38 6), the insulated wires or plates being upheld by masts, its operation is as follows: - When the key in the primary circuit of the induction coil is pressed the transmitting antenna wire is alternately charged to a high potential and discharged with the production of high frequency oscillations in it.
Currents, and sounds were given out corresponding in pitch, and also to some extent in quality, with the sounds produced at the transmitting station.
This formed a local circuit at the transmitting station.
Another reason assigned by the committee appointed by the Treasury in 1875 " to investigate the causes of the increased cost of the telegraphic service since the acquisition of the telegraphs by the state " is the loss on the business of transmitting Press messages, which has been estimated as at least £300,000 a year.
It was also recognized that what is required at the transmitting end is the establishment of powerful electric oscillations in the sending antenna, which create and radiate their energy in the form of electric waves having their magnetic force component parallel to the earth's surface and their electric component perpendicular to it.
A specialized conducting tissue of this kind, used mainly for transmitting organic substances, is always developed in plants where the region of assimilative activity is local in the plant-body, as it is in practically all the higher plants.
In the second case, however, there are all the losses due to transmission from the central station to the train to be considered, as well as the cost of the transmitting apparatus itself.
Owing to its position, the Persian state, when it from time to time became a conquering empire, overlapped Asia Minor, Babylon and India, and hence acted as an intermediary for transmitting art and ideas, sending for instance Greek sculpture to India and the cult of Mithra to western Europe.
It is apparent, therefore, that all drops transmitting intense light after one internal reflection to the eye will lie on the surfaces of cones having the eye for their common vertex, the line joining the eye to the sun for their axis, and their semi-vertical angles equal to about 41° for the violet rays and 43° for the red rays.
Similarly, drops transmitting rays after two internal reflections will be situated on covertical and coaxial cones, of which the semi-vertical angles are 51° for the red rays and 54° for the violet.
Every part of a machine transmitting force suffers elastic defor mation, and the force may be measured indirectly by measuring the deformation.
The apparatus for generating the electric action at one end is commonly called the transmitting apparatus or instrument, or the sending apparatus or instrument, or sometimes simply the transmitter or sender.
For the longest circuit to be worked, the shorter circuits being brought up approximately to a level, as regards resistance, by the insertion of resistance coils in the circuit of the transmitting apparatus of each shorter line.
The side rows of holes only are used for transmitting the message, the centre row being required for feeding forward the paper in the transmitter.
In Squier and Crehore's " Synchronograph " system " sine waves of current, instead of sharp " makes and breaks," or sharp reversals, are employed for transmitting signals, the waves being produced by an alternating-current dynamo, and regulated by means of a perforated paper ribbon, as in the Wheatstone automatic system.
At the receiving station electrical mechanisms record the signals once more as perforations in a paper strip forming an exact replica of the transmitting tape.
This machine reproduces a copy of the original transmitting slip, which can be passed on to any other Wheatstone circuit or can be run through a " Creed printer," which is a pneumatic machine actuating a typewriter by means of valves.
Instruments such as the telautograph and telewriter are apparatus for transmitting a facsimile of handwriting inscribed on a paper at one end of a line, the reproduction being made automatically at the other end of the line at the same time that the message is being written.
The shafts are turned by the pull of the magnet upon the coils, and the motions of the transmitting pencil are thus reproduced.
At the receiving station a cylinder - which revolves synchronously with the transmitting cylinder - is covered with a photographic film or paper, upon a point of which a pencil of light from a Nernst lamp is concentrated.
All of them make use of Marconi's antenna in some form both at the transmitting and at the receiving end, all of them make use of an earth connexion, or its equivalent in the form of a balancing capacity or large surface having capacity with respect to the earth, which merely means that they insert a condenser of large capacity in the earth connexion.
All of them couple the transmitting antenna directly or inductively to a capacity-inductive circuit serving as a storage of energy, and all of them create thereby electric waves of the same type moving over the earth's surface with the magnetic force of the wave parallel to it.
This transmitting plant was completed in December 1901, and Marconi then crossed the Atlantic to Newfoundland and began to make experiments to ascertain if he could detect the waves emitted by it.
Marconi, however, gave in 1906 the first really practical solution of the problem by the use of bent transmitting and receiving antennae.
If, then, a long copper bar which forms part of this circuit is placed in proximity to the transmitting antenna and the handle moved, some position can be found in which the natural time period of the cymometer circuit is made equal to the actual time period of the telegraphic antenna.
Starting from an observation of Marconi's, a number of interesting facts have been accumulated on the absorbing effect of sunlight on the propagation of long Hertzian waves through space, and on the disturbing effects of atmospheric electricity as well as upon the influence of earth curvature and obstacles of various kinds interposed in the line between the sending and transmitting stations.4 Electric wave telegraphy has revolutionized our means of communication from place to place on the surface of the earth, making it possible to communicate instantly and certainly between places separated by several thousand miles, whilst The Electrician, 1904, 5 2, p. 407, or German Pat.
These suggestions were to some extent an anticipation of the work of Reis; but the conditions to be fulfilled before the sounds given out at the receiving station can be similar in pitch, quality and relative intensity to those produced at the transmitting station are not stated, and do not seem to have been appreciated.
The suggestion of Bourseul and the experiments of Reis are founded on the idea that a succession of currents, corresponding in number to the successive undulations of the pressure on the membrane of the transmitting instrument, could reproduce at the receiving station sounds of the same character as those produced at the sending station.
Neither of them seemed to recognize anything as important except pitch and amplitude, and Reis thought the amplitude was to some extent obtained by the varying length of contact in the transmitting instrument.
Varley, who proposed to make use of it in a telegraphic receiving instrument.4 In Dolbear's instrument one plate of a condenser was a flexible diaphragm, connected with the telephone line in such a way that the varying electric potential produced by the action of the transmitting telephone caused an increased or diminished charge in the condenser.
In 1888 it was proposed by the public debt administration to undertake the collection of specified revenues to be set aside for the provision of railway guarantees, the principle to be followed being, generally, that such revenues should consist of the tithes of the districts through which the railways would pass, and that the public debt should hand over to guaranteed railway companies the amounts of their guarantees before transmitting to the imperial government any of the proceeds of the revenue so collected.
From Paris he rendered the government important service by gathering and transmitting information respecting the Jacobite plot; and in 1716 he returned to England, resumed his seat, and took frequent part in the debates.
Lilerature.From the neighboring continent the Japanese derived the art of transmitting ideas to paper.
The third class were maintained by a syndicate of 13 merchants as a private enterprise for transmitting letters between the three great cities of KiOto, Osaka and Yedo and intervening places.
The rate at which the motor is transmitting work is then 550 H.P., where n is the revolutions per second of the armature.
However, the development of electric power, and the possibility of transmitting it for long distances, have worked a noteworthy change in this respect, and a large number of industries have been added in recent years.
Any sound (such as that of the human voice) transmitting its rays into the reflector, and communicating vibratory motion to the membrane, will cause the feather to trace a sinuous line on the paper.
It thus appears that if the amplitude of vibration could be as much as 1 o_2 of the wave-length, the aether would be an excessively rare medium with very slight elasticity; and yet it would be capable of transmitting the supply of solar energy on which all terrestrial activity depends.
They were content with a knowledge of the truth of the principle of gravitation; instead of essaying to explain it further by the properties of a transmitting medium, they in fact modelled the whole of their natural philosophy on that principle, and tried to express all kinds of material interaction in terms of laws of direct mechanical attraction across space.
Besides Anopheles, two species of Culex, C. penicillaris and C. pipiens, are also accused of transmitting the larvae.
When a combination of signals has been received and the armatures have taken up their respective positions corresponding to the transmitting keyboard, certain mechanism in the receiver translates the position of the five armatures into a mechanical movement which lifts the paper tape against a type-wheel and prints the corresponding letter.
To eliminate the sluggish action of the selenium transmitter a selenium cell similar to that at the transmitting station is arranged at the receiving apparatus, and exposed to precisely similar variations of light, the arrangement being such that the lag of this cell counteracts the lag of the transmitting cell.
The synchronous revolutions of the transmitting cylinders are effected by making one cylinder revolve slightly faster than the other; after each revolution the cylinder which is accelerated is arrested for a moment by means of a special relay until the difference of speed is accurately compensated for.
The Electric Telegraph Company, formed to undertake the business of transmitting telegrams, was incorporated in 1846.
Even the London District Telegraph Company, which was formed in 1859 for the purpose of transmitting telegraph messages between points in metropolitan London, found that a low uniform rate was not financially practicable.
We now consider the more recent appliances for electric wave telegraphy under the two divisions of transmitting and receiving apparatus.
First as regards the transmitting part, one essential element is the antenna, aerial, or air wire, which may take a variety of forms. It may consist of a single plain or stranded copper wire upheld at the top by an insulator from a mast, chimney or building.
It is regarded by the Turks as specially valuable, inasmuch as it is said to be incapable of transmitting infection as the pipe passes from mouth to mouth.
The adoption of a different arrangement for transmitting motion.
Even the task of transmitting to the central government provincial taxes paid in kind had to be discharged by specially organized parties, and this journey from the north-eastern districts to the capital generally occupied three months.
I'm transmitting a message to Mansr.