His chief innovation was the introduction of payment from the public treasury for state service.
In March 1841 he became secretary of the treasury in President W.
On the death of Southampton, Ashley was placed on the commission of the treasury, Clifford and William Coventry being his principal colleagues.
The Italian treasury at once honored all the papal drafts, and thus contributed a first instalment of the 3,225,000 lire per annum afterwards placed by Article 4 of the Law of Guarantees at the disposal of the Holy See.
The excess expenditure caused the Post Office during two or three years to make temporary application of Savings Banks' balances to telegraph expenditure, an expedient which was disapproved of by both the Treasury and the House of Commons.
The First Punic War having exhausted the treasury, the as was reduced to 2 OZ.
Under this act the appropriation of these surplus funds to certain trust purposes in the Federal treasury is held to be equivalent to payment to the states.
Treasury bills (Apr.
Hayes, the new president, having chosen John Sherman to be his secretary of the treasury, an effort was made to send Garfield to the United States Senate in Sherman's place.
When the Labour party joined the Coalition movement in 1915 he became a Lord Commissioner of the Treasury; he was parliamentary secretary to the Board of Trade 1916-7; Minister of Labour, 1917-8; Food Controller, Jan.
Long date Treasury warrants, law of July 7, 1901 1,416,200
Such crude attempts as were made to prevent rates from being excessive concerned themselves with profits, and were designed to confiscate for the state treasury any earnings beyond a certain prescribed dividend.
treasures in its temples, and the city had a treasury of its own at Olympia.
The forced paper currency, instituted in 1866, was abolished in 1881, in which year were dissolved the Union of Banks of Issue created in 1874 to furnish to the state treasury a milliard of lire in notes, guaranteed collectively by the banks.
A state system will be compelled, by the exigencies of the public treasury, to arrange its rates to pay interest on its securities; a private company will generally be prevented, by the indirect competition of railways in other parts of the country which it serves, from doing very much more than this.
to allow him to dissolve parliament, entrusted Signor Giolitti, a Piedmontese deputy, sometime treasury minister in the Crispi cabinet, with the formation of a ministry of the Left, which contrived to obtain six months supply on account, and dissolved the Chamber, The ensuing general election (November 1892), marked by unprecedented violence and abuse of official pressure upon B k the electorate, fitly ushered in what proved to be scandals, the most unfortunate period of Italian history since the completion of national unity.
The corporation of Glasgow having persisted in its efforts to obtain a licence, the Treasury appointed Sheriff Andrew Jameson (afterwards Lord Ardwall) a special commissioner to hold a local inquiry in Glasgow to report whether the telephone service in that city was adequate and efficient and whether it was expedient to grant the corporation a licence.
He therefore proposed to mak over the treasury service to the state banks, to increase th~ forced currency, to raise the stamp and registration duties and to impose a new tax on textile fabrics.
The gold reserve in the possession of the Banca dItalia on September 30th 1907 amounted to 32,240,984, and the silver reserve to 4,767,861; the foreign treasury bonds, &c. amounted to 3,324,074, making the total reserve 40,332,919; while the circulation amounted to 54,612,234.
It should be mentioned that the act provided that the Treasury might advance a portion of the money required for a line in cases where the council of any county, borough or district had agreed to do the same, and might also make a special advance in aid of a light railway which was certified by the Board of Agriculture to be beneficial to agriculture in any cultivated district, or by the Board of Trade to furnish a means of communication between a fishing-harbour and a market in a district where it would not be constructed without special assistance from the s' ate.
Reports of Select Committee on Telephone and Telegraph Wires (1885), of Select Committee on Telegraph Bill (1892), of Joint Committee of the House of Lords and the House of Commons on Electric Powers (Protective Clauses) (1893), of Select Committee on Telephone Service (1895), of Select Committee on Telephones (1898), and of Select Committee on Post Office (Telephone) Agreement (1905); Treasury Minutes (1892 and 1899); Annual Reports of the Postmaster-General; Report to the Treasury by Sheriff Andrew Jameson on Glasgow Telephone Enquiry (1897); H.
Hanbury, Financial Secretary to the Treasury and representative in the House of Commons of the PostmasterGeneral, advocated the granting of licences to local authorities.
Assuming then the leadership of the constitutional opposition, he combated the alliance between the Di Rudini cabinet and the subversive parties, criticized the financial schemes of the treasury minister, Luzzatti, and opposed the "democratic" finance of the first Pelloux administration as likely to endanger financial stability.
The pro-Syrian faction of the Palestinian Jews found their opportunity in this emergency and informed the governor of Coele-Syria that the treasury in Jerusalem contained untold sums of money.
From every dispute which he had with the central authorities at Paris he emerged victorious; and he took care to assure his ascendancy by sending presents to the Directors, large sums to the nearly bankrupt treasury and works of art to the museums of Paris.
One of the visitors, usually spoken of as "a man of great merit," having described how he had that day seen Kutuzov, the newly chosen chief of the Petersburg militia, presiding over the enrollment of recruits at the Treasury, cautiously ventured to suggest that Kutuzov would be the man to satisfy all requirements.
So naturally, simply, and gradually--just as he had come from Turkey to the Treasury in Petersburg to recruit the militia, and then to the army when he was needed there--now when his part was played out, Kutuzov's place was taken by a new and necessary performer.
Another reason assigned by the committee appointed by the Treasury in 1875 " to investigate the causes of the increased cost of the telegraphic service since the acquisition of the telegraphs by the state " is the loss on the business of transmitting Press messages, which has been estimated as at least £300,000 a year.
At the same time it mediated between the companies and the employees, and in June a settlement was formally concluded between the ministers of public works and of the treasury and the directors of the companies concerning the grievances of the employees.
The death penalty was freely awarded for theft and other crimes regarded as coming under that head; for theft involving entrance of palace or temple treasury, for illegal purchase from minor or slave, for selling stolen goods or receiving the same, for common theft in the open (in default of multiple restoration) or receiving the same, for false claim to goods, for kidnapping, for assisting or harbouring fugitive slaves, for detaining or appropriating same, for brigandage, for fraudulent sale of drink, for disorderly conduct of tavern, for delegation of personal service, for misappropriating the levy, for oppression of feudal holders, for causing death of a householder by bad building.
After the establishment of the Commonwealth he was chosen, on the 17th of January 1652, a member of the committee for legal reforms. In 1653 he became a member of the Protectorate council of state, and a commissioner of the treasury, and was appointed one of the four generals at sea and a commissioner for the army and navy.
The Post Office proposed to engage in active competition with the telephone companies, but the Treasury at that time opposed this policy on the ground that the state should at most be ready to supplement and not to supersede private enterprise.
The demands for reimbursement at par represented a sum of only 187,588 and the market value of the stock was hardly affected; while the saving to the Treasury was to be 800,000 per annum for the first five years and about double the amount afterwards.
Signor Fortis then became premier and minister of the interior, Signor Maiorano finance minister and Signor Carcano treasury minister, while Signor Tittoni, Admiral Mirabello 1905 and General Pedotti retained the portfolios they had held in the previous administration.
He succeeded Sir William Coventry as commissioner for the state treasury in 1669, and in 1673 was appointed a commissioner for the admiralty.
Having convoked his boyars he reproached them collectively with robbing the treasury and committing acts of injustice, and he caused one of them, a Prince Shuiski who happened to be in power at the moment, to be seized by his huntsmen and torn in pieces by a pack of hounds, as a warning to others.
Improved communications are much needed for the transport of agricultural produce, but the state of the treasury does not admit of more than a nominal expenditure on road-making and other public works.
Two fine silver candelabra, the tabernacle and the altar front are of the 17th century; and the treasury also contains some good silver work.
The richness of the Aegean capitals and columns may be judged by those from the "Treasury of Atreus" now set up in the British Museum; and of the friezes we have examples in Mycenaean and Cnossian fragments, and Cnossian paintings.
When the crash came and the national treasury was found to be without resources to meet current expenses, further issues of $110,000,000 in currency were made.
The management of finance was scarcely satisfactory, for though Giolitti, who had succeeded Magliani and Perazzi at the treasury, suppressed the formers illusory pension fund, he lacked the fibre necessary to deal with the enormous deficit of nearly 10,000,000 in 1888-1889, the existence of which both i Perazzi and he had recognized.
The premiers programme was not well received by the Chamber, although the treasury ministers financial statement was again satisfactory.
At the end of the 12th century was established the " exchequer of the Jews," which chiefly dealt with suits concerning money-lending, and arranged a " continual flow of money from the Jews to the royal treasury," and a so-called " parliament of the Jews " was summoned in 1241; in 1275 was enacted the statute de Judaismo which, among other things, permitted the Jews to hold land.
This gives access to a whole series of halls and private rooms (halls " of the Colonnades," " of the Double Axes," " Queen's Megaron" with bath-room attached and remains of the fish fresco, " Treasury " with ivory figures and other objects of art), together with extensive remains of an upper storey.
In December 1852, however, be became first lord of the treasury and head of a coalition ministry of Whigs and Peelites.
Exactions at the expense of Hanover and Naples helped to lighten the burdens of French finance; Napoleon's sale of Louisiana to the United States early in 1803 for 60,000,000 francs brought further relief to the French treasury; and by pressing hard on his ally, Spain, he compelled her to exchange the armed help which he had a right to claim, for an annual subsidy of 2,880,000.
After not a little hesitation, Hastings consented to allow the Company's troops to be used to further the ambitious designs of his Oudh ally, in consideration of a sum of money which relieved the ever-pressing wants of the Bengal treasury.
DANIEL CHESTER FRENCH (1850-), American sculptor, was born at Exeter, New Hampshire, on the 20th of April 1850, the son of Henry Flagg French, a lawyer, who for a time was assistant-secretary of the United States treasury.
This has been due to speculation, to the unrestricted pasturage of goats, to the rights which many communes have over the forests, and to some extent to excessive taxation, which led the proprietors to cut and sell the trees and then abandon the ground to the Treasury.
The royal commissioner for finance, Giacomelli, had, as a precautionary measure, seized the pontifical treasury; but upon being informed by Cardinal Antonelli that among the funds deposited in the treasury were 1,000,000 crowns of Peters Pence offered by the faithful to the pope in person, the commissioner was authorized by the Italian council of state not only to restore this sum, but also to indemnify the Holy See for moneys expended for the service of the October coupon of the pontifical debt, that debt having been taken over by the Italian state.
ment, with corruption and embezzlement in the treasury.
Maskelyne and John Pond, to defray the expense of which a large sum of money was allotted by the Treasury.
Elected deputy in 1880, he distinguished himself by trenchant criticism of Magliani's finance, and upon the fall of Magliani was for some months, in 188 9, under-secretary of state for the treasury.
After hard fighting the procurator, whose cruelty provoked the attack, captured the Temple and robbed the treasury.
The mode of election to the assembly was altered, the number of its members reduced, and the customs revenue, which had hitherto been shared with the island, was appropriated by the Turkish treasury.
He served in this capacity throughout the war, and for a short time before its close was also acting secretary of the treasury.
Taxation is assessed under British supervision and paid into the native treasury.
In 1790 he conducted the military operations on the Dniester and held his court at Jassy with more than Asiatic pomp. In 1791 he returned to St Petersburg where, along with his friend Bezborodko (q.v.), he made vain efforts to overthrow the new favourite, Zubov, and in four months spent 850,000 roubles in banquets and entertainments, a sum subsequently reimbursed to him from the treasury.
After a peaceful period of a quarter of a century the Armenian subjects of Russia in Transcaucasia were filled with bitterness and discontent by the confiscation of the properties of their national (Gregorian) church by the Russian treasury.
The treasury of St Mark's contains a magnificent collection of church plate and jewels.
At Z is the treasury of St Mark, which was originally one of the towers belonging to the old ducal palace; E, site of old houses; G, clocktower; H, old palace of procurators; J, old library; M, two columns; N, Ponte della Paglia; 0, Bridge of Sighs; W, Giants' Staircase; X, sacristy of St Mark; Y, Piazzetta.
a small, strongly fortified castle; one of its massive angle-towers is now incorporated in St Mark's and serves as the treasury.
Contemporaneously other events were menacing the ascendancy and exhausting the treasury of the republic. In 1453 Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks, and although Venice entered at once into treaty with the new power and desired to trade with it, not to fight with it, yet it was impossible that her possessions in the Levant and the archipelago should not eventually bring her into collision with the expanding energy of the Mussulman.
Exhausting as the Turkish wars were to the Venetian treasury, her trade was still so flourishing that she might have survived the strain had not the discovery of the Cape route to the Indies cut the tap-root of her commercial prosperity by diverting the stream of traffic from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic. When Diaz rounded the Cape in 1486 a fatal blow was struck at Venetian commercial supremacy.
Mellon, a wealthy banker and ironmaster of Pittsburgh, as Secretary of the Treasury, was welcomed by men of business; and though that of Will H.
He advocated the adoption of a national budget system, and, Congress having passed a budget bill similar to that vetoed by Mr. Wilson in 1920, he approved it on June 10 1921; it provided for a Budget Bureau in the Treasury Department and the appointment of a director of the budget, the first being Charles G.
9 1921 when an accord was reached between the Treasury and the Representatives on the taxation plan.
The king was also bound to insure the horses of his men by a system called the restor: if a vassal lost his horse otherwise than by his own fault, it must be replaced by the treasury (which was termed, as it also was in Norman Sicily, the secretum).'
It is true that the king had a revenue, collected by the vicomte and paid into the secretum or treasury - a revenue composed of tolls on the caravans and customs from the ports, of the profits of monopolies and the proceeds of justice, of poll-taxes on Jews and Mahommedans, and of the tributes paid by Mahommedan powers.
Direct collection of taxes by imperial procurators was substituted for the system of farming, and a special official (advocatus fisci) was instituted to look after the interests of the imperial treasury.
The office of king's or queen's proctor has been kept alive but amalgamated with that of the solicitor for the treasury.
He was a member of the lower house of the Ohio legislature in 1821, 1822 and 1829, and of the national House of Representatives from 1831 to 1840; was governor of Ohio in 1840-1842; served in the United States Senate from 1845 to 1850; was secretary of the treasury in the cabinet of President Fillmore in 1850-1853; was again a member of the national House of Representatives from 1859 to 1861; and from 1861 to 1864 was minister of the United States to Mexico - a position of peculiar difficulty at that time.
A vigorous campaign against monasticism took place; the monasteries were closed, and many of them pulled down or converted into barracks; monks and nuns were compelled to marry, and exiled in large numbers to Cyprus; the literary and artistic treasures were sold for the benefit of the imperial treasury.
James Madison became secretary of state, and Albert Gallatin secretary of the treasury.
He had lost his hold upon Pennsylvania and his support in the house, while a cabal in the senate, bitterly and personally hostile to the treasury, crippled the administration and reduced every government measure to mere inanity.
With this end in view he grasped eagerly at the proffered mediation of Russia, and without resigning the treasury sailed for Europe in May 1813.
While still in Europe he had been asked by Madison to become minister to France; this appointment he accepted in January 1816, and adhered to his acceptance in spite of his being asked in April 1816 to serve once more as secretary of the treasury.
155); its "opisthodomos " served as the Athenian treasury in the 5th and 4th centuries; the temple is the apXa ios veWS Tijs lloAcaSos mentioned by Strabo (ix.
With tolls, and the tribute of the Delian League, a fund of 9700 talents (2,30o,000) was amassed in the treasury.
In the period of the Antonines the endowment of professors out of the imperial treasury gave Athens a special status as a university town.
Bibb (1772-1859), secretary of the treasury (1844-1845) in President Tyler's cabinet; William B.
Deficits are made good by grants from the imperial treasury.
avoirdupois) of the total net sugar bounties granted by European powers, according to the computation issued by the secretary of the United States treasury on the 12th of December 1898.
On the same day Cutler and Sargent " for themselves and associates " transferred to William Duer, then Secretary of the Treasury Board, and his associates " one equal moiety of the Scioto tract of land mentioned in the second contract," it being provided that both parties were to be equally interested in the sale of the land, and were to share equally any profit or loss.
He gave away everything, money, villages, domains, whole counties, to the utter impoverishment of the treasury, thereby rendering the crown, for the first time in Hungarian history, dependent upon the great feudatories, who, in Hungary as elsewhere, took all they could get and gave as little as possible in return.
8-12) containing the shrine for official worship, the treasury and other offices.
Among the points of interest within it are the old chapel of 1318, with Leopold's tomb and the altar of Verdun, dating from the 12th century, the treasury and relic-chamber, the library with 30,000 volumes and many MSS., the picture gallery, the collection of coins, the theological hall, and the winecellar, containing an immense tun like that at Heidelberg.
Smith in 1891 he became first lord of the treasury and leader of the House of Commons, and in that capacity introduced in 1892 a Local Government Bill for Ireland.
Suleiman then made himself master of the treasury and fled with the caliph Ibrahim to Tadmor (Palmyra).
He was thrifty and anxious to leave to his son a full treasury.
Mansur discovered this in the same year in which he died, and threatened him with death unless he should pay to the treasury three millions of dirhems within three days.
He put the frontiers in a good state of defence; he filled the public treasury, and carried the splendour of the throne to the highest point.
Thereupon Ali fled from Balkh, leaving the treasury, which was plundered by the populace after his departure.
He began by squandering the 15,000,000 dinars which were in the treasury when his brother died in largesses to his courtiers, who, however, merely increased their demands.
Such prosecutions also put money into the pockets of the judges, and, if successful, into the public treasury.
On the 12th of March 1881, however, the acting secretary of the United States treasury, in answer to a letter asking for an interpretation of the words "waters adjacent thereto" in the acts of 1868 and 1873, stated that all the waters east of the boundary line were considered to be within the waters of Alaska territory.
In recognition of the city's financial strength, Atlanta has been designated by the secretary of the treasury as one of the cities whose bonds will be accepted as security for Federal deposits.
Servilius Caepio 1 declared that the treasury could not stand the strain, and Saturninus's own colleagues interposed their veto.
aes, in its derived sense of "money"), the name (in full, aerarium stabulum, treasure-house) given in ancient Rome to the public treasury, and in a secondary sense to the public finances.
The treasury contained the moneys and accounts of the state, and also the standards of the legions; the public laws engraved on brass, the decrees of the senate and other papers and registers of importance.
In addition to the common treasury, supported by the general taxes and charged with the ordinary expenditure, there was a special reserve fund, also in the temple of Saturn, the aerarium sanctum (or sanctius), probably originally consisting _of the spoils of war, afterwards maintained chiefly by a 5% tax on the value of all manumitted slaves, this source of revenue being established by a lex Manlia in 357.
6 a military treasury (aerarium militare), containing all moneys raised for and appropriated to the maintenance of the army, including a pension fund for disabled soldiers.
The more noteworthy are the old government house (now occupied by the school of mines), the legislative chambers, municipal hall and jail - all fronting on the Praga da Independencia - and elsewhere the old Casa dos Contos (afterwards the public treasury), a theatre (the oldest in Brazil, restored in 1861-1862) and a hospital.
In June 1747 he became a lord of the treasury, and in 1754 treasurer of the navy and privy councillor.
He died at Valenciennes on the 13th of February (according to the treasury accounts), or on the 10th of March (according to his epitaph) 1475.
He renewed old taxes and instituted new, increased the tribute of the provinces, and kept a watchful eye upon the treasury officials.
He was regarded as one of the clearest-headed and most judicious officials in the British service, and his position as a man of moderate Liberal views, who had been so closely associated with Goschen at the Treasury, Cromer in Egypt and Hicks-Beach (Lord St Aldwyn) and Sir W.
In 1790 the interest was reduced to 3%, and as the treasury had again become exhausted, a further issue was decided upon; it was also decreed that the assignats were to be accepted as legal tender, all public departments being instructed to receive them as the equivalent of metallic money.
These measures were soon stultified by further issues, and by June 1794 the total number of assignats aggregated nearly 8,000,000,000, of which only 2,464,000,000 had returned to the treasury and been destroyed.
The assignats had now become totally valueless - the abolition of the "maximum" the previous year (1795) had produced no effect, and, though, by various payments into the treasury, the total number had been reduced to about 24,000,000,000 francs, their face-value was about 3 o to I of coin.
The captaincy-general of Cuba was not originally, however, by any means so broad in powers as the viceroyalties of Mexico and Peru; and by the creation in 1765 of the office of intendant - the delegate of the national treasury - his faculties were very greatly curtailed.
Consult the Boletin above mentioned, publications of the Estacion Central Agronomica, and current statistical serial reports of the treasury department (Hacienda) on natural resources, live-stock interests, the sugar industry (annual), &c.
The public revenues were passed under three principal denominations: (1) the public treasury; (2) the reserve, into which was paid any surplus of revenues over expenses from the treasury; (3) the private fortune (civil list) of the prince.
This vicious system, grafted as it was upon an inefficient administration, and added to the weight of a continually depreciated currenc y, debased both by ill-advised fiscal measures and by public cupidity, formed one of the principal causes of the financial embarrassments which assailed the treasury with ever increasing force in the latter part of the 16th and during the 17th and 18th centuries.
Impoverished by these different causes, as well as by prodigal extravagance in interior expenditure, by shameless venality among the ruling classes, and by continual wars, of which the cost, whether they were successful or not, was enormous, the public treasury was frequently empty.
Then came forced loans and debased currency (1788), producing still more acute distress until, in 1791, at the close of the two years' war with Russia, in which the disaster which attended Ottoman arms may be largely ascribed to the penury of the Ottoman treasury, Selim III., the first of the " reforming sultans, " attempted, with but little practical success, to introduce radical reforms into the administrative organization of his empire.
It was there stated that, on the most favourable estimate, the normal deficit of the Turkish treasury was T2,725,000, (upwards of £T,1,700,000 below the truth as now declared.) and the following observations were appended: " This budget represents the normal situation of Ottoman finance; it does not tally with the budget published in 1897, which was prepared with a special object in view, and was obviously full of inaccuracies, nor indeed does it agree with figures which could be officially obtained from the Porte.
By financial expedients of this kind payments were effected by the treasury ill fifteen years (1881-1896) amounting to £T11,666,000 or at the rate of nearly £T800,000 per annum.
Three bills, moreover, were presented to parliament, the first regulating Public Accountancy, the second regulating the Central Accounts Department, and the third the service of the Treasury.
The total credits for the ministry of finance are, then, as follows: Ottoman public debt, £T8,288,394; House of Osman, £T443,880; legislative corps, U181,871; treasury, ET2,989,600; central accounts department, £T17,124; forming an aggregate of £T11,920,869.
The parity thus working out at;102.60, gold continued to be held away from the treasury, and in 1909 the government decided to accept the Turkish pound at the last named rate.
The exhaustion of the treasury was evidenced by 1773-1789.
As the war went on the naval power of the Greeks diminished, partly owing to the penury of their treasury, and partly to the growth of piracy in the general anarchy of the Eastern Mediterranean.
In anticipation of this event a gigantic system of docks, basins and quays was constructed, at a total cost of some £7,000,000 (of which the imperial treasury contributed 2,000,000), between the confluence of the Alster and the railway bridge (1868-1873), an entire quarter of the town inhabited by some 24,000 people being cleared away to make room for these accessories of a great port.
He became financial secretary to the Treasury in 1907, president of the Board of Education in 1908, and was president of the Board of Agriculture from 1911 to 1914.
He also edited a monthly magazine, The Sword and Trowel; an elaborate exposition of the Psalms, in seven volumes, called The Treasury of David (1870-1885); and a book of sayings called John Ploughman's Talks; or, Plain Advice for Plain People (1869), a kind of religious Poor Richard.
instead of paying the taille they paid into the royal treasury a sum fixed by contract, which they generally raised by octrois, or entrance dues.
The same year he held the post of governor of Copenhagen and shared with Byrge Trolle the control of the treasury.
By a decree of 1842 this fund was transferred to the public treasury of Mexico, the Mexican government undertaking to pay interest thereon in perpetuity in furtherance of the design of the original donors.
The count of the sacred bounties was the lord treasurer or chancellor of the exchequer, for the public treasury and the imperial fisc had come to be identical; while the count of the private estates managed the imperial demesnes and the privy purse.
It is difficult to give briefly a clear idea of the functions of the three important officials comes sacrarum largitionum, comes rei privatae and comes sacri partrimonii; but the terms have been well translated by a German author as Finanzminister des Reichsschatzes (finance minister of the treasury of the Empire), F.
des Kronschatzes (of the crown treasury), and F.
The result was that the national treasury became burdened with a heavy annual interest charge, payable abroad in gold, which did not tend to diminish, and had a long period to run before the expiration of the contracts.
£163,802,675 In addition to these, the government was still responsible for interest guarantees on fourteen railways, or sections of existing lines, with an aggregate capital of about £4,900,000 held in Europe and 12, 0 55,44 0 milreis held in Brazil, on which the national treasury paid in interest £191,324 and 1,398,493 milreis.
The paper currency of Brazil consists of both treasury issues and bank-notes, the latter issued under government supervision.
Besides the ministry which had come with the regent, Reorgan- the council of state, and the departments of the four ization on ministries of home, finances, war and marine then Portu- existing, there were created in the course of one year a supreme court of justice, a board of patronage and administration of the property of the church and military orders, an inferior court of appeal, the court of exchequer and royal treasury, the royal mint, bank of Brazil, royal printing-office, powder-mills on a large scale, and a supreme military court.
Second in importance to George Street is Pitt Street, which runs parallel to it from the Circular Quay to the railway station; Macquarie Street runs alongside the Domain and contains a number of public buildings, including the treasury, the office of public works, the houses of parliament and the mint.
Two-thirds of the revenue of the county went into the royal treasury, the remaining third the lord-lieutenant retained for administrative purposes.
Bela endeavoured to strengthen his own monarchy by introducing the hereditary principle, crowning his infant son Emerich, as his successor during his own lifetime, a practice followed by most of the later Arpads; he also held a brilliant court on the Byzantine model, and replenished the treasury by his wise economies.
The lesser gentry were protected against the tyranny of the magnates, encouraged to appear at court and taxed for military service by the royal treasury direct - so as to draw them closer to the crown.
Charles, moreover, was a born financier, and his reform of the currency and of the whole fiscal system greatly contributed to enrich both the merchant class and the treasury.
Moreover, to promote their own convenience, they readily allowed the king to assess as well as to collect the taxes, which consequently tended to become regular and permanent, while Matthias' reform of the treasury, which was now administered by specialists with separate functions, was economically of great benefit to the state.
The virtual suppression of Wladislaus was completed at the diet of 1492, when " King All Right " consented to live on the receipts of the treasury, which were barely sufficient to maintain his court, and engaged never to impose any new taxes on his Magyar subjects.
Meanwhile, the immediate necessities of the government were provided for by the issue through Messrs Rothschild of £2,000,000 fresh treasury bills.
Among the earlier publications of the academy were the Tudomdnytdr (Treasury of Sciences, 1834-1844), with its supplement Literatura; the KUlfoldi jdtPkszin (Foreign Theatres); the Magyar nyelv rendszere (System of the Hungarian language, 1846; 2nd ed., 1847); various dictionaries of scientific, mathematical, philosophical and legal terms; a Hungarian - German dictionary (1835-1838), and a Glossary of Provincialisms (1838).
4 Among its earlier productions were the Nemzeti konyvtdr (National Library), published 1843-1847, and continued in 1852 under the title Ujabb Nemzeti konyvtdr, a repository of works by celebrated authors; the KUlfoldi Regenytdr (Treasury of Foreign Romances), consisting of translations; and some valuable collections of proverbs, folk-songs, traditions and fables.
of the Hazai nep kOlteszet tdra (Treasury of the Country's Popular Song), commenced in 1866, under the auspices of the Kisfaludy society.
He refused to follow the financial policy of his party in 1862, and delivered a notable speech against the passage of the Legal Tender Act, which made a certain class of treasury notes receivable for all public and private debts.
Appointed minister of the treasury in the first Di Rudini cabinet of 1891, he imprudently abolished the system of frequent clearings of bank-notes between the state banks, a measure which facilitated the duplication of part of the paper currency and hastened the bank crisis of 1893.
In 1896 he entered the second Di Rudini cabinet as minister of the treasury, and by timely legislation helped to save the bank of Naples from failure.
He was again minister of the treasury from November 1903 to March 1905 in Giolitti's second administration, and for the third time from February to May 1906, under Sonnino's premiership. During the latter term of office he achieved the conversion of the Italian 5% debt (reduced to 4% by the tax) to 31% to be eventually lowered to 32%, an operation which other ministers had attempted without success; although the actual conversion was not completed until after the fall of the cabinet of which he formed part the merit is entirely his.
The treasury was empty, the Boers refused to pay their taxes, and there was no power to enforce them.
A parliamentary commission, appointed to inquire into the charges against him, discovered only that Crispi, on assuming office in 1893, had found the secret service coffers empty, and had borrowed from a state bank the sum of £12,00o for secret service, repaying it with the monthly instalments granted in regular course by the treasury.
He was secretary of the navy in 1831-1834, secretary of the treasury in 1834-1841, and associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court from 1846 until his death, at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, on the 4th of September 1851.
The treasury contains a richly worked silver crucifix 9 ft.
The cost of maintenance exceeds £200,000 annually; contributions towards this are made by the Treasury and the fire insurance companies.
Metropolitan borough councils have to obtain the sanction of the Local Government Board to loans for baths, washhouses, public libraries, sanitary conveniences and certain other purposes under the Public Health Acts; for cemeteries the sanction of the Treasury is required, and for all other purposes that of the London County Council; poor law authorities, the metropolitan asylums board, the metropolitan water board and the central (unemployed) body require the sanction of the Local Government Board the receiver for the metropolitan police district that of the Home Office, and the London County Council that of parliament and the Treasury.
Previously to their holding office, Daniel Manning (1831-1887), secretary of the treasury in President Cleveland's cabinet, was president of the Argus company, and Daniel Scott Lamont (1851-1905), secretary of war during President Cleveland's second administration, was managing editor of the newspaper.
at the bottom, preserved in the treasury of St Mark at Venice.
Of uncoloured glass brought from Constantinople several examples exist in the treasury of St Mark's at Venice, part of the plunder of the imperial city when taken by the crusaders in 1204.
Guru Gu g Go Har Govind promptly ordered that the articles should be relegated to his treasury, the museum of the period.
He was the most active member of the committee of finance and was often charged to verify the state of the treasury.
Gis-ukh was made tributary, a certain amount of grain being levied upon each person in it, which had to be paid into the treasury of the goddess Nina and the god Ingurisa.
Furnished with money from the treasury of the temple of Baal-berith, he hired a band of followers and slew seventy (cp. 2 Kings x.
lords of the treasury, civil or naval lords of the admiralty.
So wrote Mr Chamberlain, the colonial secretary, on the 9th of November following, to the treasury.
Mr Chamberlain concluded by asking whether the treasury would consent to sending a royal commission to the West Indies to inquire into the effect of the foreign sugar bounties on their principal industry.
The treasury accepted the proposal, and a royal commission proceeded to the West Indies in December 1896, and reported a few months later in 1897.
The table has been adapted from the Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance of the United States, January 1907, prepared in the Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department, Washington Government Printing Office, 1902.
Able-bodied blacks were enlisted in the army, and the women, children and old men were settled in large camps on confiscated Southern property, where they were cared for alternately by the war department and by the treasury department until the organization of the Freedmen's Bureau.
In addition to private rooms and state apartments, the Hofburg contains a library of about 800,000 volumes, 7000 incunabula and 24,000 MSS., including the celebrated "Papyrus Rainer"; the imperial treasury, containing the family treasures of the house of Habsburg-Lorraine, and other important collections.
Next come the imperial treasury at the Hofburg, already mentioned; the famous collection of drawings and engravings known as the Albertina in the palace of the archduke Frederick, which contains over 200,000 engravings and 16,000 drawings; the picture gallery of the academy of art; the collection of the Austrian museum of art and industry; the historical museum of the city of Vienna; and the military museum at the arsenal.
Receiving thirty pieces of silver, he casts it into the temple treasury and breaks the staff " Union," i.e.
Petersburg unattended, but also great lack of faith in the existing order, since, having discovered that through an irregularity his pay depended on the Privy Purse, he caused it to be charged to the Treasury as the first act of his tenure of office.
In March 1861 he took his seat in the Senate, to which he had been elected to succeed Salmon P. Chase, when the latter became secretary of the treasury.
As senator he sat continuously until he became secretary of the treasury in 1877.
The Resumption Act of 1875, which provided for the return of specie payments four years later, was largely his work both in inception and in formulation, and his appointment to the head of the Treasury Department by President Hayes in 1877 enabled him to carry the policy embodied in the law to successful execution.
During this period he was largely concerned in the enactment of the Anti-Trust Law of 1890, and of the so-called Sherman Act of the same year, providing for the purchase of silver and the issuing of Treasury notes based upon it.
Then followed the ambitious schemes of President Balta, which with the loans of 5870 and 1872 raised the total foreign debt to £49,000,000, on which the annual interest charge was about £ 2, 5 ©0, 000, a sum wholly beyond the resources of the treasury.
The Alte Residenz dates from 1601 to 1616; its apartments are handsomely fitted up in the Rococo style, and the private chapel and the treasury contain several crowns and many other interesting and valuable objects.
From 1777 to 1783 he was a member of the Continental Congress, and in this body he served on three important committees, the marine committee, the board of treasury, and the committee of appeals, the predecessors respectively of the navy and treasury departments and the Supreme Court under the Federal Constitution.
The treasury was managed by two chamberlains; and every five years the Paduans sent one of their nobles to reside as nuncio in Venice, and to watch the interests of his native town.
As soon as he could be brought back he formed an administration, and appointed Gladstone to a junior lordship of the treasury.
Lord Salisbury resigned, and on the 15th of August 1892 Gladstone kissed hands as first lord of the treasury.
He replenished the treasury by a more equable and rational system of assessing and collecting the taxes.
Of the above three headings, it was decided that all national roads should be maintained at the national expense, the regulations for their up-keep being entrusted to the care of the prefectures along the line of route, and the cost incurred being paid from the Imperial treasury.
A period of interruption now ensued, owing to domestic troubles and foreign complications, and when, in 1878, the government was able to devote attention once again to railway problems, it found the treasury empty.
Prince Iwakura, one of the leaders of the Meiji statesmen, persuaded the feudatories to employ a part of the bonds as capital for railway construction, and thus the first private railway company was formed in Japan under the name Nippon tetsudo kaisha (Japan railway company), the treasury guaranteeing 8% on the paid-up capital for a period of 15 years.
But from the beginning of that year, a period of extreme commercial and financial depression set in, and the treasury had to postpone all recourse to loans for whatever purpose, so that railway progress was completely checked in the field alike of the original and the acquired state lines.
In these circumstances the government decided to tak~ a strong step, namely, to place the whole of the railways owned ~y itthe original state lines as well as those nationalizedin an account independent of the regular budget, and to devote their entire profits to works of extension and improvement, supplementing the amount with loans from the treasury when necessary.
The finances were squandered in gratifying the king's unbridled prodigality, and the treasury was drained by his luxurious habits, by the innumerable gifts and pensions he distributed among his mistresses and courtiers, by his war expenses and by his magnificent buildings.
He returned to office as junior lord of the treasury in December.
Fox acquired the conviction that, if the House was to be made an efficient instrument for restraining the interference of the king and for securing good government, it must cease to be filled to a very large extent by the nominees of boroughmongers and the treasury.
Moreover in 454 (probably) the changed relations were crystallized by the transference (proposed by the Samians) of the treasury to Athens (Corp. Inscr.
This highly organized financial system must have been gradually evolved, and no doubt reached its perfection only after the treasury was transferred to Athens.
The taxes are collected directly, and must meet the needs of the province, before any sum is remitted to the Imperial Treasury.
Farther west was the Sicyonian treasury on the south of the way.
The sculptures from this treasury are in the museum, as are the other sculptures found on the site.
The earlier treasury was probably destroyed either by earthquake or by the percolation of water through the terracing.
The Cnidian treasury stands on the south side of the way farther west.
This building was originally surmised by the excavators to be the treasury of Siphnos, but further evidence led them to change their opinion.
The treasury was raised on a quadrangular structure, supported on its south side by the Hellenico, and built of tufa.
The sculpture from this treasury, which ornamented its frieze and pediment, is of great interest in the history of the development of the art, and the fragments of architectural mouldings are of great delicacy and beauty.
Standing back somewhat from the path just as it bends round up the hill is the Theban treasury.
Farther north, where the path turns again, is the Athenian treasury.
The famous inscriptions with hymns to Apollo accompanied by musical notation were found on stones belonging to this treasury.
Above the Athenian treasury is an open space, in which is a rock which has been identified as the Sybil's rock.
Malachi indeed assumes that the " whole tithe " - the Deuteronomic phrase for the tithe in which the Levites shared - is not stored in each township, but brought into the treasury at the Temple.
At the beginning of 1914 he was promoted to the responsible post of financial secretary to the Treasury, in which capacity he was of material assistance in the financial improvisation which had to be effected in the early days of the war.
Early in the next year he was made Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, but when the first Coalition Ministry was formed he returned to his former post at the Treasury.
This was: never to pay attention to the advice of women, to allow nobody to grow too rich, to keep his treasury well filled, and himself and his troops constantly occupied.
On the outbreak of the French Revolution he sided with the royalists and was eventually brought into conflict with the French republic. The army being demoralized and the treasury empty, the kingdom The fell an easy prey to the republican forces.
Early in 98 he was promoted to the position of praefect of the public treasury in the temple of Saturn.
Great injury was inflicted on English trade by Dutch cruisers, while the wasteful administration of his officers reduced the king's treasury to much embarrassment.
The cope presented to the cathedral treasury by Pope Nicholas IV.
The sarcophagus in which the body originally lay may still be seen at Aix, and other relics of the great emperor are in the imperial treasury at Vienna.
From this meaning is deduced that of the person in whom lies the right of presenting to public offices, privileges, &c., still surviving in the title of the Patronage Secretary of the Treasury in Great Britain.
To his sons he bequeathed a well-stored treasury, a formidable army, and even a fleet.
The treasury was exhausted by lavish expenditure on gladiatorial and wild beast combats and on the soldiery, and the property of the wealthy was confiscated.
In 1843 President Tyler nominated him for secretary of the treasury, but the senate refused to confirm him for this office.
On the death of Charles Felix (27th of April 1831) Charles Albert succeeded; he inherited a kingdom without an army, with an empty treasury, a chaotic administration and medieval laws.
" lord of the treasury"), sometimes mere dignity, as in the case of the title of honour borne by all descendants of the Prophet, or of the title Mir assumed by men of great rank in the Far East.
In May he succeeded the duke of Newcastle as first lord of the treasury, and he was created K.G.
Various devices were resorted to, old and new, to fill the treasury.
In the Spanish-American War of 1898 Massachusetts furnished 11,780 soldiers and sailors, though her quota was but 7388; supplementing from her own treasury the pay accorded them by the national government.
It contains the executive offices of the government and those of five cabinet ministers (interior, foreign affairs, treasury, war and justice), the senate chamber, the general archives, national museum, observatory and meteorological bureau.
He used all sorts of expedients, sometimes dishonest, to replenish the treasury, and was even accused of having himself profited from the commerce in wheat.
Folger (1818-1884), then secretary of the treasury.
Secretary Folger was a man of high character and ability, who had been chief justice of the New York supreme court when placed in control of the treasury department by President Arthur in 1881.
The most important bill vetoed was the Dependent Pension Bill, a measure of extreme profligacy, opening the door, by the vagueness of its terms, to enormous frauds upon the treasury.
In 1887 there was a large and growing surplus in the treasury.
Congress had passed a law in 1878 requiring the treasury department to purchase a certain amount of silver bullion each month and coin it into silver dollars to be full legal tender.
The deficit in the treasury made it inevitable that the gold reserve should be used to meet current expenses.
In anticipation of the census of 1891, a treasury committee was appointed to consider the various suggestions made in regard to the form and scope of the inquiry.
As deputy he chiefly acquired prominence by attacks on Magliani, treasury minister in the Depretis cabinet, and on the 9th of March 1889 was himself selected as treasury minister by Crispi.
The aggregate of taxes received by the state treasury through the comptroller's department for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1909, was $23,000,000.
The surplus in the treasury was $8,435,848, the total amount in trust and sinking funds was $31,301,501.
In 1829 the Safety-Fund Act was passed, which required each bank thereafter chartered or rechartered to pay into the state treasury 3% of its capital stock other than that owned by the state, and from this fund the debts of insolvent banks were to be paid.
The financial collapse of 1879 left the treasury empty.
Although taxation was seconded by a drastic, indeed harsh, reduction of public salaries and wages (which were cut down by one-tenth all round) yet the years 1884, 1887 and 1888 were notable for heavy deficits in the treasury.
In 1921 he was appointed Secretary of the Treasury in the Cabinet of President Harding.
These take a variety of forms, (From Andrews' Church Treasury.) (From Andrews' Church Treasury.) FIG.
Andrews, Church Treasury (1898), article " Pilgrims' Signs," by Rev. G.
For the two years ending the 1st of October 1908 the total receipts into the state treasury amounted to $10,854,281.42 and the total disbursements amounted to $ 11, 0 53,375.1 3.
A substantial cash balance was left in the treasury for the use of the new government.
Under it all the principal officers of state, including the first lords of the treasury and admiralty, the secretaries of state, and certain members of the privy council, among whom was the archbishop of Canterbury, obtained seats at the board ex officio; and ten unofficial members, including several eminent statesmen, were also placed on the committee.
The cost was defrayed partly from the imperial treasury, but partly also from Nerva's private resources, and the execution of the scheme was entrusted to commissioners (Dig.
14 of the constitution, which provided that: " When pressing necessity for such measures presents itself at a time when the Reichsrat is not sitting, they may be promulgated by imperial decree, in so far as they do not produce any lasting burden on the State treasury."
But, besides this, the bank had also afforded credits to the State in other forms. In return for bonds given by the Austrian and Hungarian State they issued Treasury bills, and transferred the proceeds from them to the two finance departments.
The total amount of such Treasury bills in circulation at the end of 1918 was roughly 7,400 millions of kronen.
There is a small nominal indebtedness, less than the cash surplus in the treasury.
To fill his exhausted treasury he put to death his wealthy subjects and confiscated their property; even the poor fell victims to his thirst for blood.
As secretary of the treasury (1874-1876) he prosecuted with vigour the so-called "Whisky Ring," the headquarters of which was at St Louis, and which, beginning in 1870 or 1871, had defrauded the Federal government out of a large part of its rightful revenue from the distillation of whisky.
Largely owing to friction between himself and the president, Bristow resigned his portfolio in June 1876; as secretary of the treasury he advocated the resumption of specie payments and at least a partial retirement of "greenbacks"; and he was also an advocate of civil service reform.
JOHN CHARLES HERRIES (1778-1855), English politician, son of a London merchant, began his career as a junior clerk in the treasury, and became known for his financial abilities as private secretary to successive ministers.
In 1823 he entered parliament as secretary to the treasury, and in 1827 became chancellor of the exchequer under Lord Goderich; but in consequence of internal differences, arising partly out of a slight put upon Herries, the ministry was broken up, and in 1828 he was appointed master of the mint.
Reduced by the exhausted state of his treasury to the last extremity he at length seriously thought of departure."
The largest and best preserved of them, now commonly called the Treasury of Atreus, is just outside the Lion Gate.
At the close of the fiscal year ending on the 31st of October 1908, the receipts for the year amounted to $3,259,668, the expenditures to $3,47 6, 0 73 and the balance in the treasury to $582,905.
in the treasury of the emperors of the Tang dynasty.'
In 1876 the practice of paying a yearly surplus (batig slot) from the revenues of Netherlands India to the treasury at the Hague was discontinued.
In 1918 he resigned from the House to enter the Cabinet of President Wilson as Secretary of the Treasury, succeeding William G.
Martin, deceased, and he resigned as Secretary of the Treasury.
In the second half of the decade a continuous large surplus in the Treasury necessarily directed attention to the state of the revenue, and gave strength" to the protests against excessive taxation.
7 1916 he visited London and held a conference with the Chancellor of the Exchequer at the Treasury.
But though the treasury was thus temporarily replenished and the army increased, the gentry who had been so generous at the expense of their richer neighbours would hear of no additional burdens being laid on themselves, and the king only obtained what he wanted by sacrificing his principles to his necessities, and helping the szlachta to pull down the magnates.
Thus one statute permitted the szlachta henceforth to export and import goods duty free, to the great detriment of the towns and the treasury.
Soon afterwards he was placed on the commission of the treasury and on the committee of the privy council for foreign affairs.
These unfortunate creatures had no alternative but to accept the provisions made for them out of the Temple treasury, but after the fall of the Temple they would naturally disappear by intermarriage with similar degraded classes (Mishna Kidd.
the briefest sketch of her life can omit to notice that happy instinct or intuition which led her, when all others had heard with incredulity the scheme of Columbus, to recall the wanderer to her presence with the words, "I will assume the undertaking for my own crown of Castile, and am ready to pawn my jewels to defray the expenses of it, if the funds in the treasury should be found inadequate."
The actual form of government may be summarized thus: - At the head of the administration in Algeria is a governorgeneral, who exercises control over all branches, civil and military, of the administration, except the services of justice, public instruction and worship (as far as concerns Europeans) and the treasury.
For that year the budget was already settled, and it was introduced by Mr Asquith himself, the ex-chancellor; but Mr Lloyd George earned golden opinions, both at the Treasury and in parliament, by his industry and his handling of the Finance Bill, especially important for its inclusion of Old Age Pensions, in the later stages.
In 1807 he was appointed a second time prime minister and first lord of the treasury.
In 1873-1874 he was patronage secretary to the treasury, and in 1880 he became undersecretary for the home department.
In December 1906, after long discussion, the contribution of the Basque Provinces to the state, according to the law of the 21st of July 1876, was fixed for the next twenty years; for the first ten years at 8,500,000 pesetas, for the next ten an additional 500,000 pesetas, from 31st December 1916 to 31st December 1926, the province of Guipuzcoa paying in addition 700,000 pesetas to the treasury.
In the 3rd century, under Gallienus and Probus, the city contained the chief imperial mint and treasury; and an engraved coffer, found in Croatia, dating from the 4th century, and representing the five foremost cities of the Empire, includes Siscia along with Rome, Byzantium, Carthage and Nicomedia.
Commercial, and Treasury Committee on National Physical Laboratory, Parlimentary Paper, 1898.)
The original places and dates of these cannot yet be fixed, except for the lowest type of 138-140 grains; this belonged to Heliopolis (7), as two weights (35) inscribed of "the treasury of An" show 139.9 and 140.4, while a plain one from there gives 138.8; the variety 147-149 may belong to Hermopolis (35), according to an inscribed weight.
Treasury Buildings 3.
[[Stree ?R]] sr ': O Point Urns Collins Street a building in brown freestone is occupied by the Treasury, behind which and fronting the Treasury Park another palatial building houses the government offices.
The Treasury, Flagstaff and Carlton Gardens are of the same class.
Thus, too, he was granted the sole right of making peace and war, and of disposing of the funds in the treasury of the state.
The paper money issues are by banks and not by the government, and the national treasury keeps no cash in its vaults and has no sinking funds to offset this indebtedness.
officers, the attorney-general, auditor, important administrative boards, coroners and certain naval and military officers; they have power to pardon offences; and they may exercise some control over expenditure through the constitutional requirement of the governor's warrant for drawing money from the treasury.
Charities on a large scale and unbounded nepotism exhausted the papal treasury.
Mahmud, after this victory, pushed on through the Punjab to Nagar-kot (Kangra), and carried off much spoil from the Hindu temples to enrich his treasury at Ghazni.
Indian conquests, striking and important in themselves, were, after all, in great measure barren, except to the Ghazni treasury.
Marcy of New York, secretary of state; Jefferson Davis of Mississippi, secretary of war; James Guthrie (1792-1869) of Kentucky, secretary of the treasury; James C. Dobbin (1814-1857) of North Carolina, secretary of the navy; Robert McClelland (1807-1880) of Michigan, secretary of the interior; James Campbell (1813-1893) of Pennsylvania, postmaster-general; and Caleb Cushing of Massachusetts, attorney-general.
The school was never incorporated, it had no buildings, and the lectures were delivered in the law offices of its instructors, but among its 1000 or more students were many who afterwards became famous, including John C. Calhoun; Levi Woodbury (1789-1851), United States senator from New Hampshire in1825-1831and in 1841-1845, secretary of the navy in 1831-1834 and of the treasury in 1834-1841, and a justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1845; John Y.
To enable it to bear the expense involved in all these undertakings, the local treasury was generally assisted by large benefactions, either in money or in works, from individual citizens; but direct taxation for municipal purposes was hardly ever resorted to.
The treasury was filled out of the proceeds of the landed possessions of the community, especially such fruitful sources of revenue as mines and quarries, and out of import and export duties.
The public debt on the 1st of November 1909, less certificates and notes offset by cash in the Treasury, was $1,295,147,432o4.
The secretary of the treasury sends annually to Congress a report containing a statement of the national income and expenditure and of the condition of the public debt, together with remarks on the system of taxation and suggestions for its improvement.
The report presented by the secretary of the treasury has been referred to this committee, but the latter does not necessarily in any way regard that report.
These various appropriation committees start from, but are not restricted by and do not in fact adopt, the estimates of the secretary of the treasury.
While nearly all important measures are brought into parliament by the ministers of the sovereign, and nominally under his instructions, the American president cannot introduce bills either directly or through his the secretary of the treasury, the secretary of war, the attorneygeneral, the postmaster-general, the secretary of the navy, the secretary of the interiorthis order to apply only to such officers as shall have been appointed by the advice and consent of the Senate.
The most important are the state and treasury departments.
The two main functions of the treasury department are the administration of the government revenues and expenditures, and of the banking and currency laws.
The several states, whose revenue powers are only limited by: (a) restrictions in their respective constitutions, and (b) the general principle that those powers must not be exercised in such a way as to contravene laws of the United States, or to destroy sources of the national revenue, although a state may prohibit within its borders the sale of liquors, from taxes upon which the Unit~d States Treasury derives a considerable part of its receipts.
The aggregate net ordinary receipts into the United States treasury, from I 791 to the 30th of June 1885, were as follows, in millions of dollars: from customs, 5642; from internal revenue, 3449; from direct taxes, 28; from public lands, 241; from miscellaneous sources, 578; total, 9938.
The amount of the debt per capita of population, less cash in the treasury, was $15-63 in f800; it fell to $0.21 in 1840; rose again, and in 1865 reached a maximum of $7698; since when it had fallen by the 30th of June 1908 to $1076.
The amount of the debt outstanding, minus gold and silver certificates and Treasury notes offset by cash in the Treasury, was $1,295,147,432.04 on the 1st of November 1909.
In March 1886 this letter was communicated to the San Francisco customs by Mr Daniel Manning, secretary of the treasury, for publication.
The Fishery Commission, on the other hand, which sat in Halifax, awarded Canada $5,500,000 as the excess value of its fisheries for twelve years, and after much hesitation this sum was paid by the United States into the Canadian treasury.
Lighthall, Songs Of The Great Dominion; Theodore Rand'S Treasury Of Canadian Verse (1900); C. C. James'S Bibliography Of Canadian Verse (1898); L.
In 1900 he was elected Liberal member for Midlothian, and in 1905 entered the Government as Comptroller of the Household and Scottish Liberal Whip. In 1909 he became UnderSecretary for India, and in 1910 parliamentary secretary to the Treasury and chief Liberal Whip, in which position he remained until 1 9 12.
In September 1908, after an investigation which showed that many wardens had been in the pay of convict lessees and that terrible cruelty had been practised in convict camps, an extra session of the legislature practically put an end to the convict lease or contract system; the act then passed provided that after the 31st of March 1909, the date of expiration of leases in force, no convicts may be leased for more than twelve months and none may be leased at all unless there are enough convicts to supply all demands for convict labour on roads made by counties, each county to receive its pro rata share on a population basis, and to satisfy all demands made by municipalities which thus secure labour for $100 per annum (per man) paid into the state treasury, and all demands made by the state prison farm and factory established by this law.
The interior is very richly decorated, notably with fine frescoes, and its treasury and fine library of over 60,000 volumes are famous.
His wars and his extravagance exhausted his treasury, and he oppressed his subjects by taxes.
In the terrible crisis of affairs preceding the French Revolution, when minister after minister tried in vain to replenish the exhausted royal treasury and was dismissed for want of success, Calonne was summoned to take the general control of affairs.
Before it he exposed the deficit in the treasury, and proposed the establishment of a subvention territoriale, which should be levied on all property without distinction.
The ministry of finance is in the Treasury building on Rua do Sacramento - an immense structure of no special architectural merit.
Having in 1804 been chosen to represent Liskeard, he was on the restoration of the Pitt ministry appointed secretary of the treasury, holding office till the dissolution of the ministry after the death of Pitt in January 1806.
Instead of plundering to support his prodigality, he emptied his private treasury to assist distressed provinces and cities, and everywhere exercised rigid economy (hence the nickname Kv'Avowpicmis, " cummin-splitter").
Apart from his personal expenses such as postage, travelling expenses, &c., a candidate is prohibited from spending anything himself to promote either his nomination or his election, but he is allowed to contribute to the treasury of the political committee.
As a matter of fact he does commonly contribute to the party treasury, though in the case of certain candidates, particularly those for the presidency and for judicial offices, financial contributions are not general.
Kalakaua considered residents of European or American descent as alien invaders, and he aimed to restore largely the ancient system of personal government, under which he should have control of the public treasury.
At the general election of 1900 he was returned for East Manchester (which he had represented since 1885) by a majority of 2453, and continued in office as first lord of the treasury.
He himself became first lord of the treasury and lord privy seal, with the duke of Devonshire (remaining lord president of the council) as leader of the House of Lords; Lord Lansdowne remained foreign secretary, Mr (afterwards Lord) Ritchie took the place of Sir Michael Hicks-Beach (afterwards Lord St Aldwyn) as chancellor of the exchequer, Mr J.
But Mr Chamberlain's new programme for a general tariff, with new taxes on food arranged so as to give a preference to colonial products, involved a radical alteration of the established fiscal system, and such out-and-out Unionist free-traders in the cabinet as Mr Ritchie and Lord George Hamilton, and outside it, like Lord Hugh Cecil and Mr Arthur Elliot (secretary to the treasury), were entirely opposed to this.
During this critical fortnight the duke had apparently acquiesced in Mr Balfour's compromise, and had co-operated in reconstituting the ministry; his nephew and heir had been made financial secretary to the treasury, while Mr Alfred Lyttelton was appointed colonial secretary, Mr Austen Chamberlain chancellor of the exchequer, Mr Brodrick secretary for India, Mr H.
The latter's prosperity is still attested by its archaeological remains (notably the "Treasury of Minyas") and the traces of artificial conduits by which its engineers supplemented the natural outlets.
That a sovereign like St Louis should be able to associate himself officially with the feudalism of his realm to repress abuses of church jurisdiction; that a contemporary of Philip the Fair, the lawyer Pierre Dubois, should dare to suggest the secularization of ecclesiastical property and the conversion of the clergy into a class of functionaries paid out of the royal treasury; and that Philip the Fair, the adversary of Boniface VIII., should be able to rely in his conflict with the leader of the Church on the popular consent obtained at a meeting of the Three Estates of France - all point to a singular demoralization of the sentiments and principles on which were based the whole power of the pontiff of Rome and the entire organization of medieval Catholicism.
It was in the 14th century more especially that the Apostolic Chamber spread the net of its fiscal administration wider and wider over Christian Europe; but at the close of the 13th century all the preliminary measures had been taken to procure for the papal treasury its enormous and permanent resources.
Even if Dietrich of Niem frequently painted him too black, there is no question that the means which Boniface employed to fill the papal treasury seriously impaired the prestige of the highest spiritual office and the reverence due to it.
Increase of territory, so far Tfie Papal from filling the papal treasury, but postponed for States.
the Lodovisi, with unparalleled rapacity Urban's Barberini enriched themselves from a chronically depleted treasury.
(1775-1799) the emission of paper money, followed by an unsuccessful attempt to market government securities, produced a panic. By 1783 the taxes had been farmed for years in advance and the treasury was in desperate straits.
The wealth of the ancient Siphniotes was shown by their treasury at Delphi, where they deposited the tenth of their gold and silver; but, says the legend, they once failed to do this, and Apollo in his anger flooded their mines.
In addition to the institutions under state control a large number of local charities receive aid from the public treasury.
(3) The Apostolic Chamber (Reverends Camera Apostolica) was before the abolition of the temporal power of the papacy the ministry of finance, at once treasury and exchequer, of the popes as heads of the Catholic Church as well as sovereigns of the papal states.
Entering parliament in 1860 as Liberal member for Pontefract (a seat that he continued to hold till 1885), he became civil lord of the admiralty in 1864, and in 1865 financial secretary to the treasury.
19 so lavishly as to empty his treasury, and to allow such licence to the officers of the army as to leave the Empire practically defenceless.
The evidence may be examined at length in Nicolas and Beltz; it is indisputable that in the wardrobe account from September 1347 to January 1349, the 21st and 23rd Edward III., the issue of certain habits with garters and the motto embroidered on them is marked for St George's Day; that the letters patent relating to the preparation of the royal chapel of Windsor are dated in August 1348; and that in the treasury accounts of the prince of Wales there is an entry in November 1348 of the gift by him of " twenty-four garters to the knights of the Society of the Garter."
They kept the keys of the treasury and had charge of its contents, including not only coin and bullion but also the military standards and a large number of public documents, which in later times comprised all the laws as well as the decrees of the senate.
The duties of the military quaestor, like those of the treasury quaestor, were primarily financial.
Folger as secretary of the treasury.
Both the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel and the Church Missionary Society were at that time suffering from a general coldness which, in the case of the latter society, had led in that very year to the committee reporting " a failing treasury and a scanty supply of men."
Under this hall is a chamber, which, as an inscription on its walls shows, served as a treasury in the 2nd century B.C. In front of this temple an obelisk was erected in the reign of Claudius, fragments of which still exist.
Meanwhile the royal dreamer, whose passion for building palaces was becoming a serious drain on the treasury, had been declared insane, and, on the 7th of June 1886, the heir-presumptive, Prince Luitpold, was proclaimed regent.
It is said that he even impoverished the treasury of the Roman Church by his unlimited charities.
At his accession the financial straits of the treasury were such that the usual donative could not be given to the janissaries.
During the whole of this time no tribute was paid to the khan, though vast sums of money were collected in the Moscow treasury for military purposes.
The following are some of the most famous diamonds of the world: - A large stone found in the Golconda mines and said to have weighed 787 carats in the rough, before being cut by a Venetian lapidary, was seen in the treasury of Aurangzeb in 1665 by Tavernier, who estimated its weight after cutting as 280 (?) carats, and described it as a rounded rose-cut-stone, tall on one side.
He suggests that the other and larger diamond of antiquity which was given to Shah Jahan may be one which is now in the treasury of Teheran, and that this is the true Great Mogul which was confused by Tavernier with the one he saw.
Many of the commercial and private buildings are also worthy of notice, especially the Queensland National Bank, a classic Italian structure, the massive treasury buildings, one of the largest erections in Australia, the Queensland Club with its wide colonnades in Italian Renaissance style, and the great buildings of the Brisbane Newspaper Company.
The following are also of interest: - Sauveterre, founded in 1281, a striking example of the bastide of that period; Conques, which has a remarkable abbey-church of the II th century like St Sernin of Toulouse in plan and possessing a rich treasury of reliquaries, &c.; Espalion, where amongst other old buildings there are the remains of a feudal stronghold and a church of the Romanesque period; Najac, which has the ruins of a magnificent château of the 13th century; and Sylvanes, with a church of the 12th century, once attached to a Cistercian abbey.
In 1892 President Cleveland, after his second election, offered Gage the post of secretary of the treasury, but the offer was declined.
In the "free-silver" campaign of 1896 Gage laboured effectively for the election of William McKinley, and from March 1897 until January 1902 he was secretary of the treasury in the cabinets successively of Presidents McKinley and Roosevelt.
His administration of the treasury department, through a more than ordinarily trying period, was marked by a conservative policy, looking toward the strengthening of the gold standard, the securing of greater flexibility in the currency, and a more perfect adjustment of the relations between the government and the National banks.
Through strong family influence and the recommendation of Walpole he was chosen in 1721 a lord of the Treasury.
He administered his estates wisely; promoted commerce and industry, particularly in Flanders; and left his son a welllined treasury.
lord of the treasury, an ambassador, a secretary of state.
The head of the treasury was now Lord Bute, who was a Tory, and could have no objection to Johnson's Toryism.
While moderate in personal expenditure, Julius resorted to objectionable means of replenishing the papal treasury, which had been exhausted by Alexander VI., and of providing funds for his numerous enterprises; simony and traffic in indulgences were increasingly prevalent.
The imperial treasury (Reiciisschatzamt), or exchequer, is the head financial office of the empire.
Treasury notes (Reichs-Kassensc/zeine) for these amounts were no longer to be issued; but the state reserved the right to circulate notes of the value of 5 M.
Each year a large sum would be paid to the states from the imperial treasury, and another sum as before paid back to meet the deficit in the form of state contributions.
From 1871 to 1879 the contribution of the states had varied from 94 to 67 million marks; under the new system the surplus of the contributions made by the states over the grant by the imperial treasury was soon reduced to a very small sum, and in 1884-1885 the payments of the empire to the states exceeded the contributions of the states to the empire by 20 million marks, and this excess continued for many years; so that there was, as it were, an actual grant in relief of direct taxation.
Bonar was a prolific writer of religious literature, and edited several journals, including the Christian Treasury, the Presbyterian Review and the Quarterly Journal of Prophecy; but his best work was done in hymnology, and he published three series of Hymns of Faith and Hope between 1857 and 1866 (new ed., 1886).
As secretary of the treasury in President Lincoln's cabinet in 1861-1864, during the first three years of the Civil War, he rendered services of the greatest value.
In the treasury of the cathedral is a magnificent silver monstrance dating from 1553, and an octagonal bowl, the Sacro Catino, brought from Caesarea in 1101, which corresponds to the descriptions given of the Holy Grail, and was long regarded as an emerald of matchless value, but was found when broken at Paris, whither it had been carried by Napoleon I., to be only a remarkable piece of ancient glass.
Once more the ministry conceded all the demands of the insurgents, and even went so far as to hand over the public treasury and the responsibility of keeping order to a newly constituted Committee of Public Safety.
83, and the inscription which gives the treasury payments for 418-415 (Hicks and Hill, Gr.
After the news of the Sicilian disaster Athens was compelled at last to draw on the reserve of 1000 talents which had lain untouched in the treasury.'
24, will be found a roughly executed head of Hera, from the pediment of the treasury of the Megarians.
The old terms his or purse (Soo piastres) and khazna or treasury (Iooo purses) are still occasionally used.
The cash which reached the Egyptian treasury from the loans and floating debt was far less than the nominal amount of such loans, none of which cost the Egyptian government less than 12% per annum.
This scheme included the distribution of a bonus of 25% to holders of treasury bonds.
This security was the establishment of a Treasury of the Public Debt, known by its French title of Caisse de la Dette, and commonly spoken of simply as the Caisse.
The 9,000,000 was sufficient to pay the Alexandria indemnities, to wipe out the deficits of the preceding years, to give the Egyptian treasury a working balance of LE 500,000 and thereby avoid the creation of a fresh floating debt, and to provide a million for new irrigation works.
extra charge of about LI, 7 50,000 a year on the Egyptian treasury.
Moreover, it was provided that when the Caisse had received from the land tax the amount needed for the service of the debt, the balance of the tax was to be paid direct to the Egyptian treasury.
During the XXVth and XXVIth Dynasties silver of the treasury of Harshafe (at Heracleopolis Magna) was commonly prescribed in contracts, and in the reign of Darius we hear of silver of the treasury of Ptah (at Memphis).
The treasury could not afford to lose the land-tax, which it would naturally forfeit by the first two of the above occurrences, and we read of various expedients being tried to prevent this loss.
He endeavoured to replenish the treasury not only by extreme economy, but by inflicting fines on a vast scale on persons who had held offices under his predecessor and others who had rendered themselves suspect.
Not only was the governor unsupported by the sultan against the troops, but each new governor regularly inflicted a fine upon his outgoing predecessor, under the name of money due to the treasury; and the outgoing governor would not be allowed to leave Egypt till he had paid it.
Ihe revolt was reduced by presents to the chiefs of the insurgents, md Mehemet Ali ordered that the sufferers by the disturbances;hould receive compensation from the treasury.
The Sudan was an integral part of the khedives dominions, and caused, even in ordinary times, a deficit of 200,000 to the Egyptian treasury.
On the advice of Lord Northbrook, who was sent out to Cairo in September 1884 to examine the financial situation, certain revenues which should have been paid into the Caisse for the benefit of the bondholders were paid into the treasury for the ordinary needs of the administration.
Towards this expense the British government gave a grant-in-aid of ~8oo,ooo, and the balance was borne by the Egyptian treasury.
The Danish treasury receives nothing from these possessions; on the contrary, Iceland receives an annual grant, and the West Indian islands have been heavily subsidized by the Danish finances to assist the sugar industry.
In 1880 he was under-secretary of state for the home department, in 1881 for the colonies, and in 1882 secretary to the treasury; but he was always a stubborn fighter for principle, and upon finding that the government's Reform Bill in 1884 contained no recognition of the scheme for proportional representation, to which he was deeply committed, he resigned office.
During the Civil War the city was a centre for Confederate commissary supplies and the seat of a Treasury depository.
Frederick's chief trust was always in his treasury and his army.
They suffered, not only from the regular taxes, which were seldom remitted even after bad seasons, but also from monopolies; and Procopius goes so far as to allege that the emperor made a practice of further recruiting his treasury by confiscating on slight or fictitious pretexts the property of persons who had displeased Theodora or himself.
Justinian's selections were usually capable, but not so often honest; probably it was hard to find thoroughly upright officials; possibly they would not have been most serviceable in carrying out the imperial will, and especially in replenishing the imperial treasury.
This change, however, only applied to censorship by the Foreign Office, and messages were still liable to censorship from the point of view of other departments (Admiralty, War Office, Home Office or Treasury, for instance) consulted by the Press Bureau - a system which continued until 1919.
Under the influence of Howell Cobb of Georgia, secretary of the treasury, and Jacob Thompson of Mississippi, secretary of the interior, the president was convinced that it was the only way to avoid civil war.
He was secretary of the treasury throughout the Polk administration (1845-1849) and was generally recognized as the most influential member of the cabinet.
He financed the war with Mexico and drafted the bill (1849) for the establishment of the department of the interior, but his greatest work was the preparation of the famous treasury report of the 3rd of December 1845.
He was then secretary of war in 1815-1816, and secretary of the treasury from 1816 to 1825.
Crawford was invited by Adams to continue as secretary of the treasury, but declined.
Though we know the cost of fencing the lists, from entries in the treasury accounts, we are ignorant of the cause of the quarrel, and even of the clans engaged.
14) records that a king Midas of Phrygia dedicated his own chair at Delphi; the chair stood in the treasury of Cypselus, and cannot have been deposited there before 680 to 660 B.C. It is not improbable that the event belongs to the time of Alyattes or Croesus, when Greek influence was favoured throughout the Lydian empire; and it is easy to understand how the offering of a king Midas should be considered, in the time of Herodotus, as the earliest made by a foreign prince to a Greek god.
The capital of Cyrus was soon supplanted by Persepolis, founded by Darius; but in Pasargadae remained a great treasury, which was surrendered to Alexander in 336 after his conquest of Persis (Arrian iii.
On his return he resumed his office as commissioner of the Great Seal, was appointed a commissioner of the treasury with a salary of 1000, and was returned to the parliament of 1654 for each of the four constituencies of Bedford, Exeter, Oxford and Buckinghamshire, electing to sit for the latter constituency.
Attached in this same year to the caisse d'escompte, he presented the report of its operations to the national assembly in 1789, and as commissary of the treasury in 1791 he established a system of accounts of unexampled punctuality.
The total receipts for the biennial period ending the 30th of September 1908 were $19,588,842.06, and the disbursements were $21,278,805.27; and on the 1st of October 1908 there was a balance in the treasury of $3,859,z63-44.
He was the President's chief adviser in the attack on the United States Bank, and was transferred to the treasury department in September 1833 for the special purpose of removing the government deposits.
This conduct brought him into conflict with the Senate, which passed a vote of censure, and (in June 1834) refused to confirm his appointment as secretary of the treasury.
His own teaching that all must be given for God was illustrated by the devotion of a poor widow who cast into the treasury the two tiny coins which were all that she had.
From his father he inherited a well-organized country, a disciplined army and a full treasury.
The new thought of a treasury of merits (thesaurus meritorum) introduced further changes.
It was held that the good deeds over and above what were needed for their own salvation by the living or by the saints in heaven, together with the inexhaustible merits of Christ, were all deposited in a treasury out of which they could be taken by the pope and given by him to the faithful.
The Treasury of Merits has never been properly defined; it is hard to say what it is, and it is not properly understood by the people; it cannot be the merits of Christ and of His saints, because these act of themselves and quite apart from the intervention of the pope; it can mean nothing more than that the pope, having the power of the keys, can remit ecclesiastical penalties imposed by the church; the true Treasure-house of merits is the Holy Ghost of the grace and glory of God.
As his second term drew to a close, there was a great lack of good feeling among his official advisers, three of whom - Adams, secretary of state, Calhoun, secretary of war, and Crawford, secretary of the treasury - aspired to succeed him in his high office.
37); and the by-word was soon justified in fact, for he plundered a temple of Bel at Elymais to replenish his exhausted treasury and met the fitting punishment from the gods at the hands of the inhabitants (Diodorus xxix.
But one Simon, a Benjamite, who had become guardian of the temple, quarrelled with Onias about the city market, and reported to the governor of Coele-Syria and Phoenicia that the treasury was full of untold sums of money.
"The belts that pass from one nation to another in all treaties, declarations and important transactions are very carefully preserved in the chiefs' cabins, and serve not only as a kind of record or history but as a public treasury.
8r - is borne witness to by Pausanias's mention of the bronze temple of Athena X aXKioucos in Sparta, and the bronze chamber dedicated to Myron in 648 B.C., as well as by the discovery of the stains and bronze nails, which show that the whole interior of the so-called treasury of Atreus at Mycenae was once covered with a lining of bronze plates.
His conduct of affairs in Egypt at a time when the treasury was empty and the troops were discontented for want of pay, shows that his powers as an administrator were little - if at all - inferior to those he possessed as a general.
In the old city also are the Plaza Vieja, dating from the middle of the 16th century (with the modern Mercado de Cristina, of 1837 - destroyed 1908), the old stronghold La Fuerza, erected by Hernando de Soto in 1538, once the treasury of the flotas and galleons, and residence of the governors, with its old watch-tower (La Vigia); and the Plaza de Armas, with the palace, the Senate building, a statue of Fernando VII.
From 1869 to 1873 he was secretary of the treasury in President Grant's cabinet, and from 1873 until.
Alexander Hamilton was secretary of the treasury.
4 Contrary to the general belief that Hamilton dominated Washington in the cabinet, there is the president's explicit statement that" there were as many instances "of his deciding against as in favour of the secretary of the treasury.
The crypt contains frescoes of the 13th century, and in the treasury are valuable vestments.
In this connexion it is interesting to note the account given by Severus of the synod held at Rimini in 359, where the question arose whether the bishops attending the assembly might lawfully receive money from the imperial treasury to recoup their travelling and other expenses.
He was a strong sup p orter of Woodrow Wilson for president; and on the latter's election he was appointed, in 1913, Secretary of the Treasury.
He was the first Secretary of the Treasury to require national banks to pay interest on all Government deposits.
He resigned the secretaryship of the Treasury in Dec. 1918 and the directorship of railways the following January.
The result was that whereas in former times the forces of an Afghan ruler consisted mainly of a militia, furnished by the chiefs of tribes who held land on condition of military service, and who stoutly resisted any attempt to commute this service for money payment, the amir had at his command a large standing army, and disposed of a substantial revenue paid direct to his treasury.
Within the church are the iron crown of Lombardy, supposed to have been beaten out of one of the nails used at the Crucifixion, and the treasury containing the relics of Theodelinda, comprising her crown, fan and comb of gold, and the golden hen and seven chickens, representing Lombardy and her seven provinces, and crosses, reliquaries, &c., of the Lombard and Gothic periods.
The Mahrattas were in possession of the entire west and great part of the centre of the peninsula; while the rich and unwarlike province of Bengal, though governed by an hereditary line of nawabs founded by Murshid Kuli Khan in 1704, still continued to pour its wealth into the imperial treasury.