Transylvania Sentence Examples
In the 16th century, when Transylvania separated from Hungary, the town became the residence of the Transylvanian princes.
Its geographical range was formerly very extensive, and included Great Britain, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, Poland, Transylvania, Galicia, the Caucasus as far as the Caspian, southern Russia, Italy, Spain, Greece, Rumania, Bulgaria, Servia, and portions of central and northern Asia.
Examples may perhaps occasionally still be found in the uninhabited forests of Hungary and Transylvania, and occasionally in Spain and Greece, as well as in the Caucasus and in some of the Swiss cantons, but the original race has in most countries interbred with the domestic cat wherever the latter has penetrated."
I've also moved articles on cities in South Tirol and Kustenland to this category, as well as those on cities in Galicia, Bukovina, Transylvania, and Dalmatia.
He was entrusted with the defence of Transylvania at the end of 1848, and in 1849, as the general of the Szeklers, he performed miracles with his little army, notably at the bridge of Piski (February 9), where, after fighting all day, he drove back an immense force of pursuers.Advertisement
After recovering Transylvania he was sent to drive the Austrian general Puchner out of the Banat of Temesvar.
During his father's lifetime he had greatly distinguished himself by his administration of Transylvania, then a wilderness, which, with incredible patience and energy, he colonized and christianized.
In 1670, fleeing from the dangers of Upper Hungary, where the Protestants and Imperialists were constantly in arms against each other, he took refuge with his kinsman Michael Teleki, the chief minister of Michael Apafy, prince of Transylvania.
In 1686 Thokoly was released from his dungeon and sent with a small army into Transylvania, but both this expedition and a similar one in 1688 ended in failure.
In 1690, however, the Turks despatched him into Transylvania a third time with 16,000 men, and in September he routed the united forces of General Heister and Michael Teleki at Zernest.Advertisement
In 1211 the Order received from the king the district of Burzenland in Transylvania.
Towns arose and agriculture began to flourish; but seeking to make itself independent, the Order lost its lands, and disappeared from Transylvania.
One of the first acts of the new church system was to excommunicate Erastus on a charge of Socinianism, founded on his correspondence with Transylvania.
In Transylvania, however, the common peril evoked by the Turkish incursion and a simultaneous rising of the Vlach peasantry had knit together the jarring interests of Magyars, Saxons and Szeklers, a union which, under the national hero, the voivode Janos Hunyadi, was destined for a while to turn the tide of war.
John Sigismund was recognized as independent prince of Transylvania and of sixteen adjacent Hungarian counties, Queen Isabella to act as regent during his minority.Advertisement
When the sultan discovered that Martinuzzi, who was all-powerful in Transylvania, had actually arranged to hand over the country to Ferdinand, he threw the Austrian ambassador into prison, and in September 1551 sent an army, 80,000 strong, under Mahommed Sokolli over the Danube.
Suleiman kept the possessions he had won by the sword, Temesvar, Szolnok, Tata and other places in Hungary; Transylvania was assigned to John Sigismund, the Habsburg claim to interference being categorically denied; Ferdinand bound himself to pay, not only the annual tribute of 30,000 ducats, but all the arrears that had meanwhile accumulated.
Janissaries leisure to engage in plots against the sultan, and in order to occupy them and to remove them from the capital advantage was taken of the king of Poland having intervened in the affairs of Transylvania and the principalities to declare war against him.
The fleet was restored, and recaptured Lemnos and other islands which had passed into the hands of the Venetians; the revolts caused by Kuprili's severity were put down, and tranquillity was reestablished in Transylvania.
In 1663 the disturbances which had broken out again in Transylvania led to war with Austria.Advertisement
The main provisions of these were, that Turkey retained the Banat, while Austria kept Transylvania; Poland restored the places captured in Moldavia, but retained Kamenets, Podolia and the Ukraine; Venice restored her conquests north of Corinth, but kept those in the Morea and Dalmatia.
A relic of the old official meaning of "count" still survives in Transylvania, where the head of the political administration of the Saxon districts is styled count (comes, Graf) of the Saxon Nation.
Bocskay, to save the independence of Transylvania, assisted the Turks; and in 1605, as a reward for his part in driving Basta out of Transylvania, the Hungarian diet, assembled at Modgyes, elected him prince (1605), on which occasion the Ottoman sultan sent a special embassy to congratulate him and a splendid jewelled crown made in Persia.
To save the Austrian provinces of Hungary, the archduke Matthias, setting aside his semi-lunatic imperial brother Rudolph, thereupon entered into negotiations with Bocskay, and ultimately the peace of Vienna was concluded (June 23, 1606), which guaranteed all the constitutional and religious rights and privileges of the Hungarians both in Transylvania and imperial Hungary.
Bocskay, at the same time, was acknowledged as prince of Transylvania by the Austrian court, and the right of the Transylvanians to elect their own independent princes in future was officially recognized.Advertisement
Jefferson Davis was educated at Transylvania University (Lexington, Kentucky) and at the United States Military Academy at West Point.
The kingdom of Hungary in its widest extent, or the " Realm of the Crown of St Stephen," comprises Hungary proper (Magyarorszdg), with which is included the former grand principality of Transylvania, and the province of Croatia-Slavonia.
In some respects Hungary proper has been particularly dealt with, while special information regarding the other regions will be found under Croatia-Slavonia, Transylvania and Fiume.
The greatest elevations are in the Tatra mountains of the north of Hungary proper, in the east and south of Transylvania (the Transylvanian Alps) and in the eastern portion of the Banat.
Of the many interesting caverns in Transylvania the most remarkable are the sulphurous Biidos in the county of Haromszek, the Almas to the south of Udvarhely and the brook-traversed rocky caverns of Csetate-Boli, Pestere and Ponor in the southern mountains of Hunyad county.
Another characteristic feature is the uneven distribution of the navigable rivers, of which Upper Hungary and Transylvania are almost completely devoid.
The hilly regions of Transylvania and of the northern part of Hungary consist of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rocks and are closely connected, both in structure and origin, with the Carpathian chain.
In Transylvania the climate bears the extreme characteristics peculiar to mountainous countries interspersed with valleys; whilst the climate of the districts bordering on the Adriatic is modified by the neighbourhood of the sea.
In Hungary proper and in Croatia and Slavonia there are many species of indigenous plants, which are unrepresented in Transylvania.
With these may be grouped the kindred population of the three Szekel counties of Transylvania.
They are scattered in small colonies, especially in Gomor county and in Transylvania.
The exploitation of this great source of wealth is still hindered by want of proper means of communication, but in many parts of Transylvania it is now carried on successfully.
Gold and silver are chiefly found in Transylvania, where their exploitation dates back to the Roman period, and are mined at Zalatna and Abrudbanya; rich deposits are also found in the Kremnitz-Schemnitz, and the Nagybanya districts.
The principal salt-mines are in Transylvania at Torda, Parajd, Deesakna and Maros-Ujvar; and in Hungary at Szlatina, Ronazsek and Sugatag.
Among the principal in Hungary proper except Transylvania are those of Budapest, Mehadia, Eger, Sztubnya (Turocz county), Szliacs (Zolyom county), Harkany (Baranya county), Pistyan (Nyitra county) and Trencsen-Teplitz, where there are hot springs.
In 1868 Transylvania was definitely reunited to Hungary proper, and the town and district of Fiume declared autonomous.
Hungary proper, according to ancient usage, was generally divided into four great divisions or circles, and Transylvania up to 1876 was regarded as the fifth.
According to this division Hungary proper is divided into seven circles, of which Transylvania forms one.
Thus the Servians are mostly Greek Orthodox; the Ruthenians are Uniat Greeks; the Rumanians are either Greek Orthodox or Greek Uniats; the Slovaks are Lutherans; the only other Lutherans are the Germans in Transylvania and in the Zsepes county.
The Armenian Uniat Church is partly under the jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic bishop of Transylvania, and partly under that of the Roman Catholic archbishop of Kalocsa.
The Unitarians, chiefly resident in Transylvania, are under the authority of a bishop, whose see is Kolozsvar (Klausenburg).
Ladislaus planted large Petcheneg colonies in Transylvania and the trans-Dravian provinces, and established military cordons along the constantly threatened south-eastern boundary, the germs of the future banates 1 (bansagok) which were to play such an important part in the national defence in the following century.
He had to be content with armistices, reconciliations and matrimonial contracts, because the great dignitaries of the state, men like the palatine Laszlo Garai, Count Ulrich of Cilli, and the voivode of Transylvania, Mihaly Ujlaky, thwarted in every way the novas homo whom they hated and envied.
Stephen Bathory, voivode of Transylvania and count of the Szeklers, for instance, ruled Transylvania like a Turkish pasha, and threatened to behead all who dared to complain of his exactions; " Stinking carrion," he said, was better than living Szeklers.
During the six following years the sultan still further improved his position, capturing, amongst many other places, Pecs, and the primatial city of Esztergom; but, in 1547, the exigencies of the Persian war induced him to sell a truce of five years to Ferdinand for £100,000, on a uti possidetis basis, Ferdinand holding thirty-five counties (including Croatia and Slavonia) for which he was to pay an annual tribute of £60,000; John Sigismund retaining Transylvania and sixteen adjacent counties with the title of prince, while the rest of the land, comprising most of the central counties, was annexed to the Turkish empire.
The attempts of the Habsburgs to conquer Transylvania drew down upon them two fresh Turkish invasions, the first in 1552, when the sultan's generals captured Temesvar and fifty-four lesser forts or fortresses, and the second in 1566, memorable as Suleiman's last descent upon Hungary, and also for the heroic defence of Szigetvar by Miklos Zrinyi, one of the classical sieges of history.
The truce of Adrianople in 1568, nominally for eight years, but prolonged from time to time till 1593, finally suspended regular hostilities, and introduced the epoch known as " The Long Peace," though, throughout these twenty-five years, the guerilla warfare on the frontier never ceased for more than a few months at a time, and the relations between the Habsburgs and Transylvania were persistently hostile.
In Transylvania matters were at first ordered more peaceably.
It was a confused four-cornered struggle between the emperor and the Turks, the Turks and Transylvania, Michael of Moldavia and Y ?
The two great achievements of his brief reign (he was elected prince of Transylvania on the 5th of April 1605, and died on the 29th of December 1606) were the peace of Vienna (June 23, 1606) and the truce of Zsitvatorok (November 1606).
Almost equally important was the twenty years' truce of Zsitvatoriik, negotiated by Bocskay between the emperor and the sultan, which established for the first time a working equilibrium between the three parts of Hungary, with a distinct political preponderance in favour of Transylvania.
For more than fifty years after the peace of Vienna the principality of Transylvania continued to be the bulwark of the liberties of the Magyars.
Rakoczy also did much for education and civilization generally, and their era has justly been called the golden era of Transylvania.
Against the advice of all his counsellors, and without the knowledge of the estates, Rakoczy, in 1657, plunged into the troubled sea of Polish politics, in the hope of winning the Polish throne, and not only failed miserably but overwhelmed Transylvania in his own ruin.
Kuprili, who had forbidden the Polish enterprise, at once occupied Transylvania, and, in the course of the next five years, no fewer than four princes, three of whom died violent deaths, were forced to accept the kaftan and kalpag of investiture in the camp of the grand vizier.
When, at the end of 1661, a more stable administration was set up with Michael Apaffy (1661-1690) as prince, Transylvania had descended to the rank of a feudatory of the Turkish empire.
Progress was necessarily retarded by the influence of the independent Protestant princes of Transylvania in the northern counties of Hungary.
In the course of that year Kuprili regained Servia and Bulgaria, placed Tok611 on the throne of Transylvania, and on the 6th of October took Belgrade by assault.
Nominally a truce for 25 years on the uti possidetis basis, the peace of Karlowitz left in the emperor's hands the lying between the rivers Maros, Theiss, Danube and the mountains of Transylvania, the so-called TemeskOz, or about one-eleventh of the modern kingdom.
Transylvania since 1690 had been administered from Vienna, and though the farce of assembling a diet there was still kept up, even the promise of religious liberty, conceded to it on its surrender in 1687, was not kept.
On the other hand, if the Rakoczians were easily dispersed, they as quickly reassembled, and at one time they held all Transylvania and the greater part of Hungary.
The session was interrupted by the outbreak of the Austro-Prussian War, but not before a 2 Transylvania, Croatio-Slavonia with Fiume and the Temes Banat were separated from the kingdom and provided with local governments.
A translator from Byron and Pope appeared also in Maurice Lukacs.6 Unitarian bishop of Transylvania, author of Vadrozsdk, or " Wild Roses " (1863), a collection of Szekler folk-songs, ballads and sayings.
Dramatic literature, liberally supported by the king and the government, and aided by magnificent theatres in the capital and also in the provinces (the finest provincial theatre is in Kolozsvar, in Transylvania), has developed remarkably.
The" bishops "of the Lutheran Church in Transylvania are equivalent to the superintendents.
No orders were given for the evacuation of Slovakia; in Transylvania an impossible shaped line was drawn, such as left Cluj (Kolozsvar) and many pure Rumanian districts in Magyar hands; while the Rumanians were incensed by the assignment of Temesvar (Temisoara) and the whole Banat to Serbia.
In1824-1828he was professor of mathematics and natural philosophy at Brown University, acting as president in 1826-1827; in1828-1831was president of Transylvania University, Lexington, Kentucky; and in1831-1837was president of the University of Alabama at Tuscaloosa, where he organized the Alabama Female Athenaeum.
By subsequent journeys in Hungary, Transylvania, Italy, Sicily, France and Germany he extended his knowledge of volcanic phenomena; and in 1826 the results of his observations were given in a work entitled A Description of Active and Extinct Volcanos (2nd ed., 1848).
It is, however, a fact that the first appearance of the Bassarabs as rulers (knyaz, ban or voivod) is in the western part of Rumania (originally called Little Walachia), and also in the southern parts of Transylvania - the old dukedoms of Fogarash and Almash, which are situated on the right bank of the Olt (Aluta) and extend south to Severin and Craiova.
Whatever the origin of the Bassarabs may be, the foundation of the Walachian principality is undoubtedly connected with a member of that family, who, according to tradition, came from Transylvania and settled first in Campulung and Tirgovishtea.
In the irregular crystalline aggregates branching and moss-like forms are most common, and in Transylvania thin plates or sheets with diagonal structures are found.
These are confined to a few localities, the oldest and best known being those of Nagyag and Offenbanya in Transylvania; they have also been found at Red Cloud, Colorado, in Calaveras county, California, and at Perth and Boulder, West Australia.
They begin on the Danube near Pressburg, surround Hungary and Transylvania in a large semicircle, the concavity of which is towards the south-west, and end on the Danube near Orsova.
The Carpathians separate Hungary and Transylvania from Lower Austria, Moravia, Silesia, Galicia, Bukovina and Rumania, while its ramifications fill the whole northern part of Hungary, and form the quadrangular mass of the Transylvanian plateau.
Remarkable is the sea-shore flora, which is found in the numerous salt-impregnated lakes, ponds and marshes in Transylvania.
In the following campaign, after desperate fighting to the north of the Danube in the mountainous region of Transylvania, Sarmizegethusa, the capital of Decebalus, was taken, and he was forced to terms. He agreed to raze all fortresses, to surrender all weapons, prisoners and !Roman deserters, and to become a dependent prince under the suzerainty of Rome.
Immediately after the death of King Louis, who fell on the field of battle, the emperor Ferdinand and John Zapolya, voivode of Transylvania, competed for the vacant crown, and both were elected almost simultaneously.
Eighteen months later (Dec. 14, 1575), mainly through the influence of Jan Zamoyski, Stephen Bathory, prince of Transylvania, was elected king of Poland by the szlachta in opposition to the emperor Maximilian, who had been elected two days previously by the senate, after disturbances which would have rent any other state but Poland to pieces.
He perceived at once that it was the only way of counteracting the restlessness of the sultan's protégés, the Protestant princes of Transylvania, whose undisciplined hordes, scarcely less savage than their allies the Turks and Tatars, were a perpetual menace both to Austria and to Poland.
On the 7th of March 1606 Sigismund summoned a diet for the express purpose of introducing the principle of decision by majority in the diet, whereupon Zebrzydowski summoned a counter-confederation to Stenczyn in Little Poland, whose first act was to open negotiations with the prince of Transylvania, Stephen Bocskay, with the view of hiring mercenaries from him for further operations.
The upshot of his oratory was the summoning of a rokosz, or national insurrection, to Sandomir, which was speedily joined by the majority of the szlachta all over the country, who openly proclaimed their intention of dethroning the king and chastising the senate, and sent Stadnicki to Transylvania to obtain the armed assistance of Stephen Bocskay.
It was not the contingent but the actual deposition of the king that they demanded, and they had their candidate for the throne ready in the person of Gabriel Bethlen, the new prince of Transylvania.
The purchase was named Transylvania, and within less than a month after the treaty was signed, Boone, under its auspices, founded a settlement at Boonesborough which became the headquarters of the colony.
Kolcsey, Ferencz (1790-1838), Hungarian poet, critic and orator, was born at Szodemeter, in Transylvania, on the 8th of August 1790.
By Bona he had five children - one son, Sigismund Augustus, who succeeded him, and four daughters, Isabella, who married John Zapolya, prince of Transylvania, Sophia, who married the duke of Brunswick, Catherine, who as the wife of John III.
The bulk of the Visigothic people sought refuge within the Empire in the region now known as Bulgaria, but Athanaric seems to have fled into Transylvania.
The Tirgului supplies water-power for several paper-mills; annual fairs are held on the 10th of July and the 24th of October; and there is a considerable traffic with Transylvania,over the Torzburg Pass, 15 m.
Besides detached German colonies in Hungary proper, there is a considerable and compact German (Saxon) population in Transylvania.
The Brukenthal palace, built in1777-1787by Baron Samuel von Brukenthal (1721-1803), governor of Transylvania, contains an interesting picture-gallery with 'good examples of the Dutch school, and a library.
The museum contains a natural history section with the complete fauna and flora of Transylvania, and a rich ethnographical section.
The first war, due to Ottoman aggression in Transylvania, ended with Montecuculi's victory over the grand vizier at Wars with Y g Turkey.
The general political situation prevented Leopold from taking full advantage of this, and the peace of Vasvar (August ro) left the Turks in possession of Nagyvarad (Grosswardein) and the fortress of Ersekujvar (Neuhausel), Transylvania being recognized as an independent principality.
This was followed, on the 26th of January 1699, by the peace of Karlowitz, by which Slavonia, Transylvania and all Hungary, except the banat of Temesvar, were ceded to the Austrian crown.
In 1697 Transylvania was united to the Hungarian monarchy.
By the conquest of Hungary and Transylvania Leopold completed the edifice of the Austrian monarchy, of which the foundations had been laid by Ferdinand I.
Under these circumstances 3 In Hungary the diet was not summoned at all between 1811 and 1825, nor in Transylvania between 181i and 1834.
In June 1865 the emperor Francis Joseph visited Pest and replaced the chancellors of Transylvania and Hungary, Counts Francis Zichy and Nadasdy, supporters of the February constitution, by Count Majlath, a leader of the old conservative magnates.
An agreement was made by which the emperor was to be crowned at Pest and take the ancient oath to the Golden Bull; Hungary (including Transylvania and Croatia) was to have its own parliament and its own ministry; Magyar was to be the official language; the emperor was to rule as king; there was to be complete separation of the finances; not even a common nationality was recognized between the Hungarians and the other subjects of the emperor; a Hungarian was to be a foreigner in Vienna, an Austrian a foreigner in Budapest.
At Cardona, near Barcelona, Tertiary salt forms hill-masses, while the Carpathian sandstone in Galicia and Transylvania is rich in salt.
Transylvania has the form of an irregular circle, and is a high plateau of a mean altitude of1000-1600ft.
On the west or Hungarian side there are comparatively easy passes into the interior, but on the east and south frontiers the lofty mountains give Transylvania the aspect of a huge natural fortress.
The altitude of the valleys generally increases towards the east of Transylvania, the lowest depression being found in the western part of the Maros valley.
The Aluta (Alt or Olt) rises not far from the Maros, but takes a southerly direction and pierces the Carpathians at the Roteturm pass, to enter Rumania; its principal tributaries in Transylvania are the Vargyas, the Homorod, the Cibin and the Burzen.
The largest lake of Transylvania is the Czeger or Hodosser See, 13 m.
The climate of Transylvania is healthy; hot summers alternate with very cold winters, but the rainfall is not great.
Transylvania abounds in mineral springs of all kinds, especially saline and chalybeate, the principal ones being found at Borszek,.
Of the total area of Transylvania 22.6% is arable land; 16.5% meadows and gardens; 9.5% pastures and 0.5% vineyards; while 37.3% is covered by forests and 13.5% is unproductive soil.
The vegetation of Transylvania is luxuriant, except of course in the higher mountain zones.
Transylvania possesses the richest gold mines in Europe, and this metal is also " washed " in some of the streams, chiefly by gipsies.
The gold is often found in conjunction with tellurium (first discovered in Transylvania in 1782) and is extracted principally at Nagyag, Kapnik-Banya, Zalatna and V6rbspatak.
The industry of Transylvania, although not very developed, made some progress during the last quarter of the 19th century, and is mostly in the hands of the " Saxons."
The production of linen from flax and hemp is a home industry throughout Transylvania.
The gipsies of Transylvania, who are heard of under a voivode or prince of their own in 1417, are estimated at 50,000; many of them have taken to agriculture or gold-washing.
Transylvania, which was completely incorporated with Hungary in 1868, forms since 1876 one of the seven large administrative divisions into which Hungary was divided in that year.
Transylvania formed part of the Roman province of Dacia.
After the defeat of the Turks at Vienna in 1683, their influence in Transylvania waned, and in 1699, by the peace of Carlowitz, the Porte acknowledged the suzerainty of Leopold I.
In 1849 Transylvania was divided from Hungary by an imperial decree, and became an Austrian crown-land; but in 1860 Transylvania became an autonomous province, with a separate Diet, and a high executive power of its own.
By the compromise of 1867 Austria granted the union of Transylvania with Hungary, which was completed in 1868.
Transylvania lost every vestige of autonomy, and was fully and completely incorporated with Hungary.
Only a portion of the widely-spread Ruman or Vlach race, which extends over a great part of Transylvania, south Hungary and Bessarabia, as well as the Rumanian kingdom, falls within the limits of the Peninsula.
During the period of Hungarian domination of Transylvania (1004-1526) it was governed by a voivode as an Hungarian province, the last voivode raising himself to the position of an independent prince.
He was some time professor of philosophy and theology at Herborn, in Nassau, and afterwards at Weissenburg in Transylvania, where he remained till his death in 1638.
The remainder of the Visigoths, under Alavivus and Fritigern, now began to seek, and ultimately were successful in obtaining (376), the permission of the emperor Valens to settle in Thrace; Athanaric meanwhile took refuge in Transylvania, thus abandoning the field without any serious struggle to the irresistible Huns.
Attempting to interpret the book of Revelation, he promised the millennium in 1672, and guaranteed miraculous assistance to those who would undertake the destruction of the Pope and the house of Austria, even venturing to prophesy that Cromwell, Gustavus Adolphus, and Rakoczy, prince of Transylvania, would perform the task.
Kolozsvar is the literary and scientific centre of Transylvania, and is the seat of numerous literary and scientific associations.
As capital of Transylvania and the seat of the Transylvanian diets, Kolozsvar from 1830 to 1848 became the centre of the Hungarian national movement in the grand principality; and in December 1848 it was taken and garrisoned by the Hungarians under General Bern.
At the same time the plague spread westward from the Danube to Transylvania and Styria, and (1713) appeared in Austria and Bohemia, causing great mortality in Vienna.
An outbreak at Odessa is supposed to have been brought from Constantinople, and thence to have passed to Transylvania.
Moldavia, Wallachia and Bessarabia were widely affected; the disease broke out also in Odessa and the Crimea, and isolated cases occurred in Transylvania.
Hungary produces a variety of other wines both strong, such as those of central Hungary, and relatively light, such as those of Croatia and Transylvania.
They also worked the gold and silver mines of Transylvania, and carried on a considerable outside trade, as is shown by the number of foreign coins found in the country.
According to Marquardt, the boundaries of the province were the Tibiscus (Temes) on the W., the Carpathians on the N., the Tyras on the E., and the Danube on the S., but Brandis (in Pauly-Wissowa's Realencyclopddie) maintains that it did not extend farther eastwards than the river Olt (Aluta) - the country beyond belonging to lower Moesia - and not so far as the Theiss westwards, being thus limited to Transylvania and Little Walachia.
Forts were built as a protection against the incursions of the surrounding barbarians, and three great military roads were constructed to unite the chief towns, while a fourth, named after Trajan, traversed the Carpathians and entered Transylvania by the Roteturm pass.
The title of bishop survived the Reformation in certain of the Lutheran churches of the continent, in Denmark, Norway, Finland, Sweden and Transylvania; it was tem oraril restored in Prussia in 1 01 for the coronation P Y 7 ?
John Cabell Breckinridge graduated in 1838 at Centre College, Danville, Kentucky, continued his studies at Princeton, and then studied law at Transylvania University, Lexington, Kentucky.
Possibly the information there given was derived from southern Hungary or Transylvania where remains of the Gepidae were to be found shortly before the Magyar invasion (889).
His own special kingdom comprised the countries which are now called Hungary and Transylvania, his capital being possibly not far from the modern city of Buda-Pest; but having made the Ostrogoths, the Gepidae and many other Teutonic tribes his subjectallies, and having also sent his invading armies into Media, he seems for nearly twenty years to have ruled practically without a rival from the Caspian to the Rhine.
The Transylvania seminary was opened here in 1785, but four years later was removed to Lexington, and a Presbyterian theological seminary was founded here in 1853, but was merged with the Louisville theological seminary (known after 1902 as the Presbyterian Theological Seminary of Kentucky) in 1901.
In its fauna, Walachia has far more affinity to the lands lying south of the Danube than to Transylvania, although several species of Claudilia, once regarded as exclusively Transylvanian, are found south of the Carpathians.
It was linked by a ferry at Celeiu to two lesser roads; one striking northwards into Transylvania, up the Olt valley, the other bending westwards until it reached the Jiu, and there diverging southwards to Turnu Severin, and northwards to the Vulcan Pass.
The researches of HaSdeu, Xenopol and other historians tend to show the existence of a highly organized Vlach society in Transylvania, Oltland and certain districts of Hungary and Moldavia; of a settled commonalty, agricultural rather than pastoral; and of a hereditary feudal nobility, bound to pay tribute and render military service to the Hungarian crown, but enjoying many privileges, which were defined by a distinct customary law (jus valahicum) .
The unfortunate province served as a transit route for Turkish expeditions against Hungary and Transylvania, and was exhausted by continual requisitions.
In the depth of the national distress the choice of the people fell on Michael, the son of Petrushko, ban of Craiova, the first dignitary of the realm, who had fled to Transylvania to escape Alexander's machinations.
In 1599, on the abdication of Sigismund Bfithory in Transylvania, Michael, in league with the imperialist forces, and in connivance with the Saxon burghers, attacked and of Tran- defeated his successor Andreas Bathory near Hermannstadt, and, seizing himself the reins of government, secured his proclamation as prince of Transylvania.
As prince of Transylvania he summoned diets in 1599 and 1600, and, having expelled the voivode of Moldavia, united under his sceptre three principalities.
The imperial commissioner General Basta lent his support to the disaffected party, and Michael was driven out of Transylvania by a successful revolt, while a Polish army invaded Walachia from the Moldavian side.
He resolved to appeal to the emperor, rode to Prague, won over Rudolph by his singular address, and, richly supplied with funds, reappeared in Transylvania as imperial governor.
Michael's wife Florika and his son Nicholas were carried off into Tatar captivity, and erban or Sherban, of the Bassaraba family, was raised to the voivodeship of Walachia by imperialist influences, while Sigismund resumed the government of Transylvania.
Butter and honey were exported to supply the sultan's kitchen at Stambul; wax and cattle to Venice; and the red and white wine of Walachia, notably that of Pitesei, to Transylvania.
To avoid the extortion of their rulers numbers had emigrated to Transylvania and even to the Turkish provinces.
Brancovan was accused of secret correspondence with the emperor, the tsar, the king of Poland and the Venetian republic, of betraying the Porte's secrets, of preferring Tirgovishtea to Bucharest as a residence, of acquiring lands and palaces in Transylvania, of keeping agents at Venice and Vienna, in both of which cities he had invested large sums, and of striking gold coins with his effigy.'
The Moldavian lowlands were still held by a variety of Tatar tribes, who were only expelled after 135c, by the united efforts of Andrew Laszkovich, voivode of Transylvania, and Bogdan Voda, the first independent prince of Moldavia.
Moldavian wine was exported to Poland, Russia, Transylvania, and Hungary; that of Cotnar was in Cantemir's opinion superior to Tokay.
The revolutionary movement of 1848 extended from the Rumans of Hungary and Transylvania to their kinsmen of the Transalpine regions.
Prince Bibescu, after setting his signature to the constitution submitted to him, fled to Transylvania, and a provisional government was formed.
A popular agitation was raised on the subject of certain subsidies made by the Rumanians for the support of the Rumanian schools at Kronstadt in Transylvania, and Sturdza was accused of too great subserviency to the Hungarian government.
We have therefore in the first period a medieval literature transplanted to Rumania and consisting of translations from the Slavonic. The reason of the change from Slavonic into Rumanian is to be sought in the influence the Reformation had among the Rumanian inhabitants of Transylvania.
The first impetus towards the printing of the Rumanian translations came from the princes and judges in Transylvania.
It is under their orders and often at their expense that the first Slavonic printing-presses were established in places like Kronstadt (Brashov) Oratia, Sasz-Shebesh and Belgrad (Alba Julia, in Transylvania)where Slavonic and Rumanian books appeared.
The foremost printer and translator was a certain Diakonus Koresi, of Greek origin, who had emigrated to Walachia and thence to Transylvania.
The Slavonic language still reigned supreme in the Church; yet once the example had been set in Transylvania, and the influence of the Slavonic nations had begun to slacken, it was inevitable that the Rumanian language should sooner or later come to its own.
It was in Transylvania that the first complete Rumanian translation of the New Testament appeared (Belgrad, 1648).
The chief author of this translation, which may be termed classical, seems to have been a certain Hieromonach Sylvestre who lived in Walachia and who had undertaken, by order of the prince Betlengabor of Transylvania (1613-29), a translation of the whole Bible.
Passing over the numerous editions of the Akathist and Katavasiar, some partly in Rumanian, we may mention the Ceasoslov (Book of Hours), said to have been printed for the first time in Transylvania in 1696, but certainly printed or reprinted by the metropolitan Anthim (Tirgovishtea, 1715).
In addition to the activity of the Reformers in Transylvania, there was also a Roman Catholic propaganda in Rumania, and the Orthodox Church found it necessary to convoke a synod in Jassy for the purpose of formulating anew its own dogmatic standpoint.
In Transylvania one section of the Rumanian population had accepted the spiritual rule of the pope; they became now Greek-Catholic, instead of Greek Orthodox.
In Transylvania, with the conversion to Greek-Catholicism of Bishop Athanasius in 1701, the Greek Orthodox had to place themselves down to 1850 under the protection of the Servian metropolitan of Karlovatz.
Whilst a political and national revival was taking place in Moldavia and Walachia, towards the beginning of the 19th century, the Latin movement went on in Transylvania.
A conflict was raging between the Hungarians and Rumanians, and history was required to furnish proofs of the greater antiquity of the Rumanians in Transylvania.
Among such translators was Skavinschi, who came originally from Transylvania to Jassy, and translated Regnald's Democrit into verse.
Transylvania, which awoke to a new life towards the end of the 18th century, produced some of the most popular poets.
In 1556 it passed into the possession of Transylvania, but afterwards reverted to Austria.
In 1652 he openly interfered in the affairs of Transylvania and Walachia, and assumed the high-sounding title of "guardian of the Ottoman Porte."
It is on the main railway from Czernovitz, in Bukovina, to Galatz; and on two branch lines, one of which enters Transylvania through the Ghimesh Pass, while both give access to the salt mines, petroleum wells and forests of the Carpathians.
Lexington is the seat of Transylvania University (non-sectarian; coeducational), formerly Kentucky University (Disciples of Christ), which grew out of Bacon College (opened at Georgetown, Ky., in 1836), was chartered in 1858 as Kentucky University, and was opened at Harrodsburg, Ky., in 18J9, whence after a fire in 1864 it removed to Lexington in 1865.
At Lexington it was consolidated with the old Transylvania University, a well-known institution which had been chartered as Transylvania Seminary in 1783, was opened near Danville, Ky., in 1785, was removed to Lexington in 1789, was re-chartered as Transylvania University in 1798, and virtually ceased to exist in 1859.1 In 1908 Kentucky University resumed the old name, Transylvania University.
In 1564 David was elected by the Calvinists as "bishop of the Hungarian churches in Transylvania," and appointed court preacher to John Sigismund, prince of Transylvania.
The official title is the Hungarian Unitarian Church, with a membership of over 60,000, most of thefn in Transylvania, especially among the Szekler population, a few in Hungary; their bishop has a seat in the Hungarian parliament.
His attempt to incorporate the wealthy diocese of Transylvania with his own primatial province was one of the principal causes of the spread of the Reformation in Hungary.
He removed to Kentucky, graduated at Transylvania University in 1811, took to journalism, and for some time edited Amos Kendall's paper, the Argus, at Frankfort.
The famous cinnabar and mercury mines of Idria in Carniola are in Triassic beds; and the gold and silver of northern Hungary and of Transylvania are associated with the Tertiary volcanic rocks.
In 1588 he attained his majority, and, following the advice of his favourite councillor Alfonso Carillo, departed from the traditional policy of Transylvania in its best days (when friendly relations with the Porte were maintained as a matter of course, in order to counterpoise the ever hostile influence of the house of Habsburg), and joined the league of Christian princes against the Turk.
It was on this occasion that he offered the throne of Transylvania to the emperor Rudolph II., in exchange for the duchy of Oppeln.
At the diet which met in February 1445 a provisional government, consisting of five Magyar captain-generals, was formed, Hunyadi receiving Transylvania and the ultra-Theissian counties as his district; but the resulting anarchy became unendurable, and on the 5th of June 1446 Hunyadi was unanimously elected governor of Hungary in the name of Ladislaus V., with regal powers.
It was he who overcame the reluctance of the army to march to the relief of Vienna; after the defeat of Schwechat, at which he was present, he sent Bern to carry on the war in Transylvania.
After the defeat of the Turkish power by Prince Eugene it was proposed to abolish the military constitution of the frontier, but the change was successfully resisted by the inhabitants of the district; in fact a new Slavonian frontier district was established in 1702, and Maria Theresa extended the organization to the march-lands of Transylvania (the Szekler frontier in 1764, the Wallachian in 1766).1 As a reward for the service it rendered the government in the suppression of the Hungarian insurrection in 1848, the Military Frontier was erected in 1849 into a crown-land, with a total area of 15,182 sq.
After the reversion of Transylvania in 1713 to the Habsburg monarchy the actual strong fortress was built in 1716-1735 by the emperor Charles VI., whence the German name of the town.
I've left various geographic features like rivers and mountain ranges, since the Danube, for instance, isn't only in Austria-Hungary, and I've left some other things like articles on Princes of Transylvania, since I'm not sure where they're supposed to be.
Subsequently he assisted Stephen Bocskay to mount the throne of Transylvania (1605), and remained his chief counsellor.
Bern defeated him at Orsova (May 16), but the Russian invasion recalled him to Transylvania.
Matthias was the elect of the Hungarian people, gratefully mindful of his father's services to the state and inimical to all foreign candidates; and though an influential section of the magnates, headed by the palatine Laszlo Garai and the voivode of Transylvania, Miklos Ujlaki, who had been concerned in the judicial murder of Matthias's brother Laszlo, and hated the Hunyadis as semi-foreign upstarts, were fiercely opposed to Matthias's election, they were not strong enough to resist the manifest wish of the nation, supported as it was by Matthias's uncle Mihaly Szilagyi at the head of 15,000 veterans.
After this great victory Thokoly was elected prince of Transylvania by the Keresztenymez Diet, but could only maintain his position against the imperial armies with the utmost difficulty.
Neither side had been careful to observe the terms of the treaty of 1547; the Turkish pashas in Hungary had raided Ferdinand's dominions, while Ferdinand had been negotiating with Frater GeOrgy (see Martinuzzi) with a view to freeing Transylvania from the Ottoman suzerainty.
The enmity towards him of the later BÃ¡thory princes of Transylvania, who confiscated his estates, drove him to seek protection at the imperial court (1599); but the attempts of the emperor Rudolph II.
In Transylvania the princes of the Bathory family (1571-1604) were ardent disciples of the Jesuit fathers, and Sigismund Bathory in particular persecuted fiercely, his fury being especially directed against the queer judaizing sect known as the Sabbatarians, whose tenets were adopted by the Szeklers, the most savage of " the three nations " of Transylvania, many thousands of whom were, after a bloody struggle, forced to emigrate.
By the peace of Vienna, Bocskay obtained religious liberty and political autonomy, the restoration of all confiscated estates, the repeal of all unrighteous judgments and a complete retrospective amnesty for all the Magyars in royal Hungary, besides his own recognition as independent sovereign prince of an enlarged' Transylvania.
Another fortunate accident which favoured the hegemony of Transylvania was the temporary collapse of Hungary's most formidable adversary, the Turk.
Protests came in from every quarter and a dangerous rebellion broke out in Transylvania; but opposition only made Joseph more obstinate, and he endeavoured to anticipate any further resistance by abolishing the ancient county assemblies and dividing the kingdom into two districts administered by German officials.
As compilers and authors of works in various scientific branches allied to history, may be particularly mentioned-in statistics and geography, Alexius Fenyes, Emeric Palugyay, Alexander Konek, John Hunfalvy, Charles Galgoczy, Charles Keleti, Leo Beothy, Joseph Korosi, Charles Ballagi and Paul Kiraly, and, as regards Transylvania, Ladislaus Kovary; in travel, Arminius Vambery, Ignatius Goldziher, Ladislaus Magyar, John Xantus, John Jerney, Count Andrassy, Ladislaus Podmaniczky, Paul Hunfalvy; in astronomy, Nicholas Konkoly; in archaeology, Bishop Arnold Ipolyi, Florian Romer, Emeric Henszlmann, John Erdy, Baron Albert Nyary, Francis Pulszky and Francis Kiss; in Hungarian mythology, Bishop Ipolyi, Anthony Csengery,' and Arpad Kerekgyarto; in numismatics, John Erdy and Jacob Rupp; and in jurisprudence, Augustus Karvassy, Theodore Pauler, Gustavus Wenczel, Emeric Csacsk6, John Fogarasi and Ignatius Frank.
With every year of war the number of confiscations of property increased in the Yugoslav provinces, as in Bohemia and Transylvania - vengeance upon the families at home being widely used in order to deter Slav, Italian or Rumanian prisoners from enlisting in the various volunteer corps in process of formation on the Russian, Balkan and Italian fronts.
Turkey was left in the lurch; and Austrian troops even occupied portions of Moldavia, in order to secure the communication between the new Polish provinces and Transylvania.
Prismatic borax is found widely distributed as a natural product (see below, Mineralogy) in Tibet, and in Canada, Peru and Transylvania, while the bed of Borax Lake, near Clear Lake in California, is occupied by a large mass of crystallized borax, which is fit for use by the assayer without undergoing any preliminary purification.
Harker travels to Transylvania to close the deal and discovers that his commission may be insufficient to compensate him for the inconvenience.
Tepes ruled Wallachia (in Romania and borders Transylvania to the north and Bulgaria to the south) for only 2 months until he lost power.
In 1691 he quitted Transylvania altogether.