongst his scientific, theological and grammatical works mention may be made of De diis, containing an examination of various cults and ceremonials; treatises on divination and the interpretation of dreams; on the sphere, the winds and animals.Advertisement
It also included a collection of Orphic hymns, liturgic songs, practical treatises, and poems on various subjects.
It was not till De Bary (1866) made known the true nature of parasitic Fungi, based on his researches between 1853-1863, that the vast domain of epidemic diseases of plants was opened up to fruitful investigation, and such modern treatises as those of Frank (1880 and L895), Sorauer (1886), Kirchner (1890), were gradually made possible.
The treatises on physical geography by Mrs Mary Somerville and Sir John Herschel (the lattewritten for the eighth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica) showed the effect produced in Great Britain by the stimulus of Humboldt's work.
There are also separate masoretic treatises.
His treatises on the verbs, written in Arabic, were translated into Hebrew by Moses Giqatilla (11th century), himself a considerable grammarian and commentator, and by Ibn Ezra.Advertisement
In North Africa, probably in the 9th century, appeared the book known under the name of Eldad ha-Dani, giving an account of the ten tribes, from which much medieval legend was derived; 2 and in Kairawan the medical and philosophical treatises of Isaac Israeli, who died in 932.
Yet he contrived to write his great commentary on the Pentateuch and other books of the Bible, treatises on philosophy (as the Yesodh mora), astronomy, mathematics, grammar (translation of Ilayyu j), besides a Diwan.
He wrote numerous translations, of Galen, Aristotle, Ilariri, IIunain ben Isaac and Maimonides, as well as several original works, a Sepher Anaq in imitation of Moses ben Ezra, and treatises on grammar and medicine (Rephuath geviyyah), but he is best known for his Talzkemoni, a diwan in the style of Ilariri's Magimat.
His son Samuel, who died at Marseilles about 1230, was equally prolific. He translated the Moreh Nebhukhim during the life of the author, and with some help from him, so that this may be regarded as the authorized version; Maimonides' commentary on the Mishnah tractate Pirge.Abhoth, and some minor works; treatises of Averroes and other Arabic authors.
These two treatises are supplemented by letters to Cn.
Peiper thinks that the first three treatises are the productions of the early years of Boetius.
He infers, from these facts, that there is no sure evidence for the authorship of the fourth and fifth treatises.
Several inscriptions ascribe both these treatises to Boetius.
It will be seen from this statement that Peiper bases his conclusions on grounds far too narrow; and on the whole it is perhaps more probable that Boetius wrote none of the four Christian treatises, particularly as they are not ascribed to him by any of his contemporaries.
The work also includes the five treatises, four of them Christian, of which mention has been made above.
He at once took a leading position in the mathematical teaching of the university, and published treatises on the Di f ferential calculus (in 1848) and the Infinitesimal calculus (4 vols., 1852-1860), which for long were the recognized textbooks there.
All Cyprian's literary works were written in connexion with his episcopal office; almost all his treatises and many of his letters have the character of pastoral epistles, and their form occasionally betrays the fact that they were intended as addresses.
Like Tertullian, and often in imitation of him, Cyprian took certain apologetic, dogmatic and pastoral themes as subjects of his treatises.
The numerous Letters of Cyprian are not only an important source for the history of church life and of ecclesiastical law, on account of their rich and manifold contents, but in large part they are important monuments of the literary activity of their author, since, not infrequently, they are in the form of treatises upon the topic in question.
In the editions of the works .of Cyprian a number of treatises are printed which, certainly or probably, were not written by him, and have therefore usually been described as pseudo-Cyprianic. Several of them, e.g.
At the request of Castor,bishopof Apt, he wrote two monumental and influential treatises on the monastic life.
St Jerome attributes to Victor some opuscula in Latin, which are believed to be recognized in certain apocryphal treatises of St Cyprian.
The reading in public of his two treatises De Potestate ecclesiastica and De Reformatione Ecclesiae revealed, besides ideas very peculiar to himself on the reform and constitution of the church, his design of reducing the power of the English in the council by denying them the right of.
A great part of them was published with the works of Gerson (by Ellies du Pin, Antwerp, 1706); another part appeared in the 15th century, probably at Brussels, and there are many treatises and sermons still unpublished.
Translations of the Works or of separate treatises have appeared in most European languages.
Dandolo published in Italian several treatises on agriculture, vine-cultivation, and the rearing of cattle and sheep; a work on silk-worms, which was translated into French by Fontanelle; a work on the discoveries in chemistry which were made in the last quarter of the 18th century (published 1796); and translations of several of the best French works on chemistry.
When he was beginning his first lecture at Pisa he opened the meteorological treatises of Aristotle.
Of the former, the first, published in 1896, was on the dynamics of a particle; and afterwards there followed a number of concise treatises on thermodynamics, heat, light, properties of matter and dynamics, together with an admirably lucid volume of popular lectures on Recent Advances in Physical Science.
His father's History of India was published in 1818; immediately thereafter, about the age of twelve, John began a thorough study of the scholastic logic, at the same time reading Aristotle's logical treatises in the original.
It must be clearly recognized that the functions of economic science in the present requirements of the world cannot possibly be discharged by treatises on economic theory.
For a knowledge of Origen's Christian estimate of life and his relation to the faith of the church these two treatises are of great importance.
Only two of the volumes are known to be in existence; one is a copy of John of Salisbury's works in the British Museum, and the other some theological treatises by Anselm and others in the Bodleian.
Absurd as much that we find both in Albertus Magnus and the Ortus seems to modern eyes, if we go a step lower in the scale and consult the " Bestiaries " or treatises on animals which were common from the 12th to the 14th century we shall meet with many more absurdities.
Both of these treatises have also been reprinted by the Willughby Society.
Next must be noticed a series of short treatises communicated by Johann Friedrich Brandt, between the years 1836 and 1839, to the Academy of Sciences of St Petersburg, and published Brandt.
His Doctrinal Treatises and Introductions to Different Portions of the Holy Scripture were published by the Parker Society in 1848.
Here he continued his labours in experimental science and also in the composition of complete treatises.
The treatises are nearly all anterior to the 7th century, and most appear to belong to the 3rd and 4th centuries; some are the work of authentic authors like Zosimus and Synesius, while of others, such as profess to be written by Moses, Democritus, Ostanes, &c., the authorship is clearly fictitious.
The second group consists of a number of treatises professing to be written by Jaber, celebrated in Latin alchemy as Geber.
They were followed by treatises of a different character, clearer in matter, more systematic in arrangement, and reflecting the methods of the scholastic logic; these are farther from the Greek tradition, for although they contain sufficient traces of their ultimate Greek ancestry, their authors do not know the Greeks as masters and cite no Greek names.
So far as they are Latin versions of Arabico-Greek treatises, they must have been much remodelled in the course of translation; but there is reason to suppose that many of them, even when pretending to be translations, are really original compositions.
It is curious that although we possess a certain number of works on alchemy written in Arabic, and also many Latin treatises that profess to be translated from Arabic, yet in no case is the existence known of both the Arabic and the Latin version.
The treatises attributed to Geber, in fact, appear to be original works composed not earlier than the 13th century and fathered on Jaber in order to enhance their authority.
His original treatises (the best of which are his Greek and Latin grammars), as well as those which he edited, have, however, long since fallen into disuse.
Two treatises in Greek by unknown writers belong to the same period.
This contained four treatises on the Eucharist, the sacrifice of the Mass, the erection of the patriarchate of Constantinople (in Latin), and the sacrament of the Eucharist (in French).
Two short treatises exist, purporting to be lives of Gildas, and ascribed respectively to the 11th and 12th centuries; but the writers of both are believed to have confounded two, if not more, persons that had borne the name.
It thus happened that in the earlier treatises on phlogistic chemistry organic substances were grouped with all combustibles.
The collected literary works of Wagner in German fill ten volumes, and include political speeches, sketches for dramas that did not become operas, autobiographical chapters, aesthetic musical treatises and polemics of vitriolic violence.
It is known that at this early period of his life, while he was yet a novice, he wrote voluminous treatises on the great philosopher, which he afterwards, however, gave to the flames.
Pseudo-Joachimite treatises sprang up on every hand, and, finally, in 1254, there appeared in Paris the Liber introductorius ad Evangelium aeternum, the work of a Spiritual Franciscan, Gherardo da Borgo San Donnino.
His only means for gratifying his eager desire for books was the small library founded in his native town by Benjamin Franklin and consisting principally of histories and treatises on theology.
As early as 1450 a company of Jewish converts in Spain, at the head of which were Paul de Heredia, Vidal de Saragossa de Aragon, and Davila, published compilations of Kabbalistic treatises to prove from them the doctrines of Christianity.'
His treatises exercised an almost magic influence upon the greatest thinkers of the time.
Thus the whole method of measurement in geometry as described in the elementary textbooks and the older treatises is obscure to the last degree.
For no one can doubt the essential difference between characteristic treatises upon "pure" and "applied" mathematics.
Of the other treatises mentioned by Eusebius and Jerome nothing is known.
Besides the treatises mentioned by Eusebius, fragments of treatises on Providence and the Soul have been preserved.
In addition to these Clement often speaks of his intention to write on certain subjects, but it may well be doubted whether in most cases, if not all, he intended to devote separate treatises to 1 Zahn thinks we have part of them in the Adumbrationes Clem.
All these treatises seem to have been written nearly at the same period, and certainly before the publication of the second edition of the Liber abaci, in which the Liber quadratorum is expressly mentioned.
His standard work on algebra, written in Arabic, and other treatises of a similar character raised him at once to the foremost rank among the mathematicians of that age, and induced Sultgn Malik-Shgh to summon him in A.H.
A volume entitled Opera posthuma (Leiden, 1703) contained his "Dioptrica," in which the ratio between the respective focal lengths of object-glass and eye-glass is given as the measure of magnifying power, together with the shorter essays De vitris figurandis, De corona et parheliis, &c. An early tract De ratiociniis tin ludo aleae, printed in 16J7 with Schooten's Exercitationes mathematicae, is notable as one of the first formal treatises on the theory of probabilities; nor should his investigations of the properties of the cissoid, logarithmic and catenary curves be left unnoticed.
Diogenes further states that he wrote several treatises, but none have survived.
His treatises De mensura astrolabii and De utilitatibus astrolabii (to be found, on the authority of Salzburg MSS., in Pez, Thesaurus anecdotorum novissimus, iii.) being the first contributions of moment furnished by a European to this subject, Hermann was for a time considered the inventor of the astrolabe.
The long series of memoirs - some of them complete treatises of great moment in the history of science - communicated by Lagrange to the Berlin Academy between the years 1767 and 1787 were not the only fruits of his exile.
The notable group of treatises communicated, 1781-1784, to the Berlin Academy was designed, but did not prove to be his final contribution to the theory of the planets.
As aids to the study of logic, the doctors of this period, beside the commentaries and treatises of Boetius (q.v.), possessed two tracts attributed to St Augustine, the first of which, Principia dialecticae, is probably his, but is mainly grammatical in its import.
The apocryphal Neoplatonic treatises and the First views of the Arabian commentators obscured for the effects of first students the genuine doctrine of Aristotle, and the the new 13th century opens with quite a crop of mystical knowledge.
Finally, in 1254, we find the university officially prescribing how many hours are to be devoted to the explanation of the Metaphysics and the principal physical treatises of Aristotle.
Some of these, it may be said, are simply the old Scholastic problem in a different garb; but the extended horizon of which Haureau speaks is amply proved by mere reference to the treatises of Albert and St Thomas.
In 1339 Occam's treatises were put under a ban by the university of Paris, and in the following year Nominalism was solemnly condemned.
Among the few prose writers of distinction were Andrew Spangar, whose " Hungarian Bookstore," Magyar Konyvtdr (Kassa, 1738), is said to be the earliest work of the kind in the Magyar dialect; George Baranyi, who translated the New Testament (Lauba, 1 754); the historians Michael Cserei and Matthew Bel, which last, however, wrote chiefly in Latin; and Peter Bod, who besides his theological treatises compiled a history of Hungarian literature under the title Magyar Athends (Szeben, 1766).
Of these one of the most notable is Cyril Horvath, whose treatises published in the organs of the academy display a rare freedom and comprehensiveness of imagination.
History There is something almost pathetic in the childish wonder and delight with which mankind in its earlier phases of civilization gathered up and treasured stories of strange animals from distant lands or deep seas, such as are recorded in the Physiologus, in Albertus Magnus, and even at the present day in the popular treatises of Japan and China.
The mass of literature on the Psalms is so enormous that no full list even of recent commentaries can be here attempted, much less an enumeration of treatises on individual psalms and special critical questions.
Of his 150 Arabic treatises a few at least survive; see Brockelmann, Geschichte der arabischen Litteratur, i.
Among the works which he translated into Syriac and of which his versions survive are treatises of Aristotle, Porphyry and Galen, 3 the Ars grammatica of Dionysius Thrax, the works of Dionysius the Areopagite, and possibly two or three treatises of Plutarch.4 His own original works are less important, but include a " treatise on logic, addressed to Theodore (of Merv), which is unfortunately imperfect, a tract on negation and affirmation; a treatise, likewise addressed to Theodore, On the Causes of the Universe, according to the Views of Aristotle, showing how it is a Circle; a tract On Genus, Species and Individuality; and a third tract addressed to Theodore, On the Action and Influence of the Moon, explanatory and illustrative of Galen's IIEpi rcptaiµwv r t µepwv, bk.
Moses bar Kepha (f903), one of the most fertile of 9th-century authors, wrote commentaries, theological treatises and many liturgical works.
There are other isolated sermons and treatises by f lfric, printed in vol.
Till 1815 the only extant works ascribed (erroneously) to Fronto were two grammatical treatises, De nominum verborumque diferentiis and Exempla elocutionum (the last being really by Arusianus Messius).
The collection also contains treatises on eloquence, some historical fragments, and literary trifles on such subjects as the praise of smoke and dust, of negligence, and a dissertation on Anion.
His well-known work, De medicina, was one of a series of treatises intended to embrace all knowledge proper for a man of the world.
His works exist chiefly in the original Arabic or in Hebrew translations; only some smaller treatises have been translated into Latin, so that no definite opinion can be formed as to their medical value.
The method of auscultation was soon introduced into England by pupils of Laennec. John Forbes (1787-1861) in 1824, and William Stokes (1804-1878) of Dublin in 1825, published treatises on the use of the stethoscope.
In the midst of these multifarious labours Giry found time for extensive archaeological researches, and made a special study of the medieval treatises dealing with the technical processes employed in the arts and industries.
It is indeed not credible that Hero wrote two separate treatises on the subject of the mechanical powers, which are fully discussed in the Mechanics, ii., iii.
Of other treatises by Hero only fragments remain.
His prose works include sermons, treatises on vices and on baptism, a penitential, capitularies and exhortations to bishops, priests and judges.
Neumann, Die Metalle (1904); also treatises on chemistry.
The third division would consist of the collections of the so-called Pseudo-leges Canuti, the laws of Edward the Confessor, of Henry I., and the great compilation of the Quadripartitus, then of a number of short notices and extracts like the fragments on the "wedding of a wife," on oaths, on ordeals, on the king's peace, on rural customs (Rectitudines singularum personarum), the treatises on the reeve (gerefa) and on the judge (dema), formulae of oaths, notions as to wergeld, &c. A fourth group might be made of the charters, n as they are based on Old English private and public law and supply us with most important materials in regard to it.
There is a large number of small treatises and compendia of Florentine history of the guide-book description.
Occasional notices of Ethiopia occur from this time onwards in Greek and Latin authors, though the special treatises by Agatharchides and others are lost.
His contributions to theological literature included treatises on Christian ethics and dogmatics, on moral philosophy, on baptism, and a sketch of the life of Jakob Boehme, who exercised so marked an influence on the mind of the great English theologian of the 18th century, William Law.
Arminius's works are mostly occasional treatises drawn from him by controversial emergencies, but they everywhere exhibit a calm, well-furnished, undogmatic and progressive mind.
He left behind him several treatises, of which only a few fragments have survived.
Besides Truth, and the book Of the Gods which caused his condemnation at Athens, Diogenes Laertius attributes to him treatises on political, ethical, educational and rhetorical subjects.
The theory of distillation finds a place in all treatises on physical chemistry.
He corresponded, in that year, with the Comte de Montmort on the subject of Nicolas Malebranche's tenets; and unfinished treatises, " On the Jewish Sacrifices " and " On the Lawfulness of Eating Blood," written on his return from Aix-la-Chapelle in 1719, were afterwards found among his papers.
Of his writings, which comprised treatises on a great variety of subjects, only the titles and a few fragments survive.
Vermigli published over a score of theological works, chiefly Biblical commentaries and treatises on the Eucharist.
The university of Vienna appealed to the Royal Swedish Academy for a complete issue of the scientific treatises, and this resulted in the formation of a committee of experts who have been entrusted with the task.
It is doubtful whether he is the author of certain other extant treatises attributed to him on metrical and grammatical subjects, which will be found in Keil.
The Maanedlige Afhandlinger (1762), " Monthly Treatises," was supported by several writers and devoted chiefly to rural economy.
As he is stated to have written one of his treatises at the age of ninety-three, he must have lived till.
A spurious edition of his works having been issued, he himself produced a collection of twenty-two treatises, to which some time afterwards he added a second group of eighteen more.
The only extant prose work which may be assigned to the end of this period is the treatise on rhetoric known by the title Ad Herennium (c. 84) a work indicative of the attention bestowed on prose style and rhetorical studies during the last century of the republic, and which may be regarded as a precursor of the oratorical treatises of Cicero and of the work of Quintilian.
As Cicero tones down his oratory in his moral treatises, so Horace tones down the fervour of his lyrical utterances in his Epistles, and thus produces a style combining the ease of the best epistolary style with the grace and concentration of poetry - the style, as it has been called, of "idealized common sense," that of the urbanus and cultivated man of the world who is also in his hours of inspiration a genuine poet.
In prose the old forms - oratory, history, the epistle, treatises or dialogues on ethical and literary questions - continue to be cultivated.
The most celebrated handbook, however, is the Institutiones of Gaius, who lived under Antonius Pius - a model of what such treatises should be.
Although the treatises IIEpi Kpwviuwv cannot be accepted as authentic, we find in the Ilpoyvwvr,KOV evidence of the acuteness of observation in the manner in which the occurrence of critical days in disease is enunciated.
The Hippocratic Collection consists of eighty-seven treatises, of which a part only can be accepted as genuine.
The treatises have been classified according to (I) the direct evidence of ancient writers, (2) peculiarities of style and method, and (3) the presence of anachronisms and of opinions opposed to the general Hippocratic teaching - greatest weight being attached to the opinions of Erotian and Galen.
Two treatises are sometimes erroneously attributed to him, one on the Emotions, the other a commentary on Aristotle's Ethics (really by Constantine Palaeocappa in the 16th century, or by John Callistus of Thessalonica).
For the various precautions necessary in conducting the above tests special treatises on electrical testing must be consulted.
For fuller details and explanations of the elements of the subject, the reader must be referred to general treatises such as Baynes's Thermodynamics (Oxford), Tait's Thermodynamics (Edinburgh), Maxwell's Theory of Heat (London), Parker's Thermodynamics (Cambridge), Clausius's Mechanical Theory of Heat (translated by Browne, London), and Preston's Theory of Heat (London).
One or two chapters on the subject are also generally included in treatises on the steam engine, or other heat engines, such as those of Rankine, Perry or Ewing.
A more complete and more elaborate treatment of the subject will be found in foreign treatises, such as those of Clausius, Zeuner, Duhem, Bertrand, Planck and others.
From these treatises we learn that the adherents of the new prophecy were very numerous in Phrygia, Asia and Galatia (Ancyra), that they had tried to defend themselves in writing from the charges brought against them (by Miltiades), that they possessed a fully developed independent organization, that they boasted of many martyrs, and that they were still formidable to the Church in Asia Minor.
His occupations were now almost exclusively literary, and from this time forward he was probably engaged in writing, completing or revising the treatises which were afterwards included in the Characteristics.
These volumes contain in addition to the four treatises already mentioned, Miscellaneous Reflections, now first printed, and the Inquiry concerning Virtue or Merit, described, as "formerly printed from an imperfect copy, now corrected and published intire," and as "printed first in the year 1699."
Translations of separate treatises into German began to be made in 1738, and in 1776-1779 there appeared a complete German translation of the Characteristics.
Amongst other works, he wrote treatises on Asia, Europe and The Red Sea.
Cappel was also the author of Annotationes et Commentarii in Vetus Testamentum, Chronologia Sacra, and other biblical works, as well as of several other treatises on Hebrew, among which are the Arcanum Punctuationis revelatum (1624) and the Diatriba de veris et antiquis Ebraeorum literis (1645).
But no substantial philosophy of any kind emerged from humanism; the political lucubrations of the scholars were, like their ethical treatises, for the most part rhetorical.
The often-cited description of the pulmonary circulation (which occurs in the 1546 draft) begins p. 169; it has escaped even Sigmond that Servetus had an idea of the composition of water and of air; the hint for his researches was the dual form of the Hebrew words for blood, water, &c. Two treatises, Desiderius (ante 1542) and De tribus impostoribus (1598) have been wrongly ascribed to Servetus.
It seems quite clear that in the earlier works,particularly the two Italian dialogues, he approached more nearly to the pantheistic view of things than in his later Latin treatises.
He attacked Leon of Modena's anti-Kabbalistic treatises, and as a result of his conflict with the Venetian Rabbinate left Italy for Amsterdam, where, like Spinoza, he maintained himself by grinding lenses.
The most important works for (a) are the "Review of Aenesidemus," and the Second Introduction to the Wissenschaftslehre; for (b) the great treatises of the Jena period; for (c) the Thatsachen des Bewusstseyns of 1810.
Nicolaus also wrote comedies and tragedies, paraphrased and wrote commentaries on parts of Aristotle, and was himself the author of philosophical treatises.
These treatises won for him a position among independent thinkers.
Accordingly in 1868, he published his Manual of Mental and Moral Science, mainly a condensed form of his treatises, with the doctrines re-stated, and in many instances freshly illustrated, and with many important additions.
The same idea pervades old medical treatises; for a drug was not a chemical substance taking effect naturally on the human system, but something into which a supernatural virtue had been magically introduced, in order the more easily and efficaciously to be brought to bear upon the patient.
His account of the process of knowledge in his logical treatises exhibits the idealistic bent in its clearest form.
Of works undertaken by his instructions the most important were the Encyclopaedic Excerpts from all available treatises on various branches of learning.
The archbishop wrote several treatises of considerable value, including an Essai sur les hiProglyphes egyptiens (Paris, 1834), in which he showed that Champollion's system was insufficient to explain the hieroglyphics.
Elmenhorst's statement, that Musanus and Didymus in an earlier age wrote treatises with the name De ecclesi asticis dogmatibus, seems a plain blunder, if we compare Jerome's Latin with Eusebius's Greek.
Of his life little is known, and that little is chiefly derived from the dedicatory letters prefixed to two of his treatises and addressed respectively to Bishop Theodald (not Theobald, as Burney writes the name) of Arezzo, and Michael, a monk of Pomposa and Guido's pupil and friend.
The most important of Guido's treatises, and those which are generally acknowledged to be authentic, are Micrologus Guidonis de disciplina artis musicae, dedicated to Bishop Theodald of Arezzo, and comprising a complete theory of music, in 20 chapters; Musicae Guidonis regulae rhythmicae in antiphonarii sui prologum prolatae, written in trochaic decasyllabics of anything but classical structure; Aliae Guidonis regulae de ignoto cantu, identidem in antiphonarii sui prologum prolatae; and the Epistola Guidonis Michaeli monacho de ignoto cantu, already referred to.
A very important manuscript unknown to Gerbert (the Codex bibliothecae Uticensis, in the Paris library) contains, besides minor treatises, an antiphonarium and gradual undoubtedly belonging to Guido.
There is not very much variety among these treatises, one of the earliest, valuable on account of its rarity, is the block-book by Hartlieb, Die Kunst Ciromantia, 4 published at Augsburg about 1470 (probably, but it bears no imprint of place or date).
The most important of his treatises is the De Causis corruptarum Artium, which has been ranked with Bacon's Organon.
His subsequent works were dissertations on the origin of alphabetical writing (Die Erfindung der Buchstabenschrift, 1801), on the antiquity of the Codex Vaticanus (1810), and on ancient mythology (Ober den Mythos der alten Volker, 1812); a new interpretation of the Song of Solomon (Das hohe Lied in einer noch unversuchten Deutung, 1813), to the effect that the lover represents King Hezekiah, while by his beloved is intended the remnant left in Israel after the deportation of the ten tribes; and treatises on the indissoluble character of the matrimonial bond (De conjugii christiani vinculo indissolubili commentatio exegetica, 1816) and on the Alexandrian version of the Pentateuch (1818).
He also published various treatises of archaeological interest, of which the most important are Die Erfindung des Alphabets (1840), Urgeschichte u.
His official messages to Congress, probably more frequent, certainly much longer than those of any of his predecessors, were quite as often treatises on the moral principles of government as they were recommendations of specific legislative or administrative policies.
The most important of these polemical treatises is the Refutation of all Heresies, which has come to be known by the inappropriate title of the Philosophumena.
Besides the works above mentioned, he was the author of two practical treatises, one on late repentance (1712), the other on the excellence of religion (1714) .
The best known of these, which is called Legendre's theorem, is usually given in treatises on spherical trigonometry; by means of it a small spherical triangle may be treated as a plane triangle, certain corrections being applied to the angles.
He intended to follow it up with similar treatises on Mars, Jupiter, sun, moon, comets and meteors, stars, and nebulae, and had in fact commenced a monograph on Mars, when the failure of a New Zealand bank deprived him of an independence which would have enabled him to carry out his scheme without anxiety as to its commercial success or failure.
This was followed by a long series of popular treatises in rapid succession, amongst the more important of which are Light Science for Leisure Hours and The Sun (1871); The Orbs around Us and Essays on Astronomy (1872); The Expanse of Heaven, The Moon and The Borderland of Science (1873); The Universe and the Coming Transits and Transits of Venus (1874);(1874); Our Place among Infinities (1875); Myths and Marvels of Astronomy (1877); The Universe of Stars (1878); Flowers of the Sky (1879); The Peotry of Astronomy (1880); Easy Star Lessons and Familiar Science Studies (1882); Mysteries of Time and Space and The Great Pyramid (1883); The Universe of Suns (1884); The Seasons (1885); Other Suns than Ours and Half-Hours with the Stars (1887).
In 1896 he adopted the title of Zia-ul-Millat-ud Din (Light of the nation and religion); and his zeal for the cause of Islam induced him to publish treatises on Jehad.
Three minor treatises are dedicated to Symmachus (the father-in-law of Boetius).
Priscian's three short treatises dedicated to Symmachus are on weights and measures, the metres of Terence, and some rhetorical elements (exercises translated from the Hpoyvµvaaµara of Hermogenes).
He is a link between the ancient world and the middle ages, having been the last of the learned Romans who understood the language and studied the literature of Greece, and the first to interpret to the middle ages the logical treatises of Aristotle.
The Renaissance theory of a humanistic education is illustrated by several treatises still extant.
The third volume includes, however, some theological treatises, and the first part of it is occupied with editions of treatises on harmonics and other works of Greek geometers, some of them first editions from the MSS., and in general with Latin versions and notes (Ptolemy, Porphyrius, Briennius, Archimedes, Eutocius, Aristarchus and Pappus).
The two treatises on the cycloid and on the cissoid, &c., and the Mechanica contain many results which were then new and valuable.
The predominance of this somewhat recondite teaching gave to these epistles even more the character of treatises, which in the case of Ephesians is further enhanced by the fact that it is probably a circular letter addressed not to a single church but to a group of churches.
He is said to have composed seven hundred and fifty treatises, fragments alone of which survive.
But for full details reference must be made to the treatises on the history of the science cited in the bibliography at the end of the article.
Geikie assigns high rank to Jean Etienne Guettard (1715-1786) for his treatises on fossils, although admitting that he had no clear idea of the sequence of formations.
Following Cuvier's Recherches sur les ossemens fossiles, the rich succession of Tertiary mammalian life was gradually revealed to France through the explorations and descriptions of such authors as Croizet, Jobert, de Christol, Eymar, Pomel and Lartet, during a period of rather dry, systematic work, which included, however, the broader generalizations of Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville (1778-1850), and culminated in the comprehensive treatises on Tertiary palaeontology of Paul Gervais (1816-1879).
We have but few fragments of Caesar's other works, whether political pamphlets such as the Anticato, grammatical treatises (De Analogia) or poems. All authorities agree in describing him as a consummate orator.
These works in their original form are lost; but two short treatises entitled De Orthographia and De Verbis Dubiis have come down to us under his name, probably excerpts from the original works, with later additions by an unknown writer.
For other and older Coptic-Gnostic texts, in one of which is contained the source of Irenaeus's treatises on the Barbelognostics, but which have unfortunately not yet been made completely accessible, see C. Schmidt in Sitzungsberichte der Berl.
The later heads of the Manichaean churches also wrote religious treatises, so that the ancient Manichaean literature must have been very extensive.
Besides these principal works, Mani also wrote a large number of smaller treatises and epistles.
We may thus hope to recover some priceless monuments of early Christianity, hymns and treatises perhaps of Marcion and Bardesanes, the Gospel of Peter, and even the Diatessaron.
He possessed a thorough knowledge of law, and wrote treatises on that subject, some fragments of which are quoted in the Digests.
Archelaus was said to have been the author of a geographical work, and to have written treatises On Stones and Rivers.
All his numerous other treatises have perished, save one, and we have only their titles handed down, with general indications of their contents, by later writers, especially Pappus.
He studied with earnest zeal the Greek philosophers; Plato in particular, and the writings of the Stoics, he had fully at command, and his treatise De Anima shows that he himself was able to investigate and discuss philosophical problems. From the philosophers he had been led to the medical writers, whose treatises plainly had a place in his working library.
Zeller supposes that, though Aristotle may have made preparations for his philosophical system beforehand, still the properly didactic treatises composing it almost all belong to the last period of his life, i.e.
There is a further hypothesis that the Aristotelian works were not originally treatises, but notes of lectures either for or by his pupils.
If then Aristotle was for some thirty-five years gradually and simultaneously composing manuscript discourses into treatises and treatises into a system, he was pursuing a process which solves beforehand the very difficulties which have since been found in his writings.
Or he might, going still further, in his long literary career write two or more treatises on the same subject, different and even more or less inconsistent with each other, as we shall find in the sequel.
Finally, having a great number of discourses and treatises, containing all those small blemishes, around him in his library, and determined to collect, consolidate and connect them into a philosophical system, he would naturally be often taking them down from their places to consult and compare one with another, and as naturally enter in them references one to the other, and cross-references between one another.
Nor is it at all absurd to suppose that,long after he began the Meteorologica, Aristotle himself added the preface in the process of gathering his general treatises on natural science into a system.
So he might afterwards add the preface to the De Interpretatione, in order to connect it with the De Anima, though written afterwards, in order to connect his treatises on mind and on its expression.
So also he might add the appendix to the Sophistical Elenchi, long after he had written that book, and perhaps, to judge from its being a general claim to have discovered the syllogism, when the founder of logic had more or less realized that he had written a number of connected treatises on reasoning.
There is still another point which would facilitate Aristotle's gradual composition of discourses into treatises and treatises into a system; there was no occasion for him to publish his manuscripts beyond his school.
How otherwise, we wonder, could one man writing alone and with so few predecessors compose the first systematic treatises on the psychology of the mental powers and on the logic of reasoning, the first natural history of animals, and the first civil history of one hundred and fifty-eight constitutions, in addition to authoritative treatises on metaphysics, biology, ethics, politics, rhetoric and poetry; in all penetrating to the very essence of the subject, and, what is most wonderful, describing more facts than any other man has ever done on so many subjects ?
Such then was the method of composition by which Aristotle began in early manhood to write his philosophical works, continued them gradually and simultaneously, combined shorter discourses into longer treatises, compared and connected them, kept them together in his library without publishing them, communicated them to his school, used the co-operation of his best pupils, and finally succeeded in combining many mature writings into one harmonious system.
There is nothing indeed in the Metaphysics to show whether he left it in isolated treatises or in its present disorder; and nothing in the Politics.
These considerations make it probable that the author of all three treatises was Aristotle himself; while the analysis of the treatises favours the hypothesis that he wrote the Eudemian Ethics and the Magna Moralia more or less together as the rudimentary first drafts of the mature Nicomachean Ethics.
At any rate, it was adopted in each of the three moral treatises which pass under the name of Aristotle.
The three treatises are in very close agreement throughout, and in the following details.
Down then to their common definition of pleasure as activity the three treatises present a harmonious system of morals, consistently with one another, and with the general philosophy of Aristotle.
It is more likely that Aristotle identified pleasure with activity in the De Anima, the Metaphysics and the three moral treatises, as we have seen; but that afterwards some subsequent Peripatetic, considering that the pleasure of perceiving or thinking is not the same as perceiving or thinking, declared the previous identification of pleasure with activity absurd.
On the whole, the three moral treatises proceed on very similar lines down to the common identification of pleasure with activity, and then diverge.
Again, these sketches are rough preparations for the subsequent books common to the two treatises.
Aristotle then wrote three moral treatises, which agree in the fundamental doctrines that happiness requires external fortune, but is activity of soul according to virtue, rising from morality through prudence to wisdom, or that science of the divine which constitutes the theology of his Metaphysics.
He got so far as gradually to write short discourses and long treatises, which we, not he, now arrange in the order of the Categories or names; the De Interpretatione on propositions; the Analytics, Prior on syllogism, Posterior on scientific syllogism; the Topics on dialectical syllogism; the Sophistici Elenchi on eristical or sophistical syllogism; and, except that he had hardly a logic of induction, he covered the ground.
He really left the Peripatetics to combine his scattered discourses and treatises into a system, to call it logic, and logic Organon, and to put it first as the instrument of sciences; and it was the Stoics who first called logic a science, and assigned it the first place in their triple classification of science into logic, physics, ethics.
Now, as in all eight passages Aristotle speaks, somewhat disparagingly, of " even (Kai) extraneous discourses," and as these include his own early dialogues, they must be taken to mean that though he might quote them, he no longer wished to be judged by his early views, and therefore drew a strong line of demarcation between his early dialogues and the mature treatises of his later philosophical system.
Here we have only room for its spirit, which we shall try to give as if he were himself speaking to us, as head of the Peripatetic school at Athens, and holding no longer the early views of his dialogues, or the immature views of such treatises as the Categories, but only his mature views, such as he expresses in the Metaphysics.
Such is Aristotle's psychological and logical realism, contained in the De Anima and logical treatises.
He is said to have written treatises, but nothing survives.
At the end of the year 1864 Ruskin delivered at Manchester a new series of lectures - not on art, but on reading, education, woman's work and social morals - the expansion of his earlier treatises on economic sophisms. This afterwards was included with a Dublin lecture of 1868 under the fantastic title of Sesame and Lilies (perhaps the most popular of his social essays), of which 44,000 copies were issued down to 1900.
In his Collection, Pappus gives no indication of the date of the authors whose treatises he makes use of, or of the time at which he himself wrote.
At the same time, his characteristic exactness makes his collection a most admirable substitute for the texts of the many valuable treatises of earlier mathematicians of which time has deprived us.
The term was first applied to one of the treatises of Aristotle on the basis of the arrangement of the Aristotelian canon made by Andronicus of Rhodes, in which it was placed " after the physical treatises" with the description ra.
The term was used not in the modern sense of above or transcending nature (a sense which µeTa cannot bear), but simply to convey the idea that the treatise so-called comes " after " the physical treatises.'
Aristotle himself described the subject matter of the treatise as " First 1 On the true order of the Aristotelian treatises see Aristotle.
His work and influence were not confined to his own immediate flock, but radiated by means of his homilies and treatises, and through the disciples he despatched as missionaries, among all the Gothic tribes beyond the Danube.
His treatises, about 30 in number, were collected and published at Frankfort in 1658-1659, at Amsterdam in 1661, and, in an English translation by Packe, at London in 1689.
This, undoubtedly, was the part of his task that Innocent preferred, and it was to this, as well as to his much overrated moral and theological treatises, that he owed his enormous contemporary prestige.
A reputation acquired through certain contributions to the Dictionary of Christian Antiquities was confirmed by his treatises On the Organization of the Early Christian Churches (1881, his Bampton lectures), and on The Influence of Greek Ideas and Usages on the Christian Church (the Hibbert lectures for 1888).
Between 1840 and 1850 he edited Swedenborg's treatises on The Doctrine of Charity, The Animal Kingdom, Outlines of a Philosophic Argument on the Infinite, and Hieroglyphic Key to Natural and Spiritual Mysteries.
Reference is there made to Philostratus as the son of Verus, a rhetorician in Nero's time, who wrote tragedies, comedies and treatises.
He covered his defection from Hardenberg's liberal constitutionalism by a series of "philosophical" treatises on the nature of the state and of man, and became the soul of the reactionary movement at the Berlin court, and the faithful henchman of Metternich in the general politics of Germany and of Europe.
The works of the classical authors before mentioned were printed, and other treatises were published by John de Indagine, Codes, Andreas Corvus, Michael Blondus, Janus Cornaro, Anselm Douxciel, Pompeius Ronnseus, Gratarolus, Lucas Gauricus, Tricassus, Cardanus, Taisnierus, Magnus Hund, Rothman, Johannes Padovanus, and, greatest of all, Giambattista della Porta.
This includes many English prose treatises by Rolle, some beautiful examples of his lyric poems, and other treatises in prose and verse from northern MSS., some of which are attributed to Rolle, and others to his followers.
Ten prose treatises by Richard Rolle from the Thornton MS.(c. 1440, Lincoln Cathedral Library) were edited by Canon George Perry for the Early English Text Society in 1866.
The chief difference between the two treatises is one which twenty years' experience in affairs could not but bring - the substitution of more cautious and guarded language, less dogmatic affirmation, more allowance for exceptions and deviations.
Daniel also wrote a by no means successful reply to Pascal's Provincial Letters, entitled Entretiens de Cleanthe provinciales (1694); two treatises on the Cartesian theory as to the intelligence of the lower animals, and other works.
Waldo (1905); reference may also be made to treatises on general metallurgy, e.g.
But (with the possible exception of the first) none of these treatises are of Gregorian authorship. See the discussions in Migne, Lau and Dudden.
Four treatises from his pen on Roman antiquities deserve to be commemorated for their erudition no less than for the elegance of their Latinity.
His economic essays were published in the volumes entitled Political Discourses (1752) and Essays and Treatises on Several Subjects (1753); the most important are those on Commerce, on Money, on Interest and on the Balance of Trade, but, notwithstanding the disconnected form of the essays in general, the other less important essays combine to make a complete economic system.
Joseph I K IMIiI was a native of southern Spain, and settled in Provence, where he was one of the first to set forth in the Hebrew language the results of Hebraic philology as expounded by the Spanish Jews in their Arabic treatises.
Such treatises as the Christian Directory, the Methodus Theologiae Christianae, and the Catholic Theology, might each have occupied the principal part of the life of an ordinary man.
Two medical treatises, one on prescriptions in general, the other on the treatment of eye-disease, are said, by Chinese writers, to be by him.
An extant Ars grammatica (discovered by Jovianus Pontanus in the 15th century) and other unimportant treatises on similar subjects have been wrongly ascribed to him.
Now it can be proved that at this time he had written not only his Human Nature but also his De corpore politico, the two treatises (though published separately ten years later) having been composed as parts of one work; 3 and there cannot be the least question that together they make " the little treatise " just mentioned.
About the same time also Mersenne sent to Descartes, as if they came from a friend in England, another set of objections which Hobbes had to offer on various points in the scientific treatises, especially the Dioptrics, appended by Descartes to his Discourse on Method in 1637; to which Descartes replied without suspecting the common authorship of the two sets.
He began also to write the songs and treatises by which he was to exert his widest influence.
The success of this first experiment encouraged the emperor to attempt the more difficult enterprise of simplifying and digesting the older law contained in the treatises of the jurists.
If he had, so to speak, thrown into one furnace all the law contained in the treatises of the jurists and in the imperial ordinances, fused them down, the gold of the one and the silver of the other, and run them out into new moulds, this would have been codification.
His chief passion, after that for his own fame and glory, seems to have been for theology and religion; it was in this field that his literary powers exerted themselves (for he wrote controversial treatises and hymns), and his taste also, for among his numerous buildings the churches are those on which he spent most thought and money.
The most important medieval exposition of the Decalogue is that of Nicolaus de Lyra; and the 15th century, in which the Decalogue acquired special importance in the confessional, was prolific in treatises on the subject (Antoninus of Florence, Gerson, &c.).
The principal remaining literature of the subject will be found in the following books and treatises - Johann Neudorfer, Schreib-und Rechenmeister zu Nurnberg, Nachrichten fiber Kanstlern und Werkleuten daselbst (Nuremberg, 1547); republished in the Vienna Quellenschrift (1875); C. Scheurl, Vita Antonii Kressen (1515, reprinted in the collection of Pirkheimer's works, Frankfort, 1610); Wimpheling, Epitome rerum Germanicarum, ch.
Among his minor treatises, the most important are the vindication of the character and aims of Oliver Cromwell, and the sketch of the contendings of the Church of Scotland.
Most scholars regard as genuine the polemical treatises Contra Nestorianos et Eutychianos, Contra Nestorianos, Contra Monophysitas, Contra Severum (patriarch of Antioch); and the Exam, generally called De Sectis.
He was busily employed up to the end of his life in writing treatises, pamphlets and open letters on subjects of military art and history, and in 1859 he was asked by Napoleon III.
This collection, alphabetically arranged, comprised annotations on classical authors, passages from newspapers, treatises on morals and mathematics from the standard works of the period.
The Phenomenology stands to the Encyklopadie somewhat as the dialogues of Plato stand to the Aristotelian treatises.
About the year 730 he wrote several treatises in defence of image-worship, which the emperor, Leo the Isaurian, was making strenuous efforts to suppress.
Several treatises attributed to him are probably spurious, but his undoubted works are numerous and embrace a wide range.
They were, On the Liberty of a Christian Man, An Address to the Nobility of the German Nation, and On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church of God - the three primary treatises, as they have been called.
The literary works of Averroes include treatises on jurisprudence, grammar, astronomy, medicine and philosophy.
Notwithstanding his many official duties, he found time to publish more than three hundred works, several of them extensive treatises, and many of them memoirs dealing with the most abstruse branches of pure and applied mathematics.
His works include several dogmatic and polemical treatises, but the most important are the historical.
For lists of treatises upon the life and teaching of particular sophists, see Ueberweg, Grundriss d.
Even the other authors above mentioned are but poorly represented, with the exception of Philodemus, of whom 26 different treatises have been recognized.
The three treatises are intended to form a continuous series containing a complete system of rhetorical training.
Clarke's translation (1697) continued to be used as a text-book in the university till supplanted by the treatises of Newton, which it had been designed to introduce.
In 1699 he published two treatises, - one entitled Three Practical Essays on Baptism, Confirmation and Repentance, and the other, Some Reflections on that part of a book called Amyntor, or a Defence of Milton's Life, which relates to the Writings of the Primitive Fathers, and the Canon of the New Testament.
He is the author of some theological treatises.
He had finished the Organon and was about to deal with the metaphysical and physical treatises when he died on the 18th of June 1871, and was buried in Westminster Abbey.
This analysis, regarded as a whole and as it is applied in the Analytics and in the other logical treatises, was evidently intended as a linguistic analysis.
The history of logic shows that the linguistic distinction between terms and propositions was the sole analysis of reasoning in the logical treatises of Aristotle; that the mental distinction between conceptions (g vvocac) and judgments (a uiwara in a wide sense) was imported into logic by the Stoics; and that this mental distinction became the logical analysis of reasoning under the authority of St Thomas Aquinas.
This is embodied in the group of treatises later known as the Organon 7 and culminates in the theory of syllogism and of.
The way in which logical doctrine is developed in the Aristotelian treatises fits in with this view.
It takes form as a body of doctrine drawing its premises from authority, sometimes in secular matters from that of Aristotle, but normally from that of the documents and traditions of systematic theology, while its method it draws from Aristotle, as known in the Latin versions,' mainly by Boethius, of some few treatises of the Organon together with the Isagoge of Porphyry.
Wolff found a sufficient reason for everything and embodied the results of his inquiries in systematic treatises, sometimes in the vernacular.
The above three treatises may be regarded as the great storehouses; the handling of the subject is,.
Of the classical treatises which have had a notable influence on the development of the subject, and which may still be consulted with advantage, we may note particularly, Sir I.
The first systematic classification of elementary combinations in mechanism was that founded by Monge, and fully developed by Lanz and Btancourt, which has been generally received, and has been adopted in most treatises on applied mechanics.
This is called the actual energy of the motion of the bbdy, and is half the quantity which in some treatises is called vis viva.
Abridgments and newer treatises soon drove out the writings of Aristarchus and other founders of the science.
The theory of the god and his Sakti as cosmic principles is perhaps already foreshadowed in the Vedic couple of Heaven and Earth, whilst in the speculative treatises of the later Vedic period, as well as in the post-Vedic Brahmanical writings, the assumption of the self-existent being dividing himself into a male and a female half usually forms the starting-point of cosmic evolution.'
Simple and uncritical in his modes of thought, and apparently devoid of any striking originality, he collected in his numerous and elaborate treatises the results of such research in theology, philosophy, science and history as was in his time possible in Syria.
Taken in combination with Machiavelli's treatises, the Opere inedite furnish a comprehensive body of Italian political philosophy anterior to the date of Fra Paolo Sarpi.
The ethical treatises of the scholars are deficient in substance, while Ficino's attempt to revive Platonism betrays an uncritical conception of his master's drift.
His prose treatises are more useful to students of manners than the similar lucubrations of Poggio.
Of his natural philosophy we know only the titles of his treatises On Nature and On the Nature of Man.
He now, it is said, applied for help to Dr Israel Tonge, rector of St Michael's in Wood Street, an honest half-crazy man, who even then was exciting people's minds by giving out quarterly "treatises in print to alarm and awake his majesty's subjects."
The series of the literary works is completed by the minor treatises on theological or ecclesiastical questions.
The great mass of Bacon's writings consists of treatises or fragments, which either formed integral parts of his grand comprehensive scheme, or were closely connected with it.
There is extant a short preface to this division of the work, and according to Spedding, some of the miscellaneous treatises, such as Cogitationes de Natura may probably have been intended to be included under this head.
His treatises On Procedure and On Evidence are amongst his most valuable works, whilst his Commentary on the Code of Justinian has been in some countries regarded as of equal authority with the code itself.
Max Muller, Lectures on the Origin and Growth of Religion (Hibbert Lect., 1878), v., and the Vedic treatises of Ludwig, Bergaigne and Wallis.
But he must have found as he proceeded that the two treatises would cover to a large extent the same ground, the account of the true method merging almost inevitably in a statement of the truth reached by its means.
They contain treatises on the Roman magistrates, priests and lawyers, and a compendium of Roman history from Plutarch, Tib.
He wrote also treatises on the astrolabe (a copy of this is in the British Museum), on the abacus (three copies exist in the Vatican library, the library of Leiden University and the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris), translations of the Kharismian Tables and an Arabic Introduction to Astronomy.
The list of his works closes with his Opere sacre, a series of treatises on spiritual subjects.
The surname Grammaticus he assumed in virtue of his lectures on language and literature; that of Philoponus owing to the large number of treatises he composed.
Shapur I., who appears to have, had a broader outlook, added to the religious writings a collection of scientific treatises on medicine, asticonomy, mathematics, philosophy, zoology, &c., partly from Indian and Greek sources.
He wrote a detailed narrative of his expedition, of which a full abstract was embodied by Arrian in his Indica - one of the most interesting geographical treatises of antiquity.
From Justin onwards, almost every eminent Church teacher takes some notice of Marcion, while very many write extensive treatises against him.
These articles and one other were republished after Jevons's death, together with his earlier logical treatises, in a volume, entitled Pure Logic, and other Minor Works.
These remarkable works, half pamphlets half moral treatises, succeeded each other as a rule at the twelve months' interval, and the succession was almost unbroken for five or six years.
In addition to this, he translated various other treatises, to the number, it is said, of sixty-six; among these were the Tables of "Arzakhel," or Al Zarkala of Toledo, Al Farabi On the Sciences (De scientiis), Euclid's Geometry, Al Farghani's Elements of Astronomy, and treatises on algebra, arithmetic and astrology.
The fall of the republic was a gain, for it 3 Works of Posidonius and Hecato have served as the basis of extant Latin treatises.
The first frankly literary prose documents appear in the 14th century, and consist of chronicles, lives of saints and genealogical treatises.
He is the author of many miscellaneous treatises on science, music, the art of teaching the deaf and dumb, &c. But his chief work, the labour of fully twenty years, is entitled Dell' origine, progressi, e stato attuale d'ogni Letteratura (7 vols., Parma, 1782-1799).
The complete catalogue may be roughly arranged under three heads - (1) belles lettres, (2) history and antiquities, (3) technical treatises on philosophy, law, grammar, mathematics, philology and other subjects.
It is doubtful whether, as has often been supposed, Varro wrote a philosophical poem somewhat in the style of Lucretius; if so, it should rather be classed with the prose technical treatises.
The third class of treatises, which we have called technical, was also numerous and very varied.
Amongst them may be mentioned a history of the dispute with Palamas; biographies of his uncle and early instructor John, metropolitan of Heraclea, and of the martyr Codratus of Antioch; funeral orations for Theodore Metochita, and the two emperors Andronicus; commentaries on the wanderings of Odysseus and on Synesius's treatise on dreams; tracts on orthography and on words of doubtful meaning; a philosophical dialogue called Florentius or Concerning Wisdom; astronomical treatises on the date of Easter and the preparation of the astrolabe; and an extensive correspondence.
In Rome Galen remained for some years, greatly extending his reputation as a physician, and writing some of his most important treatises.
He composed, it is said, nearly 500 treatises on various subjects, including logic, ethics and grammar.
Galen, who in his youth was carefully trained in the Stoic philosophy, was an unusually prolific writer on logic. Of the numerous commentaries and original treatises, a catalogue of which is given in his work De propriis libris, one only has come down to us, the treatise on Fallacies in dictione (IIepi TWV KaTa T1jv M Gi' oocio-µarouv).
The name Geber has long been used to designate the author of a number of Latin treatises on alchemy, entitled Summa perfectionis magisterii, De investigatione perfectionis, De inventione veritatis, Liber fornacum, Testamentum Geberi Regis Indiae and Alchemia Geberi, and these writings were generally regarded as translations from the Arabic originals of Abu Abdallah Jaber ben Hayyam (Haiyan) ben Abdallah al-Kufi, who is supposed to have lived in the 8th or 9th century of the Christian era.
The writer of the Kitab-al-Fihrist says he had been assured that Jaber only wrote one book and even that he never existed at all, but these statements he scouts as ridiculous, and expressing the conviction that Jaber really did exist, and that his works were numerous and important, goes on to quote the titles of some 500 treatises attributed to him.
Taking the six treatises enumerated above he concluded, after critical examination, that the two last may be disregarded as of later date than the others, and that the De investigatione perfectionis, the De inventione and the Liber fornacum are merely extracts from or summaries of the Summa perfectionis with later additions.
Berthelot was not prepared to assert that these treatises were actually written by Jaber, but he held it certain that they are works written in Arabic between the 9th and 12th centuries, at a period anterior to the relations of the Latins with the Arabs.
In style these treatises are entirely different from the Summa of Geber.
Here again the inference is that the Latin treatises printed from the 15th century onwards as the work of Geber are not authentic, regarded as translations of the Arabic author Jaber, always supposing that the Arabic MSS.
The latter states in the Arabic works referred to above that under that title he collected 70 of the 500 little treatises or tracts of which he was the author, and the titles of those tracts enumerated in the Kitab-al-Fihrist as forming the chapters of the Liber de Septuaginta correspond in general with those of the Latin work, which further is written in a style similar to that of the Arabic Jaber and contains the same doctrines.
We find long treatises on the nature of being, idealistic dreams which have as little to do with the Bodhisatship that is concerned with the salvation of the world as with the Arahatship that is concerned with the perfect life.
His works included treatises on pneumatic chemistry (1821-1825) and the chemistry of fermentation (1822).
Of his numerous other Bohemian works we may mention the Postilla (collection of sermons), the treatises 0 poznani testy grave k spaseni (the true road to salvation) and O svatokupectvi (on simony), and a large collection of letters; those written in prison are very touching.
Beginning with metaphysics and ethics and passing on to mathematics, he turned to chemistry at the end of 17 9 7, and within a few months of reading Nicholson's and Lavoisier's treatises on that science had produced a new theory of light and heat.
We may also refer many of his most important treatises in prose, as well as a large portion of his Latin correspondence, to the leisure he enjoyed in this retreat.
His treatises, orations, and familiar letters, though remarkable for a prose style which is eminently characteristic of the man, are not distinguished by purity of diction.
Our knowledge of the Peripatetic school during the first two centuries of the Christian era is very fragmentary; but those of its representatives of whom anything is known confined themselves entirely to commenting upon the different treatises of Aristotle.
Somewhat later, Herminus, Achaicus and Sosigenes commented on the logical treatises.
His devotional treatises were very popular among English Roman Catholics in the penal days.
Deschamps (professor de droit des gens at Louvain University) (Paris, 1903), are treatises covering all branches of the state's activity, from the standpoint of admirers of the work of Leopold II., in Africa.
His minor treatises numbered over 350.