Treatise Sentence Examples
In the same year he wrote a very popular treatise against drunkenness.
His treatise on numerical divisions, weights and measures (Distributio) is extant, with the exception of the concluding portion.
His most extensive single work is a book on Sound, which, in the second edition, has become a treatise on vibrations in general.
His latest work was Secreta Secretorum or Secrets of Old Philosophers, rhymed extracts from a pseudo-Aristotelian treatise.
In 1746 he published his treatise Les Beaux-Arts adults a un meme Principe, an attempt to find a unity among the various theories of beauty and taste, and his views were widely accepted.Advertisement
His Cours de belles lettres (1765) was afterwards included with some minor writings in the large treatise, Principes de la litterature (1774).
Tozer 2 as the father of geography on account of his Periodos, or general treatise on the earth, did not advance beyond the primitive conception of a circular disk.
In the 9th century IIivi of Balkh wrote a rationalistic treatise 3 on difficulties in the Bible, which was refuted by Seadiah.
Maimonides also wrote an Arabic commentary on the Mishnah, soon afterwards translated into Hebrew, commentaries on parts of the Talmud (now lost), and a treatise on Logic. His breadth of view anti- and his Aristotelianism were a stumbling-block to the orthodox, and subsequent teachers may be mostly classified as Maimonists or anti-Maimonists.
His original works are commentaries and perhaps a treatise on immortality.Advertisement
He also compiled astronomical tables and a treatise on the quadrant.
The former was professor of mathematics at Bologna, and published, among other works, a treatise on the infinitesimal calculus.
The second treatise is addressed to J ohn the deacon (" Ad Joannem Diaconum "), and its subject is " Utrum Pater et Filius et Spiritus Sanctus de divinitate substantialiter praedicentur."
This treatise is shorter than the first, occupying only two or three pages, and the conclusion of the argument is the same.
He thinks that the variations in the inscriptions of the fifth treatise, which is not found in the best manuscript, are so great that the name of Boetius could not have originally been in the title.Advertisement
The fifth treatise is Contra Eutychen et Nestorium.
The treatise was therefore written before the birth of Boetius, if it be not a forgery; but there is no reason to suppose that the treatise was not a genuine production of the time to which it professes to belong.
His Pensees, published posthumously, seems to have been meant for a systematic treatise, but it has come to us in fragments.
A treatise, Sur la destruction des Jesuites (1765), involved him in a fresh controversy, his own share in which was rendered very easy by the violence and extravagance of his adversaries.
Luther at one period (in his treatise De captivitate Babylonica) maintained, though not on historical grounds, that the offering of the oblations of the people was the real origin of the conception of the sacrifice of the mass; but he directed all the force of his vehement polemic against the idea that any other sacrifice could be efficacious besides the sacrifice of Christ.Advertisement
The Chemistry of the Sun (1887) is an elaborate treatise on solar spectroscopy based on the hypothesis of elemental dissociation through the intensity of solar heat.
This subject has been recently treated with admirable clearness by Marti in his useful treatise Die Religion des A.T.
With Plutarch, who dedicated to him his treatise IIEpi Tov irpwrov 11vxpov, with Herodes Atticus, to whom he bequeathed his library at Rome, with Demetrius the Cynic, Cornelius Fronto, Aulus Gellius, and with Hadrian himself, he lived on intimate terms; his great rival, whom he violently attacked in his later years, was Polemon of Smyrna.
By far the best known of these is the treatise De catholicae ecclesiae unitate, called forth in A.D.
The comprehensive scheme of study included mathematics also, in which he advanced as far as the conic sections in the treatise of L'Hopital.Advertisement
Laughton's polemical treatise was published in 1780, and those of Milner and Taylor in 1781.
It was during his imprisonment here that, "prive de toute espece de livres et de secours, surtout distrait par les malheurs de ma patrie et les miens propres," as he himself puts it, he began his researches on projective geometry which led to his great treatise on that subject.
Having been educated by Richard Weston, a Leicester botanist, he published in 1793 a treatise, Lessons Astronomical and Philosophical.
He wrote an admirable textbook of the Theory of Heat (1871), and a very excellent elementary treatise on Matter and Motion (1876).
But the theory, in a fully developed form, first appeared in 1873 in his great treatise on Electricity and Magnetism.
His most important treatise, that by which he has a place in the history of philosophy, is entitled Milhamoth 'Adonai (The Wars of God), and occupied twelve years in composition (1317-1329).
In 1613, at the instigation of Pope Paul V., Suarez wrote a treatise dedicated to the Christian princes of Europe, entitled Defensio catholicae fidei contra anglicanae sectae errores.
The Bull granting the title is dated the 11th of October 1521, and was a reward for the king's treatise, Assertio, septem sacramentorum, against Luther.
Borlase's letters to Pope, St Aubyn and others, with answers, fill several volumes of MS. There are also MS. notes on Cornwall, and a complete unpublished treatise Concerning the Creation and Deluge.
Chaderton published a sermon preached at St Paul's Cross about 1580, and a treatise of his On Justification was printed by Anthony Thysius, professor of divinity at Leiden.
He was a man of learning, writing in favour of Henry's divorce, and with Cuthbert Tunstall, bishop of Durham, a treatise against Cardinal Pole.
The publication of Hume's treatise turned his attention to philosophy, and in particular to the theory of external perception.
After a period of work in Holland he betook himself to England, where his treatise on lettres de cachet had been much admired, being translated into English in 1787, and where he was soon admitted into the best Whig literary and political society of London, through his old schoolfellow Gilbert Elliot, who had now inherited his father's baronetcy and estates, and become a leading Whig member of parliament.
The former is divided into four parts, Ontosophy, Cosmosophy, Theosophy, Psychosophy, supplemented by a treatise on ethics and a dissertation on first causes.
Then followed in rapid succession the Twenty-seven Sermons (1651), "for the summer half-year," and the Twenty-five (1653), "for the winter half-year," The Rule and Exercises of Holy Living (1650), The Rule and Exercises of Holy Dying (1651), a controversial treatise on The Real Presence..
The Arithmetica, the greatest treatise on which the fame of Diophantus rests, purports to be in thirteen Books, but none of the Greek MSS.
The opposition was now continued by Linguet and Necker, who in 1 775 published his treatise Sur la legislation et le commerce des grains.
His philosophic theory was identical with that of Pomponazzi, whose De immortalitate animi he defended and amplified in a treatise De mente humana.
He was the author of two text-books on them - one an Elementary Treatise on Quaternions (1867), written with the advice of Hamilton, though not published till after his death, and the other an Introduction to Quaternions (1873), in which he was aided by Professor Philip Kelland (1808-1879), who had been one of his teachers at Edinburgh.
With Lord Kelvin he collaborated in writing the well-known Treatise on Natural Philosophy.
The treatise on husbandry of Walter of Henley, dating from the early 13th century, is very valuable as describing the management of the demesne under the twoor three-field system.
The literature of agriculture, in abeyance since the treatise of Walter of Henley, makes another beginning in the 16th century.
In the former treatise we have a clear and minute description of the rural practices of that period, and from the latter may be learned a good deal of the economy of the feudal system in its decline.
Hops, which had been introduced in the early part of the 16th century, and on the culture of which a treatise was published in 1574 by Reginald Scott, are mentioned as a well-known crop. Buckwheat was sown after barley.
Of the state of agriculture in Scotland in the 16th and the greater part of the 17th century very little is known; no professed treatise on the subject appeared till after the Revolution.
In 1800 the original Farmers' Magazine came into existence under the editorship of Robert Brown of Markle, the author of the well-known treatise on Rural Affairs.
He published, with a touching dedication to his wife, the treatise on Liberty, which they had wrought out together.
His next treatise, The Subjection of Women, was not published till 1869.1 His Examination of Hamilton's Philosophy, published in 1865, had engaged a large share of his time for three years before.
One of his first tasks was to send his treatise on the Subjection of Women (written 1861, published 1869, many editions) through the press.
The most able exponent of this subject in Great Britain was John Curtis, whose treatise on Farm Insects, published in 1860, is still the standard British work dealing with the insect foes of corn, roots, grass and stored corn.
Neither the rotation of the shell as a whole nor its helicoid spiral coiling is the immediate cause of the torsion of the body in the individual, for the direction of the torsion is indicated in the segmentation of the ovum, in which there is a complete A B From Lankester's Treatise on Zoology.
An English translation of the Theses, with brief life of Erastus (based on Melchior Adam's account), was issued in 1659, entitled The Nullity of Church Censures; it was reprinted as A Treatise of Excommunication (1682), and, as revised by Robert Lee, D.D., in 1844.
The opening words of the Philobiblon and the Epistolae as given by Bale represent those of the Philobiblon and its prologue, so that he apparently made two books out of one treatise.
Others of his works (all in French) were his treatise on purgatory (1534), on the Lord's Prayer (1543), on the Supper (1555).
In the same year and from the same press was issued a Dialogus de Avibus by Gybertus Longolius, and in 1570 Caius brought out in London his treatise De rariorum animalium atque stirpium historic. In this last work, small though it be, ornithology has a good share; and all three may still be consulted with interest and advantage by its votaries.
Nevertheless the book was eagerly sought, and several editions of it appeared.4 Mention must be made of a medical treatise by Caspar Schwenckfeld, published at Liegnitz in 1603, under the title of Theriotropheum Silesiae, the fourth book of which consists of an " Aviarium Silesiae," and is the earliest of the works we now know by the name of fauna.
But in 1681 Gerard Blasius had brought out at Amsterdam an Anatome Animalium, containing the results of all the dissections of animals that he could find; and the second part of this book, treating of Volatilia, makes a respectable show of more than one hundred and twenty closely-printed quarto pages, though nearly two-thirds is devoted to a treatise De Ovo et Pullo, containing among other things a reprint of Harvey's researches, and the scientific rank of the whole book may be inferred from bats being still classed with birds.
A second and considerably enlarged edition of this very remarkable treatise was published as a separate work in the following year.
Hitherto our attention has been given wholly to Germany and France, for the chief ornithologists of Britain were occupying themselves at this time in a very useless way - not paying due heed at this time to the internal structure of birds, and some excellent descriptive memoirs on special forms had appeared from their pens, to say nothing of more than one general treatise on ornithic anatomy.
These the author reserved for a second treatise which he was destined never to complete.
The treatise of Kessler on the osteology of birds' feet, published in the Bulletin of the Moscow Society of Naturalists for 1841, next.
This very remarkable treatise forms the groundwork of almost all later or recent researches in the comparative anatomy and consequent arrangement of the Passeres, and, though it is certainly not free from inperfections, many of them, it must be said, arise from want of material, notwithstanding that its author had command of a much more abundant supply than was at the disposal of Nitzsch.
In the commentary on the treatise De Trinitate (erroneously attributed to Boetius) he proceeds from the metaphysical notion that pure or abstract being is prior in nature to that which is.
His Griechische Gotterlehre (3 vols., GÃ¶ttingen, 1857-1862) may be regarded as the first scientific treatise on Greek religion.
The only teacher whom he respected was a certain Petrus de Maharncuria Picardus, or of Picardy, probably identical with a certain mathematician, Petrus Peregrinus of Picardy, who is perhaps the author of a MS. treatise, De Magnete, contained in the Bibliotheque Imperiale at Paris.
In the following year he wrote to Bacon, ordering him notwithstanding any injunctions from his superiors, to write out and send to him a treatise on the sciences which he had already asked of him when papal legate.
It is known that before the Opus Majus Bacon had already written some tracts, among which an unpublished work, Computus Naturalium, on chronology, belongs probably to the year 1263; while, if the dedication of the De Secretis Operibus be authentic, that short treatise must have been composed before 1249.
Strauss-Diirckheim in 1828 issued his great treatise on the cockchafer.
He also published (1767) a treatise on the History and Present State of Electricity, which embodies some original work, and (1772) a History of Discoveries relating to Vision, Light and Colours, which is a mere compilation.
His next treatise, Liber apologeticus de arbitrii libertate, was written during his stay in Palestine, and in connexion with the controversy which engaged him there.
We possess, in other words, law-books (like Bracton's treatise De legibus), but not laws - and law-books made after the loss of the kingdom to which the laws belonged.
If we are to follow von Sybel rather than Kugler, this saga of the First Crusade found one of its earliest expressions (c. 1120) in the prose work of Albert of Aix (Historia Hierosolymitana) - genuine saga in its 1 His somewhat legendary treatise, De liberatione civitatum Orientis, was only composed about 1155.
Several works were written on the capture of Acre in 1291, especially the Excidium urbis Acconensis, a treatise which emerges to throw light, after many years of darkness, on the last hours of the kingdom.
It is important to notice that Archytas must have been famous as a philosopher, inasmuch as Aristotle wrote a special treatise (not extant) On the Philosophy of Archytas.
He was the author of several contributions to the literature of horticulture, including a Practical Treatise on the Culture of the Dahlia (1838), and a Pocket Botanical Dictionary (1st ed., 1840).
Certain it is that he wrote a treatise on burning-glasses.
The introduction is an elaborate treatise on the science of history and the development of society, and the autobiography contains the history, not only of the author himself, but of his family and of the dynasties which ruled in Fez, Tunis and Tlemcen during his lifetime.
Our sole authority for their existence is Philo in his treatise De Vita Contemplativa.
His Treatise on Fluxions was published at Edinburgh in 1742, in two volumes.
As an appendix to the latter appeared his De linearum geometricarum 'proprietatibus generalibus tractatus, a treatise of remarkable elegance.
Thus, in the treatise known as Physica et Mystica and falsely ascribed to Democritus (such false attributions are a constant feature of the literature of alchemy), various receipts are given for colouring and gilding metals, but the conception of transmutation does not occur.
This treatise was probably composed at a date not very different from that of the Leiden papyrus.
Later, however, as in the Commentary on this work written by Synesius to Dioscorus, priest of Serapis at Alexandria, which probably dates from the end of the 4th century, a changed attitude becomes apparent; the more practical parts of the receipts are obscured or omitted, and the processes for preparing alloys and colouring metals, described in the older treatise, are by a mystical interpretation represented as resulting in real transmutation.
His studies of the eruptive rocks of Corsica, Santorin and elsewhere; his researches on the artificial reproduction of eruptive rocks, and his treatise on the optical characters of felspars deserve special mention; but he was perhaps best known for the joint work which he carried on with his friend Michel Levy.
His largest work,Trattato generale di numeri e misure, is a comprehensive mathematical treatise, including arithmetic, geometry, mensuration, and algebra as far as quadratic equations (Venice, 1556, 1560).
The following year, the question of the intervention of kings in the election of bishops having been raised in a pamphlet by Charles Hersent (Optatus Gallus de cavendo schismate, 1640), Marca defended what were then called the liberties of the Gallican Church, in his celebrated treatise De concordia sacerdotii et imperii, seu de libertatibus ecclesiae gallicanae (1641).
In 1529 he brought out his Oeconomia christiana (a treatise in German, on the right ordering of a Christian household) with a dedication to the duchess Sybil of Saxony and a preface by Luther.
Gildas's treatise was first published in 1525 by Polydore Vergil, but with many avowed alterations and omissions.
He appeared on her behalf before the legates at Blackfriars; and wrote a treatise against the divorce that was widely read.
This theme is not formally discussed, as in a theological treatise, but is rather, as it were, celebrated in lofty eulogy and application.
Eratosthenes is the author of a treatise which deals systematically with the geographical knowledge of his time, but of which only fragments have been preserved by Strabo and others.
This treatise was intended to illustrate and explain his map of the world.
About the year 260 an Egyptian bishop, Nepos, in a treatise called 'XEyxos 6,XX yoptarCnv, endeavoured to overthrow the Origenistic theology and vindicate chiliasm by exegetical methods.
He published in 1867-1868 a treatise in two volumes on La Lumiere, ses causes et ses effets.
His last work was an elaborate treatise on the Diseases of the Mind (1812).
Behind it (according to the Alexandrian treatise, known as pseudo-Callisthenes) were five native villages scattered along the strip between Lake Mareotis and the sea.
About the same time Marsilio completed and published his treatise on the Platonic doctrine of immortality (Theologia Platonica de immortalitate animae), the work by which his claims to take rank as a philosopher must be estimated.
As a philosopher, he can advance no claim to originality, his laborious treatise on Platonic theology being little better than a mass of ill-digested erudition.
Cosimo employed almost the last hours of his life in listening to Ficino's reading of a treatise on the highest good; while Lorenzo, in a poem on true happiness, described him as the mirror of the world, the nursling of sacred muses, the harmonizer of wisdom and beauty in complete accord.
Besides the works already noticed, Ficino composed a treatise on the Christian religion, which was first given to the world in 1476, a translation into Italian of Dante's De monarchia, a life of Plato, and numerous essays on ethical and semi-philosophical subjects.
A treatise entitled De ultima aetate ecclesiae, which appeared in 1356, has been attributed to Wycliffe, but is undoubtedly from the pen of an anonymous Joachimite Franciscan.
To these must be added his elaborate treatise on Shipbuilding, Theoretical and Practical.
While the first has the form of a treatise, the second is an address to God; the first, though it has the Jewish people in mind, does not refer to them by name except incidentally in Solomon's prayer; the second is wholly devoted to the Jewish national experiences (this is true even of the section on idolatry).
Accordingly, every treatise on applied mathematics, properly so-called, is directed to the criticism of the "laws" from which the reasoning starts, or to a suggestion of results which experiment may hope to find.
The Serious Call to a Devout and Holy Life (1728), together with its predecessor, A Treatise of Christian Perfection (1726), deeply influenced the chief actors in the great Evangelical revival.
The eighth now extant is really an incomplete treatise on logic. Some critics have rejected this book as spurious, since its matter is so different from that of the rest.
The treatise Who is the Rich Man that is Saved?
The treatise on the Passover was occasioned by a work of Melito on the same subject.
Two fragments of this treatise were given by Petavius, and are contained in the modern editions.
No doubt this was the subject of the treatise.
A fragment of Clement, quoted by Antonius Melissa, is most probably taken from the treatise on slander.
Marsilius of Padua also composed a treatise De translations imperii romani, which is merely a rearrangement of a work of Landolfo Colonna, De jurisdictione imperatoris in causa matrimoniali, intended to prove the exclusive jurisdiction of the emperor in matrimonial affairs, or rather, to justify the intervention of Louis of Bavaria, who, in the interests of his policy, had just annulled the marriage of the son of the king of Bohemia and the countess of Tirol.
Dodgson periodically published mathematical works - An Elementary Treatise on Determinants (1867); Euclid, Book V., proved Algebraically (1874); Euclid and his Modern Rivals (1879), the work on which his reputation as a mathematician largely rests; and Curiosa Mathematica (1888).
When twenty-one years of age he composed a treatise on the figure of the earth, and the reputation which he soon acquired led to his appointment by the king of Sardinia to the professorship of philosophy in the college of Casale.
He is further credited by the scholiast on Aristophanes (loc. cit.) with having composed comedies, dithyrambs, epigrams, paeans, hymns, scolia, encomia and elegies; and he is the reputed author of a philosophical treatise on the mystic number three.
The vats for depositing may be of enamelled iron, slate, glazed earthenware, glass, lead-lined wood, &c. The current densities and potential differences frequently used for some of the commoner metals are given in the following table, taken from M ` Millan's Treatise on Electrometallurgy.
The theory brought forward has not yet found a place in any systematic treatise in any language, so that it has been judged proper to give a fairly complete account of it.'
The determination of the true relation between the length of a pendulum and the time of its oscillation; the invention of the theory of evolutes; the discovery, hence ensuing, that the cycloid is its own evolute, and is strictly isochronous; the ingenious although practically inoperative idea of correcting the "circular error" of the pendulum by applying cycloidal cheeks to clocks - were all contained in this remarkable treatise.
In the appended treatise Sur la Cause de la pesanteur, he rejected gravitation as a universal quality of matter, although admitting the Newtonian theory of the planetary revolutions.
The epoch-making treatise in which it was set forth, virtually finished in 1530, began to be known through the circulation in manuscript of a Commentariolus, or brief popular account of its purport written by Copernicus in that year.
But his assent to this was only extracted from him in 1540 by the importunities of his friends, especially of his enthusiastic disciple George Joachim Rheticus (1514-1576), who printed, in the Narratio prima (Danzig, 1540), a preliminary account of the Copernican theory, and simultaneously sent to the press at Nuremberg his master's complete exposition of it in the treatise entitled De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (1543).
The trigonometrical section of the book had been issued as a separate treatise (Wittenberg, 1542) under the care of Rheticus.
His treatise De monetae cudendae ratione, 1526 (first printed in 1816), written by order of King Sigismund I., is an exposition of the principles on which it was proposed to reform the currency of the Prussian provinces of Poland.
C. Maxwell, Treatise, § 643.
In 1873 James Clerk Maxwell published his classical Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, in which Faraday's ideas were translated into a mathematical form.
His treatise, Des Grandeurs de Jesus, was a favourite book with the Jansenists.
His treatise was remarkable, not only as offering a satisfactory explanation of the coincidence between the lunar periods of rotation and revolution, but as containing the first employment of his radical formula of mechanics, obtained by combining with the principle of d'Alembert that of virtual velocities.
In the earlier treatise he attacks the life and character of Aristotle, impugns the authenticity of almost all his works, and attempts to refute his doctrines from a theological standpoint.
The other tract, known as Categoriae decem, and taken at first for a translation of Aristotle's treatise, is really a rapid summary of it, and certainly does not belong to Augustine.
He also cites, apparently with approval, the view of those who held Porphyry's treatise to be not de quinque rebus, but de quinque vocibus.
Roscellinus appears at first to have imagined that his tritheistic theory had the sanction of Lanfranc and Anselm, and the latter was led in consequence to compose his treatise De fide Trinitatis.
His treatise De rationali et ratione uti is more interesting as a display of the logical acquirements of the age than as possessing any direct philosophical bearing.
Thus " Socratitus " is merely an accident of the substance "humanitas," or, as it is put by the author of the treatise De generibus et speciebus, 1 " Man is a species, a thing essentially one (res una essentialiter), which receives certain forms which make it Socrates.
The views which he expressed in his commentary on the pseudo-Boetian treatise, De Trinitate, are certainly much more important than the mediatizing systems already referred to.
His treatise De anima, on which Haureau lays particular stress, is interesting as showing the greater scope now given to psychological discussions.
He fell under the suspicion of the Inquisition; his mystical teaching was said to be heretical, and his most famous book, the Guia de Peccadores, still a favourite treatise and one that has been translated into nearly every European tongue, was put on the Index of the Spanish Inquisition, together with his book on prayer, in 1559 His great opponent was the restless and ambitious Melchior Cano, who stigmatized the second book as containing grave errors smacking of the heresy of the Alumbrados and manifestly contradicting Catholic faith and teaching.
In 1786 Horne Tooke conferred perpetual fame upon his benefactor's country house by adopting, as a second title of his elaborate philological treatise of "EirEa the more popular though misleading title of The Diversions of Purley.
Lambert's most important work, Pyrometrie (Berlin, 1779), is a systematic treatise on heat, containing the records and full discussion of many of his own experiments.
It has the strength of an analytical treatise, the charm of a popular dissertation.
Legendre, in 1783, extended Maclaurin's theorem concerning ellipsoids of revolution to the case of any spheroid of revolution where the attracted point, instead of being limited to the axis or equator, occupied any position in space; and Laplace, in his treatise Theorie du mouvement et de la figure elliptique des planetes (published in 1784), effected a still further generalization by proving, what had been suspected by Legendre, that the theorem was equally true for any confocal ellipsoids.
Finally, in a celebrated memoir, Theorie des attractions des spheroides et de la figure des planetes, published in 1785 among the Paris Memoirs for the year 1782, although written after the treatise of 1784, Laplace treated exhaustively the general problem of the attraction of any spheroid upon a particle situated outside or upon its surface.
Laplace's treatise on specific heat was published in German in 1892 as No.
The first extant work which approaches to a treatise on algebra is by Diophantus, an Alexandrian mathematician, who flourished about A.D.
Henry Thomas Colebrooke, one of the earliest modern investigators of Hindu science, presumes that the treatise of Aryabhatta extended to determinate quadratic equations, indeterminate equations of the first degree, and probably of the second.
His treatise on algebra and arithmetic (the latter part of which is only extant in the form of a Latin translation, discovered in 1857) contains nothing that was unknown to the Greeks and Hindus; it exhibits methods allied to those of both races, with the Greek element predominating.
Cardan or Cardano, who was at that time writing his great work, the Ars Magna, could not restrain the temptation of crowning his treatise with such important discoveries, and in 1 545 he broke his oath and gave to the world Tartalea's rules for solving cubic equations.
The first treatise on algebra written in English was by Robert Recorde, who published his arithmetic in 1552, and his algebra entitled The Whetstone of Witte, which is the second part of Arithmetik, in 1557.
William Oughtred, a contemporary of Harriot, published an algebra, Clavis mathematicae, simultaneously with Harriot's treatise.
His views were made the subject of a special treatise by Posidonius.
He published a treatise De diferentiis animalium at Paris in 1552.
Neckam also wrote Corrogationes Promethei, a scriptural commentary prefaced by a treatise on grammatical criticism; a translation of Aesop into Latin elegiacs (six fables from this version, as given in a Paris MS., are printed in Robert's Fables inedites); commentaries, still unprinted, on portions of Aristotle, Martianus Capella and Ovid's Metamorphoses, and other works.
Many other details are given in the treatise Soferim, but these for the most part refer primarily to the synagogue service after the destruction of the Temple.
Rheticus now began his great treatise, Opus Palatinum de Triangulis, and continued to work at it while he occupied his old chair at Wittenberg, and indeed up to his death at Cassovia in Hungary, on the 4th of December 1576.
A long treatise on geometry, attributed to Gerbert, is of somewhat doubtful authenticity.
These works, together with the Prodigios del amor divino (1641), are now forgotten, but Nieremberg's version (1656) of the Imitation is still a favourite, and his eloquent treatise, De la hermosura de Dios y su amabilidad (1649), is the last classical manifestation of mysticism in Spanish literature.
John Fleischer (sometimes incorrectly named Fletcher), of Breslau, propounded the same view in a pamphlet, De iridibus doctrina Aristotelis et Vitellonis (1574) the same explanation was given by Franciscus Maurolycus in his Photismi de lumine et umbra (1575) The most valuable of all the earlier contributions to the scientific explanation of rainbows is undoubtedly a treatise by Marco Antonio de Dominis (1566-1624), archbishop of Spalatro.
In the 2nd half of the 4th century lived the monk Gregory, who wrote a treatise on the monastic life.
Among the works which he translated into Syriac and of which his versions survive are treatises of Aristotle, Porphyry and Galen, 3 the Ars grammatica of Dionysius Thrax, the works of Dionysius the Areopagite, and possibly two or three treatises of Plutarch.4 His own original works are less important, but include a " treatise on logic, addressed to Theodore (of Merv), which is unfortunately imperfect, a tract on negation and affirmation; a treatise, likewise addressed to Theodore, On the Causes of the Universe, according to the Views of Aristotle, showing how it is a Circle; a tract On Genus, Species and Individuality; and a third tract addressed to Theodore, On the Action and Influence of the Moon, explanatory and illustrative of Galen's IIEpi rcptaiµwv r t µepwv, bk.
According to the historical compilation which passes under the name of Zacharias Rhetor, he also wrote a treatise on the faith.
He wrote various philosophical works, also a treatise on grammar which is quoted by the later grammarian, John bar Zo`bi.
Nau, who appends to it the surviving fragment of his treatise on the composition of man as consisting of soul and body.?
Paul the Persian, a courtier of Khosrau Anosharwan, dedicated to the king a treatise on logic which has been published from a London MS. by Land in the 4th volume of his Anecdota.
An account of his theological position, derived from the treatise of Babhai De unione, will be found in Labourt, op. cit.
Sahdona, who was a monk in the Nestorian monastery of Beth `Abhe (the same to which Thomas of Marga belonged two centuries later) and afterwards a bishop early in the 7th century, wrote a biography of and a funeral sermon on his superior Mar Jacob who founded the monastery, and also a long treatise in two parts on the monastic life, of which all that survives has been edited by P. Bedjan (Paris, 1902).
The demonstrations of the unity and the attributes of God, with which the treatise De Melisso, Xenophane et Gorgia (now no longer ascribed to Aristotle or Theophrastus) accredits Xenophanes, are plainly framed on the model of Eleatic proofs of the unity and the attributes of the Ent, and must therefore be set aside.
Whilst it can hardly be allowed that Xenophanes, so far from denying, actually affirms a plurality of gods, it must be conceded to Freudenthal that Xenophanes's polemic was directed against the anthropomorphic tendencies and the mythological details of the contemporary polytheism rather than against the polytheistic principle, and that, apart from the treatise De Melisso Xenophane et Gorgia, now generally discredited, there is no direct evidence to prove him a consistent monotheist.
In his cosmogonic treatise on nature and the gods, called Hevr4tvxo (Preller's correction of Suidas, who has E7rTaµuXos) from the five elementary or original principles (aether, fire, air, water, earth; Gomperz substitutes smoke and darkness for aether and earth), he enunciated a system in which science, allegory and mythology were blended.
It is doubtful whether the treatise in which this theory is fully expounded is as old as Hippocrates himself; but it was regarded as a Hippocratic doctrine, and, when taken up and expanded by Galen, its terms not only became the common property of the profession, but passed into general literature and common language.
A treatise on the diseases of women, contained in the Hippocratic collection, and of remarkable practical v alue, is attributed to this school.
Alexander of Aphrodisias, who lived and wrote at Athens in the time of Septimius Severus, is best known by his commentaries on Aristotle, but also wrote a treatise on fevers, still extant.
Borelli (1608-1679), whose treatise De motu animalium, published in 1680, is regarded as marking an epoch in physiology.
Mead's treatise on The Power of the Sun and Moon over Human Bodies (1704), equally inspired by Newton's discoveries, was a premature attempt to assign the influence of atmospheric pressure and other cosmical causes in producing disease.
In England the first important name in this field is at the same time that of the first writer of a systematic work in any language on morbid anatomy, Matthew Baillie (1761-1823), a nephew of John and William Hunter, who published his treatise in 1795.
Although the title of the poem implies that it is a treatise on the "whole nature of things," the aim of Lucretius is to treat only those branches of science which are necessary to clear the mind from the fear of the gods and the terrors of a future state.
He prepared a new edition of the monk Theophilus's celebrated treatise, Diversarum artium schedula, and for several years devoted his Saturday mornings to laboratory research with the chemist Aline Girard at the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers, the results of which were utilized by Marcellin Berthelot in the first volume (1894) of his Chimie au moyen dge.
The principal literary results of his early years here were the Discours en vers sur l'homme, the play of Alzire and L'Enfant prodigue (1736), and a long treatise on the Newtonian system which he and Madame du Chatelet wrote together.
In the very first days of his sojourn he had written a pamphlet with the imposing title of Treatise on Metaphysics.
Cooley's treatise on the American Law of Torts states that "the custom of the country, in some states enacted into statute law, requires that when teams approach and are about to pass on the highway, each shall keep to the right of the centre of the travelled portion of the road."
Nor can the relation of master and pupil be certainly inferred from the superscription quoted (observe the omission of any article), which really asserts no more than that Hero re-edited an earlier treatise by Ctesibius, and implies nothing about his being an immediate predecessor.
This theorem was published in 1643, at the end of his treatise De motu gravium projectorum, and it was confirmed by the experiments of Raffaello Magiotti on the quantities of water discharged from different ajutages under different pressures (1648).
In the hands of Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) hydrostatics assumed the dignity of a science, and in a treatise on the equilibrium of liquids (Sur l'equilibre des liqueurs), found among his manuscripts after his death and published in 1663, the laws of the equilibrium of liquids were demonstrated in the most simple manner, and amply confirmed by experiments.
This argument is most fully exhibited in a treatise entitled The Testimony of the King of Martyrs (1729).
His best legal treatise is Memoire pour le comte de Morangies (Paris, 1772); Linguet's imprisonment in the Bastille afforded him the opportunity of writing his Memoires sur la Bastille, first published in London in 1789; it has been translated into English (Dublin, 1783, and Edinburgh, 1884-1887), and is the best of his works, though untrustworthy.
He wrote Breviuscula Introductio ad Logicam, a treatise on logic and the psychology of the intellectual powers; Synopsis Theologiae Naturalis; and an edition of Pufendorf, De Officio Hominis et Civis, with notes and supplements of high value.
Of his numerous works, that on which his fame principally rests is the treatise entitled De Morbis Venereis libri sex, 1736.
After holding a school mastership and two curacies, he was made rector of St Martin's Orgar in London in 1628, where he took a leading part in the contest between the London clergy and the citizens about the city tithes, and compiled a treatise on the subject, which is printed in Brewster's Collectanea (1752).
The Liber de Institutione Principum, a treatise on the duties of kings and their functionaries, has never yet been printed, and the only MS. copy the writer of this article has been able to consult does not contain in its prologue all the information which Echard seems to imply is to be found there.
Frontinus also wrote a theoretical treatise on military science (De re militari) which is lost.
Extracts from a treatise on landsurveying ascribed to Frontinus are preserved in Lachmann's Gromatici veteres (1848) .
In 1040 he wrote in Arabic a treatise, Duties of the Heart.
Among the papers he had left behind at Ferrara was a treatise on "Contempt of the World," inveighing against the prevalent corruption and predicting the speedy vengeance of Heaven.
A treatise entitled The Atonement; its Reality, Completeness and Extent (1861) was based upon a smaller work which first appeared in 1845.
Further illustrations of these views were given in two works published about the same time as the lectures, one a treatise On the Sonship and Brotherhood of Believers, and the other an exposition of the first epistle of St John.
He was a physician, and Ibn Abi Usaibia, in his treatise on Arabian doctors, mentions him as the author of a medical work.
Among the more important are Certayne Reasons why Cntholiques refuse to goe to Church (Douai, 1580), A Christian Directorie guiding Men to their Saluation (London, 1583-1591, 2 parts), A Conference about the Next Succession to the Crowne of Ingland (1594), Treatise of the Three Conversions of England (1603-1604, 3 parts), an answer to Foxe's Acts and Monuments.
There is even a little treatise from the hand of Milton, published two years before his death, called Artis Logicae Plenior Institutio ad Petri Rami Methodum concinnata.
With few exceptions all the known events of Defoe's life are connected with authorship. In the older catalogues of his works two pamphlets, Speculum Crapegownorum, a satire on the clergy, and A Treatise against the Turks, are attributed to him before the accession of James II., but there seems to be no publication of his which is certainly genuine before The Character of Dr Annesley (1697).
This was more flagrantly illustrated in one of his latest works, The Treatise Concerning the Use and Abuse of the Marriage Bed (1727), which was originally issued with a much more offensive name, and has been called "an excellent book with an improper title."
In 1764 he published his first work, The Schoolmaster's Guide, or a Complete System of Practical Arithmetic, which in 1770 was followed by his Treatise on Mensuration both in Theory and Practice.
Having entered the Society of Jesus in 1586, he was successively professor of philosophy at Douai and rector of the Jesuit College at Antwerp. He wrote a treatise on optics in six books (Antwerp, 1613), notable for containing the principles of stereographic projection.
The controversy his intolerance provoked was closed by Augustine's controversial treatise De Baptismo, in which the validity of baptism administered by heretics is based on the objectivity of the sacrament.
Devoting himself to the economic side of geology in various parts of North America, he was enabled to bring out in 1861 A Practical Treatise on Coal, Petroleum and other Distilled Oils.
The only extant prose work which may be assigned to the end of this period is the treatise on rhetoric known by the title Ad Herennium (c. 84) a work indicative of the attention bestowed on prose style and rhetorical studies during the last century of the republic, and which may be regarded as a precursor of the oratorical treatises of Cicero and of the work of Quintilian.
In the next century we have Velius Longus's treatise De Orthographia, and then a much more important work, the Noctes Atticae of Aulus Gellius, and (c. 200) a treatise in verse by Terentianus, an African, upon Latin pronunciation, prosody and metre.
Ambrosius Macrobius Theodosius (c. 400) wrote a treatise on Cicero's Somnium Scipionis and seven books of miscellanies (Saturnalia); and Martianus Capella (c. 430), a native of Africa, published a compendium of the seven liberal arts, written in a mixture of prose and verse, with some literary pretensions.
His treatise IIEpi a pwv, uBaTwv, Kai T07rwv (Airs, Waters, and Places) contains the first enunciation of the principles of public health.
Although the treatise IIEpi voivwv is doubtfully from the pen of Hippocrates, it contains strong evidence of having been the work of his grandson, representing the views of the Father of Medicine.
It can be shown that the resultant electric force normal to the surface at a point just outside a conductor is 1 See Maxwell, Elementary Treatise on Electricity (Oxford, 1881), P. 47.
It is not even necessary that 2 See Maxwell, Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism (3rd ed., Oxford, 1892), vol.
Maxwell (Elementary Treatise, &c., p. 15) ingeniously applied this fact to the insulation of conductors.
See Thomson and Tait, Treatise on Natural Philosophy, § 519.
Of his other works the most interesting is the treatise De rege et regis institutione (Toledo, 1598).
In 1842 he published a treatise on The Unity of the Church, and his reputation as an eloquent and earnest preacher being by this time considerable, he was in the same year appointed select preacher by his university, thus being called upon to fill from time to time the pulpit which Newman, as vicar of St Mary's, was just ceasing to occupy.
Pirminius, who was far from being an original writer, made great use of a treatise by Martin of Braga, but substituted a Roman form of Renunciation, and refers to the Roman rite of Unction in a way which leads us to suppose that the form of creed which he substituted for Martin's form was also Roman.
The revised Jerusalem Creed was quoted by Epiphanius in his treatise The Anchored One, c. A.D.
Naples, in writing the little treatise (afterwards included in the Characteristics) entitled A Notion of the Historical Draught or Tablature of the Judgment of Hercules, and the letter concerning Design.
Eratosthenes, who in the latter half of the and century B.C. was keeper of the famous Alexandrian library, not only made himself a great name by his important work on geography, but by his treatise entitled Chronographia, one of the first attempts to establish an exact scheme of general chronology, earned for himself the title of "father of chronology."
The work consists of nine long chapters, each of which is a complete treatise in itself.
In 1820 was published his treatise on the gospel of St John, entitled Probabilia de Evangelii et Epistolarum Joannis Apostoli indole et origine, which attracted much attention.
The two often engaged in friendly rivalry to try whether the orator or the actor could express a thought or emotion with the greater effect, and Roscius wrote a treatise in which he compared acting and oratory.
His reputation among Protestants was at the time so bad that he was charged with the authorship of the treatise De tribus impostoribus, as well as with having carried his alleged approval of polygamy into practice.
The unification of Italy in a state protected by a national army was the cherished dream of his life; and the peroration of the Principe shows that he meant this treatise to have a direct bearing on the problem.
The result was a treatise in which he deduced practical conclusions from the past history and present temper of the city, blending these with his favourite principles of government in general.
The first of these is a methodical treatise, setting forth Machiavelli's views on military matters, digesting his theories respecting the superiority of national troops, the inefficiency of fortresses, the necessity of relying upon infantry in war, and the comparative insignificance of artillery.
The validity of such an hypothesis was attacked as early as the 4th century by Dionysius of Alexandria in the fragment of his treatise irEpi 7ray yeAuA;v, in Eusebius, H.E.
In his fifteenth year he entered the order of the Dominicans at Naples, and is said to have composed a treatise on the ark of Noah.
Among other uses and consequences of his treatise, Collier thinks it furnishes an easy refutation of the Romish doctrine of transubstantiation.
His views on the problems of Arianism, and his attempt to reconcile it with orthodox theology, are contained in A Specimen of True Philosophy (1730, reprinted in Metaphysical Tracts, 1837) and Logology, or a Treatise on the Logos in Seven Sermons on John i.
How great was the popularity and diffusion of this letter may be judged in some degree from the fact that Zarncke in his treatise on Prester John gives a list of close on 100 MSS.
The most remarkable of the works from this period are - (I) the Bestimmung des Menschen (Vocation of Man, 1800), a book which, for beauty of style, richness of content, and elevation of thought, may be ranked with the Meditations of Descartes; (2) Der geschlossene Handelsstaat, 1800 (The Exclusive or Isolated Commercial State), a very remarkable treatise, intensely socialist in tone, and inculcating organized protection; (3) Sonnenklarer Bericht an das grossere Publicum iiber die neueste Philosophie, 1801.
He was the author of a lost work De Accentibus, and of an extant treatise De Die Natali, written in 238, and dedicated to his patron Quintus Caerellius as a birthday gift.
Still more was it the object of his Augustinus, a bulky treatise on the theology of St Augustine, barely finished at the time of his death.
His knowledge of the metaphysics of Spinoza was such that he was selected by one of the professors to prepare materials for a treatise De Spinosismo, which was afterwards published.
The founder of the mathematical school was the celebrated Euclid (Eucleides); among its scholars were Archimedes; Apollonius of Perga, author of a treatise on Conic Sections; Eratosthenes, to whom we owe the first measurement of the earth; and Hipparchus, the founder of the epicyclical theory of the heavens, afterwards called the Ptolemaic system, from its most famous expositor, Claudius Ptolemaeus.
Alberti wrote works on sculpture, Della Statua, and on painting, De Pictura, which are highly esteemed; but his most celebrated treatise is that on architecture, De Re Aedificatoria, which has been translated into Italian, French, Spanish and English.
His most important scientific work is his Zoonomia (1794-1796), which contains a system of pathology, and a treatise on generation, in which he, in the words of his famous grandson, Charles Robert Darwin, "anticipated the views and erroneous grounds of opinions of Lamarck."
On his return he removed to Berlin, where he lived as a royal pensioner till his death, which occurred on the 18th of February 18 His investigations in elliptic functions, the theory of which he established upon quite a new basis, and more particularly his development of the theta-function, as given in his great treatise Fundamenta nova theoriae functionum ellipticarum (Konigsberg, 1829), and in later papers in Crelle's Journal, constitute his grandest analytical discoveries.
Tertullian (c. 160-240) uses it in both senses, of an oath, as in the passage of his treatise About Spectacles, where he says that no Christian " passes over to the enemy's camp without throwing away his arms, without abandoning the standards and sacraments of his chief."
What is thus suggested is not a rash departure from the general point of view of idealism (by its achievements in every field to which it has been applied, " stat mole sua ") but a cautious inquiry into the possibility of reaching a conception of the world ' The most striking statement of this argument is to be found in Boutroux's treatise De la contingence des lois de la nature, first published in 1874 and reprinted without alteration in 1905.
After his translation to Ely (1609), he again controverted Bellarmine in the Responsio ad Apologiam, a treatise never answered.
The sight drops through a socket in a pivoted bracket which is provided From Treatise on Service Ordnance.
His only extant work is a short treatise (with a commentary by Pappus) On the Magnitudes and Distances of the Sun and Moon.
Although the heliocentric system is not mentioned in the treatise, a quotation in the Arenarius of Archimedes from a work of Aristarchus proves that he anticipated the great discovery of Copernicus.
This sentence from Browne's spiritual autobiography contains the root of the whole matter, and explains the title of his other chief work, also of 1582, A Treatise of Reformation without tarrying for any, and of the wickedness of those Preachers which will not reform till the Magistrate command or compel them.
In ethics Gioja follows Bentham generally, and his large treatise Del merito e delle recompense (1818) is a clear and systematic view of social ethics from the utilitarian principle.
He wrote several scientific works, that which attracted most attention at the time being his Optique des couleurs (1740), or treatise on the melody of colours.
He endeavoured to illustrate the subject by a clavecin oculaire, or ocular harpsichord; but the treatise and the illustration were quickly forgotten.
He devoted his leisure to the improvement of his economic treatise, which had for some time been out of print, but which the censorship did not permit him to republish; and in 1814 he availed himself (to use his own words) of the sort of liberty arising from the entrance of the allied powers into France to bring out a second edition of the work, dedicated to the emperor Alexander, who had professed himself his pupil.
The raising of Lazarus, in appearance a massive, definitely localized historical fact, requires a similar interpretation, unless we would, in favour of the direct historicity of a story peculiar to a profoundly allegorical treatise, ruin the historical trustworthiness of the largely historical Synoptists in precisely their most complete and verisimilar part.
The standard treatise on the mathematical theory is Lord Rayleigh's Theory of Sound (2nd ed., 1894); this work also contains an account of experimental verifications.
Professor Claxton Fidler (Treatise on Bridge Construction, 1887) has made a very careful theoretical analysis of the weights of bridges of different types, and has obtained the following values for the limiting spans.
Doni's Works; he also published a treatise on The Theory of Numbers as applied to Music. His celebrated canons, published in London, about 1800, edited by Pio Cianchettini, show him to have had a strong sense of musical humour.
Of the Academy's edition one volume was published at Berlin in 1897, containing the Commentaries on Daniel and on the Song of Songs, the treatise on Antichrist, and the Lesser Exegetical and Homiletic Works, edited by Nathanael Bonwetsch and Hans Achelis.
This theory of the independence of the episcopate with regard to the Roman bishop was first propounded by Cyprian, in his treatise De unitate ecclesiae.
The first investigates mathematical facts relating to the earth as a whole, its figure, dimensions, motions, their measurement, &c. The second part considers the earth as affected by the sun and stars, climates, seasons, the difference of apparent time at different places, variations in the length of the day, &c. The third part treats briefly of the actual divisions of_the surface of the earth, their relative positions, globe and map-construction, longitude, navigation, &c. Varenius, with the materials at his command, dealt with the subject in a truly philosophic spirit; and his work long held its position as the best treatise in existence on scientific and comparative geography.
Emile, the second title of which is De l'Education, is much more of a treatise than of a novel, though a certain amount of narrative interest is kept up throughout.
Albertus Magnus, in his treatise De alchymia, informs us that there were two kinds of sal ammoniac, a natural and an artificial.
Even Hume, in various passages of his Treatise, speaks of himself as recovering cheerfulness and mental tone only by forgetfulness of his own arguments.
It may be doubted whether the thoroughgoing philosophical scepticism of antiquity has any exact parallel in modern times, with the single exception possibly of Hume's Treatise on Human Nature.
The Treatise is a reductio ad absurdum of the principles of Lockianism, inasmuch as these principles, when consistently applied, leave the structure of experience entirely " loosened " (to use Hume's own expression), or cemented together only by the irrational force of custom.
This point of view is applied in the Treatise universally.
They spoke a dialect of Turkish preserved in the Kudatku Bilik, a moral treatise composed in 1065.
After his surrender in 1847 he devoted himself anew to theology and philosophy, and composed a philosophical treatise, of which a French translation was published in 1858 under the title of Rappel d l'intelligent.
His fame rests chiefly on the preface and notes to his translation of Pufendorf's treatise De Jure Naturae et Gentium.
Barbeyrac also translated Grotius's De Jure Belli et Pacis, Cumberland's De Legibus Naturae, and Pufendorf's smaller treatise De Officio Hominis et Civis.
Among his own productions are a treatise, De la morale des peres, a history of ancient treaties contained in the Supplement au grand corps diplomatique, and the curious Traite du jeu (1709), in which he defends the morality of games of chance.
A treatise on accents is ascribed to Priscian, but is rejected by modern writers on the ground of matter and language.
Latin was the language of his political treatise, De Monarchia, and even that of his defence of the vulgar tongue, De Vulgari Eloquio.
In 1392 Vergerio addressed to a prince of Padua the first treatise which methodically maintains the claims of Latin as an essential part of a liberal education.
Eight years before the death of Vegio, Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini (Pius II.) had composed a brief treatise on education in the form of a letter to Ladislaus, the young king of Bohemia and Hungary.
His method may be gathered from his son's treatise, De Ordine Docendi et Studendi.
In that treatise the essential marks of an educated person are, not only ability to write Latin verse, but also, a point of " at least equal importance," " familiarity with the language and literature of Greece."
His translation of a treatise of Galen was printed at Cambridge in 1521 by Siberch, who, in the same year and place, was the first to use Greek type in England.
Colet (1510), the friend of Erasmus, whose treatise De pueris instituendis (1529) has its English counterpart in the Governor of Sir Thomas Elyot (1531).
The treatise containing this important invention was made public by Baron von Zach under the title Ueber die leichteste and bequemste Methode die Bahn eines Cometen zu berechnen (Weimar, 1797).
He wrote a popular treatise upon the former subject for the "Nature" Series (1874).
To this, the first elementary treatise on determinants, much of the rapid development of the subject is due.
Matthews, Treatise on Bessel's Functions (1895); Encyclopddie der math.
In all this the epistle is still a genuine letter, and not a treatise.
The Epistle to the Hebrews is an epistolary treatise of uncertain date, on the Pauline model, and by a disciple of St Paul or at least a writer strongly influenced by him, though influenced also in no small degree by the Jewish school of Alexandria represented by Philo.
In 1663 he published Le Palais de l'honneur, which besides giving the genealogy of the houses of Lorraine and Savoy, is a complete treatise on heraldry, and in 1664 Le Palais de la gloire, dealing with the genealogy of various illustrious French and European families.
To the latter Hugh Blair seems to refer when, in his work on Rhetoric and Belles-Lettres (1783), he acknowledges his obligations to a manuscript treatise on rhetoric by Smith, part of which its author had shown to him many years before, and which he hoped that Smith would give to the public. Smith had promised at the end of his Theory of Moral Sentiments a treatise on jurisprudence from the historical point of view.
The truth is that Smith took up the science when it was already considerably advanced; and it was this very circumstance which enabled him, by the production of a classical treatise, to render most of his predecessors obsolete.
In 1833 appeared a treatise on The Adaptation of External Nature to the Moral and Intellectual Constitution of Man.
In the department of natural theology and the Christian evidences he ably advocated that method of reconciling the Mosaic narrative with the indefinite antiquity of the globe which William Buckland (1784-1856) advanced in his Bridgewater Treatise, and which Dr Chalmers had previously communicated to him.
His work advocating the suppression of internal customs houses (Suppression des douanes interieures), published the same year, is an elaborate treatise on the laws of commerce and on the theory of customs imposts.
Wittich in 1584 made known at Cassel the calculation of one case by this prosthaphaeresis; and Justus Byrgius proved it in such a manner that from his proof the extension to the solution of all triangles could be deduced.3 Clavius generalized the method in his treatise De astrolabio (1593), lib.
The treatise which laid the foundation for all subsequent invertebrate palaeontology was his memoir, Sur les fossiles des environs de Paris..
The pathbreaking works of Lamarck were soon followed by the monumental treatise of Gerard Paul Deshayes (1795-1875) entitled Descriptions des coquilles fossiles des environs de Paris (1824-1837), the first of a series of great contributions by this and other authors.
It was during this struggle that Mariana, the historian and the author of the famous De rege in which he defends tyrannicide, wrote his treatise On the Defects in the Government of the Society.
The volume is interspersed, far more extensively and richly than any other treatise on the war, with reproductions of contemporary plans, maps, documents, portraits and prints.
But the main purport of the treatise was the exposition of an elaborate system of celestial harmonies depending on the various and varying velocities of the several planets, of which the sentient soul animating the sun was the solitary auditor.
The first of a series of ephemerides, calculated on these principles, was published by him at Linz in 1617; and in that for 1620, dedicated to Baron Napier, he for the first time employed logarithms. This important invention was eagerly welcomed by him, and its theory formed the subject of a treatise entitled Chilias Logarithmorum, printed in 1624, but circulated in manuscript three years earlier, which largely contributed to bring the new method into general use in Germany.
After his death (which occurred soon after that of his friend) these were purchased by Dr Worthington, of Cambridge; and from his hands the treatise Venus in sole visa passed into those of Hevelius, and was published by him in 1662 with his own observations on a transit of Mercury.
Archaeological discoveries in India, Persia, Assyria and Egypt show that in the polished stone age quaternary man had domesticated the horse, while a Chinese treatise, the Goei-leaotse, the fifth book of the Vouking, a sort of military code dating from the reign of the emperor Hoang-Ti (2637 years B.C.), places the cavalry on the wings of the army.
Cooley, A Treatise on the Constitutional Limitations which rest upon the Legislative Power of the States of the A merican Union (6th ad., Boston, 1890) is one of the most useful secondary works.
He was attacked in an elaborate treatise by Samuel Clarke, in whose system the freedom of the will is made essential to religion and morality.
As far as the circlesquaring functions are concerned, it would seem that Gregory was the first (in 1670) to make known the series for the arc in terms of the tangent, the series for the tangent in terms of the arc, and the secant in terms of the arc; and in 1669 Newton showed to Isaac Barrow a little treatise in manuscript containing the series for the arc in terms of the sine, for the sine in terms of the arc, and for the cosine in terms of the arc. These discoveries 1 See Euler, ” Annotationes in locum quendam Cartesii," in Nov.
In 1750 appeared his celebrated devotional book on the Glories of Mary; three years later came his still more celebrated treatise on moral theology.
His treatise on Conics gained him the title of The Great Geometer, and is that by which his fame has been transmitted to modern times.
An Arabic version of the first was found towards the end of the 17th century in the Bodleian library by Dr Edward Bernard, who began a translation of it; Halley finished it and published it along with a restoration of the second treatise in 1706.3rd.
Vieta thereupon proposed a simpler construction, and restored the whole treatise of Apollonius in a small work, which he entitled Apollonius Gallus (Paris, 1600).
It was, as far as we know, the first attempt to " collect all the geographical knowledge at the time attainable, and to compose a general treatise on geography.
The three books of the older work formed a strictly technical geographical treatise.
The metrical treatise of Terentianus is now preserved in the editio princeps (1497) alone.
In the unique MS. of Cicero's treatise De Republica, 2, 33, 57, secutus appears as "secututus secutus."
A notable one was the Epistles of Phalaris, a late Greek forgery, demonstrated to be such by Bentley in a treatise which is a model of what such a demonstration should be.
To examine all the causes which may vitiate emendations would mean writing a treatise upon human frailty.
Before him the whole Christian literature in the Latin language consisted of a translation of the Bible, the Octavius of Minucius Felix (q.v.) - an apologetic treatise written in the Ciceronian style for the higher circles of society, and with no evident effect for the church as a whole, the brief Acts of the Scillitan martyrs, and a list of the books recognized as canonical (the so-called Muratorian fragment).
He studied with earnest zeal the Greek philosophers; Plato in particular, and the writings of the Stoics, he had fully at command, and his treatise De Anima shows that he himself was able to investigate and discuss philosophical problems. From the philosophers he had been led to the medical writers, whose treatises plainly had a place in his working library.
In the first place as regards style, though the Stagirite pupil Aristotle could never rival his Attic master in literary form, yet he did a signal service to philosophy in gradually passing from the vague generalities of the dialogue to the scientific precision of the didactic treatise.
The Eudemus and Protrepticus are with Plato; the dialogues on Philosophy and the treatise on Forms are against Plato.
Shute in his History of the Aristotelian Writings (p. 176), " that we have even got throughout a treatise in the exact words of Aristotle, though we may be pretty clear that we have a fair representation of his thought.
Sometimes the reference is to the beginning of the whole treatise; e.g.
Another indication of a treatise having arisen out of separate discourses is its consisting of different parts imperfectly connected.
He would even be drawn into this process by his writing materials, which were papyrus rolls of some magnitude; he would tend to write discourses on separate rolls, and then fasten them together in a bundle into a treatise.
This important difference between the De Interpretatione and the Prior Analytics can only be explained by supposing that the former is the earlier treatise.
As then we find this identification of pleasure with activity in the Metaphysics and in the De Anima, as well as in the Nicomachean Ethics, the Eudemian Ethics and the Magna Moralia, the only logical conclusion, from which there is no escape, is that, so far as the treatment of pleasure goes, any Aristotelian treatise which defines it as activity is genuine.
Finally, the treatise concludes with saying that the limit of gentlemanliness has thus been stated, meaning that its limit is the service and contemplation of God and the control of desire by reason.
The whole treatise inclines to run into dialogue.
Because, then, the Magna Moralia is very like the Nicomachean Ethics, but more rudimentary, nearer to the Platonic dialogues in style and to a less degree in matter, and also like the Eudemian Ethics, we conclude that it is also like that treatise in having been written as an earlier draft of the Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle himself.
The former treatise (chap. 9), under the head of examples (7rapabeiyµara), gives historical examples of the unexpected in war for the years 4 0 3, 371, 35 8, concluding with the year 340, in which the Corinthians, coming with nine triremes to the assistance of the Syracusans, defeated the Carthaginians who were blockading Syracuse with 150 ships.
At the same time, as such prefaces are often forgeries, not prejudicing the body of the treatise, it does not really matter whether Aristotle actually dedicated his work to Alexander in that epistle about that year or not.