There are many translations of the epic into modern German, the best known being that of K.
Dean said after reading Cynthia's latest translations.
Before letting him read the translations, the Deans filled him in on their activities, including their forest meeting with Jerome Shipton.
She turned to Fred and handed him her latest translations of Annie Quincy's diary.
There are translations into German of his finer odes, by J.
These Hebrew translations were, in their turn, rendered into Latin (by Buxtorf and others) and in this form the works of Jewish authors found their way into the learned circles of Europe.
The following translations into English verse are known: G.
Paley (1866), verse translations from bk.
Prose translations: P. J.
Editions and Translations.
German translations by J.
There are also numerous editions and translations of separate works, especially the Method, in French, German, Italian, Spanish and Hungarian.
There are English translations by J.
The literature of the last two centuries consists mainly of translations and religious works written by ecclesiastics, some of whom were natives of the Albanian colonies in Italy.
The longer efforts partake of the nature of translations from sundry medieval compilations like those of Guido di Colonna and Boccaccio, which are in Latin.
German translations were published at Gera in 1611 and at Frankfort in 1605 and 1627.
The second edition in English appeared at Edinburgh in 1611, and in the preface to it Napier states he intended to have published an edition in Latin soon after the original publication in 1593, but that, as the work had now been made public by the French and Dutch translations, besides the English editions, and as he was "advertised that our papistical adversaries wer to write larglie against the said editions that are alreadie set out," he defers the Latin edition "till having first seene the adversaries objections, I may insert in the Latin edition an apologie of that which is rightly done, and an amends of whatsoever is amisse."
Macdonald at Edinburgh in 1889, and that there is appended to this edition a complete catalogue of all Napier's writings, and their various editions and translations, English and foreign, all the works being carefully collated, and references being added to the various public libraries in which they are to be found.
A great chapter in the history of culture is filled by the influence of translations of the Bible.
The English translations (Time and Free Will, Matter and Memory and Creative Evolution) all belong to 1910-1.
Translations And Adaptations.
These are (1) causes relating to elections, translations and deprivations of, and criminal prosecutions against, bishops, and (2) the matrimonial cases of princes (Taunton, op. cit.
Professor Takakusu has shown the possibility of several complete books belonging to it being still extant in Chinese translations,' and we may yet hope to recover original fragments in central Asia, Tibet, or Nepal.
Translations: Rhys Davids and H.
C. Warren, Buddhism in Translations (Cambridge, Mass., 1896); Mrs Rhys Davids, Buddhist Psychology (London, 1900); K.
Translations exist in almost every language; that of George Long (London, 1862, re-edited 1900) has been superseded by those of G.
The middle ages saw geographical knowledge die out in Christendom, although it retained, through the Arabic translations of Ptolemy, a certain vitality in Islam.
Migne's texts are not always satisfactory, but since the completion of his great undertaking two important collections have been begun on critical lines - the Vienna edition of the Latin Church writers,' and the Berlin edition of the Greek writers of the ante-Nicene period .8 For English readers there are three series of translations from the fathers, which cover much of the ground; the Oxford Library of the Fathers, the Ante Nicene Christian Library and the Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers.
The rejected books receiving little attention have mostly either been altogether lost or have survived only in translations, as in the case of the Apocrypha.
(partly in Arabic) not only numerous Responsa, but also treatises on law, commentaries on the Mishnah and the Bible, a lexicon called in Arabic al-Hawi, and poems such as the Musar Haskel, but most of them are now lost or known only from translations or.
He wrote numerous translations, of Galen, Aristotle, Ilariri, IIunain ben Isaac and Maimonides, as well as several original works, a Sepher Anaq in imitation of Moses ben Ezra, and treatises on grammar and medicine (Rephuath geviyyah), but he is best known for his Talzkemoni, a diwan in the style of Ilariri's Magimat.
The fact that many of the most important works were written in Arabic, the vernacular of the Spanish Jews under the Moors, which was not understood in France, gave rise to a number of translations into Hebrew, chiefly by the family of Ibn Tibbon (or Tabbon).
The "Fragments choisis," and translations from the German, were published in L'Abeille francaise.
the Moral Self (1897); Principles of Individuality (1911); What Religion Is (1920) as well as translations of Hegel and Lotze.
The high reputation it had in medieval times is attested by the numerous translations, commentaries and imitations of it which then appeared.
For translations, The Life and Letters of St Francis Xavier, by H.
It consists of a calendar and almanac, a catechism, hymns, many of them translations from the German, metrical versions of the Psalms, and a collection of ballads and satirical poems against the Catholic church and clergy.
His misgivings as to its reception were at once set at rest, and it was speedily issued in translations into French, Spanish, German and Dutch, in addition to the English editions of New York, London and Paris.
There are at least two German translations of The Decline and Fall, one by Wenck, Schreiter and Beck (1805-1807), and a second by Johann C. Sporschil (1837, new ed.
He published also translations into French with commentaries of Hegel's works: Logique de Hegel (Paris, 1859; 2nd ed., 1874); Philosophie de la nature de Hegel (1863-65); Philosophic de l'esprit de Hegel (1867-69); Philosophie de la religion de Hegel (1876-78, incomplete).
The O'Neills of Ulster: Their History and Genealogy, by Thomas Mathews (3 vols., Dublin, 1907), an ill-arranged and uncritical work, has little historical value, but contains a mass of traditional and legendary lore, and a number of translations of ancient poems, and genealogical tables of doubtful authority.
The Greek text of the Physiologus exists only in late MSS., and has to be corrected from the translations.
Before this there had been translations into French dialects, as by Philippe de Thaun (1121), by Guillaume, "clerc de Normandie," also, about the same period, by Pierre, a clergyman of Picardy.
This (contemporary with Luther's German version) has been the basis of all subsequent translations into French.
Almost all Asiatic countries have a literature, but it is often not indigenous and consists of foreign works, chiefly religious, read either in translations or the original.
The extensive Sanskrit literature, which has reached in translations China, Japan and Java, is chiefly theological and poetical, history being conspicuously absent.
In this they were much hindered by the lack of correct translations of Ptolemy's works; and in 1462 Regiomontanus accompanied Cardinal Bessarion to Italy in search of authentic manuscripts.
In the pseudo-chronicles, the Historia of Geoffrey and the translations by Wace and Layamon, Lancelot does not appear at all; the queen's lover, whose guilty passion is fully returned, is Mordred.
The other translations of Rufinus are - (I) the Instituta Monachorum and some of the Homilies of Basil; (2) the Apology of Pamphilus, referred to above; (3) Origen's Principia; (4) Origen's Homilies (Gen.
For the translations, see the various editions of Origen, Eusebius, &c.
There are two German translations, one by Otto Schulz (1822) and the other by G.
Translations of the Works or of separate treatises have appeared in most European languages.
His Nuevo Descubrimiento del Gran Rio de las Amazonas was published at Madrid in 1641; French and English translations (the latter from the French, appeared in 1682 and 1698.
Dandolo published in Italian several treatises on agriculture, vine-cultivation, and the rearing of cattle and sheep; a work on silk-worms, which was translated into French by Fontanelle; a work on the discoveries in chemistry which were made in the last quarter of the 18th century (published 1796); and translations of several of the best French works on chemistry.
In the Greek original only a very small portion has been preserved; in Latin translations, however, a good deal.
For the Latin translations see Teuffel-Schwabe, Hist.
' After Klein's death his Prodromus, written in Latin, had the unwonted fortune of two distinct translations into German, published in the same year 1760, the one at Leipzig and Lubeck by Behn, the other at Danzig by Reyger - each of whom added more or less to the original.
For English translations consult the "Oxford Library of the Fathers" and the "Ante-Nicene Library."
Henry then demanded his surrender from the emperor as one who was spreading sedition in England, and Tyndale left Antwerp for two years, returning in 1533 and busying himself with revising his translations.
Aristotle was known but in part, and that part was rendered well-nigh unintelligible through the vileness of the translations; yet not one of those professors would learn Greek.
the universal sanction of their beliefs, as firmly as did the adherents of " the old religion "; they included the Catholic creeds, definitions formulated by the universal church, in their service books; they too appealed, as the fathers of Basel and Constance had done, from the papal monarchy to the great ecclesiastical republic. The Church of England at least, emphasizing her own essential catholicity, retained in her translations of the ancient symbols the word catholic " instead of replacing it by " universal."
The authorities for the Crusades have been collected in Bongars, Gesta Dei per Francos (Hanover, 1611) (incomplete); Michaud, Bibliotheque des croisades (Paris, 1829) (containing translations of select passages in the authorities); the Recueil des historiens des croisades, published by the Academie des Inscriptions (Paris, 1841 onwards) (the best general collection, containing many of the Latin, Greek, Arabic and Armenian authorities, and also the text of the assizes; but sometimes poorly edited and still .incomplete); and the publications of the Societe de l'Orient Latin (founded in 1875), especially the Archives, of which two volumes were published in 1881 and 1884, and the volumes of the Revue, published yearly from 1893 to 1902, and containing not only new texts, but articles and reviews of books which are of great service.
The earliest Hellenic culture in the East was Syrian, and the Arabs made their first acquaintance with Greek chemistry, as with Greek philosophy, mathematics, medicine, &c., by the intermediary of Syriac translations.
In Berthelot's opinion, the Syriac portions represent a compilation of receipts and processes undertaken in the Syrian school of medicine at Bagdad under the Abbasids in the 9th or 10th century, and to a large extent constituted by the earlier translations made by Sergius of Resaena in the 6th century.
With the spread of their empire to Spain the Arabs took with them their knowledge of Greek medicine and science, including alchemy, and thence it passed, strengthened by the infusion of a certain Jewish element, to the nations of western Europe, through the medium of Latin translations.
The earlier translations, such as the Turba Philosophorum and other works printed in collections like the Artis auriferae quam chemiam vocant (1572), Theatrum chemicum (1602), and J.
So far as they are Latin versions of Arabico-Greek treatises, they must have been much remodelled in the course of translation; but there is reason to suppose that many of them, even when pretending to be translations, are really original compositions.
If, then, those contents do not represent the knowledge of Jaber, and if the contents of other Latin translations which there is reason to believe are really made from the Arabic, show little, if any, advance on the knowledge of the Alexandrian Greeks, evidently the part played by the Arabs must be less, and that of the Westerns greater, than Gibbon is prepared to admit.
Of the other works, never yet completely edited, the best editions are, for the Heptameron, Leroux de Lincy (1855); for the Lettres, Genin (1841-1842); and for the Marguerites, &c., Frank (1873), English translations of the Heptameron are rather numerous: one appeared in 1887 by A.
The pope appointed censors for both translations, who found the work to be replete with piety and holiness, highly useful and wholesome.
Rapidly as the standard of musical translations was improving before this work appeared, no one could have foreseen what has now been abundantly verified, that the Ring can be performed in English without any appreciable loss to Wagner's art.
(1889), pp. 349-3 6 4; German translations by G.
His first Collection of Psalms and Hymns (Charlestown, 1737) contains five of his incomparable translations from the German, and on his return to England he published another Collection in 1738, with five more translations.
Of the collected works of Bede the most convenient edition is that by Dr Giles in twelve volumes (8vo., 1843-1844), which includes translations of the Historical Works.
Ball, A Short History of Mathematics (London 1st ed., 1888, three subsequent editions, enlarged and revised, and translations into French and Italian).
The poems of this statesman, though possessing little merit of their own, being for the most part translations from Nevayi, form one of the landmarks in the history of Ottoman literature.
After his election the pope had to make a profession of the Catholic faith, and give guarantees against arbitrary translations.
Among the principal modern works on Napoleon's campaigns 1805-14 are the following: Yorck von Wartenberg, Napoleon als Feldherr (1866, English and French translations); H.
Marsilius of Padua also composed a treatise De translations imperii romani, which is merely a rearrangement of a work of Landolfo Colonna, De jurisdictione imperatoris in causa matrimoniali, intended to prove the exclusive jurisdiction of the emperor in matrimonial affairs, or rather, to justify the intervention of Louis of Bavaria, who, in the interests of his policy, had just annulled the marriage of the son of the king of Bohemia and the countess of Tirol.
Marriott's Vestiarium Christianum (1868), though it must now be read with caution, is still of much value, notably the second part, which gives texts (with translations) of passages bearing on the subject taken from early and medieval writers, with many interesting plates.
The Latin translations of the code would seem to be very old, though even here we have no earlier MSS.
Shirazi (f9o5); but the literature in new translations and imitations has recently multiplied exceedingly.
Literature - modern as well as ancient - occupied his attention; one of his works was a translation of four parts of Clarissa; and translations of some of the then current English paraphrases on biblical books manifested his sympathy with a school which, if not very learned, attracted him by its freer air.
Both in the German and English translations (Luther's, 1537; Coverdale's, 1535, &c.) these books are separated from the others and set by themselves; but while in some confessions, e.g.
Both these translations are lost.
Two Latin translations have been published in this work by the same scholar - one on pp. 164-180, the other under the wrong title, Pseudo-Matthaei Evangelium, on pp. 93-112.
Of Peder Paars there exist at least twenty-three editions, besides translations in Dutch, German and Swedish.
In translations they had only the Categories and the De interpretatione of Aristotle in the versions of Boetius, the Timaeus of Plato in the version of Chalcidius, and Boetius's translation of Porphyry's Isagoge.
Growing knowledge of Aristotle's works and the multiplication of translations enabled students to tendency.
Fresh translations of Aristotle and Averroes had already been made from the Arabic (IIepi ret ivropiat from the Hebrew) by Michael Scot, and Hermannus Alamannus, at the instance of the emperor Frederick II.; so that the whole body of Aristotle's works was at hand in Latin translations from about 1210 to 1225.
Soon afterwards efforts began to be made to secure more literal translations direct from the Greek.
Robert Grosseteste, important in the sphere of ecclesiastical politics, has been already mentioned as active in procuring translations of Aristotle from the Greek.
Of the three first-mentioned chronicles Hungarian translations by Charles Szabo appeared at Budapest in 1860, 1861 and 1862.
In the next literary period (1530-1606) several translations of the Scriptures are recorded.
Among these there are - versions of the Epistles of St Paul, by Benedict Komjati (Cracow, 1 533); of the Four Gospels, by Gabriel (Mizser) Pesti Vienna, 1536); of the New Testament, by John Erdosi (Ujsziget, 1541; 2nd ed., Vienna, 1574 6), and by Thomas 060> Felegyhazi (1586); and the translations of the Bible, by Caspar Heltai (Klausenburg, 1551-1565), and by Caspar Karoli (Vizsoly, near Goncz, 1589-1590).
Those of John Kis, the friend of Berzsenyi, cover a wide range of subjects, and comprise, besides original poetry, many translations from the Greek, Latin, French, German and English, among which last may be mentioned renderings from Blair, Pope and Thomson, and notably his translation, published at Vienna in 1791, of Lowth's " Choice of Hercules."
4 Among its earlier productions were the Nemzeti konyvtdr (National Library), published 1843-1847, and continued in 1852 under the title Ujabb Nemzeti konyvtdr, a repository of works by celebrated authors; the KUlfoldi Regenytdr (Treasury of Foreign Romances), consisting of translations; and some valuable collections of proverbs, folk-songs, traditions and fables.
Translations from Moliere, Racine, Corneille, Calderon and Moreto have also been issued by the Kisfaludy society.
The Evlapok uj folyama, or " New Series of Annuals," from 1860 (Budapest, 1868, &c.), is a chrestomathy of prize orations, and translations and original pieces, both in poetry and prose.
After 1872, in addition to its regular organs, it issued Hungarian translations of several popular scientific English works, as, for instance, Darwin's Origin of Species; Huxley's Lessons in Physiology; Lubbock's Prehistoric Times; Proctor's Other Worlds than Ours; Tyndall's Heat as a Mode of Motion, &c. Versions were also made of Cotta's Geologie der Gegenwart and Helmholtz's Populcire Vorlesungen.
1853) cultivates the nepies or folk-poetry as represented by Hungary's two greatest poets, Pet6fi and Arany; Vargha has also published excellent translations of Schiller and Goethe.
Butler's great work, The Lives of the Saints, the result of thirty years' study (4 vols., London, 1756-1759), has passed through many editions and translations (best edition, including valuable notes, Dublin, 12 vols.
The original, which consisted of a preface and thirteen books, is not lost, but we have a Latin translation of the first six books and a fragment of another on polygonal numbers by Xylander of Augsburg (1575), and Latin and Greek translations by Gaspar Bachet de Merizac (1621-1670).
English translations of the mathematical chapters of the Brahma-siddhanta and Siddhanta-ciromani by H.
But these translations were regarded as imperfect, and it remained for Tobit ben Korra (836-901) to produce a satisfactory edition.
Tobit ben Korra (836-901), born at Harran in Mesopotamia, an accomplished linguist, mathematician and astronomer, rendered conspicuous service by his translations of various Greek authors.
While some works of patristic writers are still of value for text criticism and for the history of early exegetical tradition, the treatment of the Psalms by ancient and medieval Christian writers is as a whole such as to throw light on the ideas of the commentators and their times rather than on the sense of a text which most of them knew only through translations.
Beginning with the earliest versions of the Bible, which seem to date from the 2nd century A.D., the series comprises a great mass of translations from Greek originals - theological, philosophical, legendary, historical and scientific. In a fair number of cases the Syriac version has preserved to us the substance of a lost original text.
5 It was not from Greek only that translations were made into Syriac. Of translations from Pahlavi we have such examples as the version of pseudo-Callisthenes' History of Alexander, made in the 7th century from a Pahlavi version of the Greek original - that of Kalilah and Dimnah executed in the 6th century by the periodeutes Bodh - and that of Sindbad, which dates from the 8th century; and in the late period of Syriac literature, books were translated from Arabic into Syriac as well as vice versa.
5 Some of his translations were revised at a later time by IJonain ibn Ishak (t873).
In the preface to the first volume he regrets that except for Alfred's translations Englishmen had no means of learning the true doctrine as expounded by the Latin fathers.
It was finally disregarded altogether; in the 9th century translations of relics were extremely frequent, and led to inextricable confusion in the future.
Most of these were free translations from the Greek, his favourite subjects being the legends of the Trojan war and the house of Pelops.
Professor Schipper's William Dunbar, sein Leben and seine Gedichte (with German translations of several of the poems), appeared at Berlin in 1884.
These poor compilations, together with Latin translations of certain works of Galen and Hippocrates, formed a medical literature, meagre and unprogressive indeed, but of which a great part survived through the middle ages till the discovery of printing and revival of learning.
In Bagdad, under the rule of Harun el Rashid and his successors, a still more flourishing school arose, where numerous translations of Greek medical works were made.
His works exist chiefly in the original Arabic or in Hebrew translations; only some smaller treatises have been translated into Latin, so that no definite opinion can be formed as to their medical value.
Three hundred medical writers in Arabic are enumerated by Ferdinand Wiistenfeld (1808-1899), and other historians have enlarged the list (Haser), but only three have been printed in the original; a certain number more are known through old Latin translations, and the great majority still exist in manuscript.
About the middle of the 11th century the Arabian medical writers began to be known by Latin translations in the Western world.
Gerard of Cremona, a physician of Toledo (1114-1187), made translations, it is said by command of Barbarossa, from Avicenna and others.
The following translations into English verse are known: T.
This was followed, next year, by translations of works on the Revolution by Mallet du Pan and Mounier, and at this time he also founded and edited a monthly journal, the Neue deutsche Monatsschrift, in which for five years he wrote, mainly on historical and political questions, maintaining the principles of British constitutionalism against those of revolutionary France.
The name seems to have become known to European geographers by the Oriental translations of the two Petis de la Croix, and was taken up by Delisle and D'Anville.
An account of these translations will be found in The Principles of Buddhist Law by Chan Toon (Rangoon, 1894), which is the first attempt to present those principles in something approaching to a systematic form.
The translations and notes are, of course, to be considered in the light of an instructive, but not final, commentary.
Vocabularies, grammars and interlinear translations were compiled for the use of students as well as commentaries on the older texts and explanations of obscure words and phrases.
A Christian revision of it is probably preserved in the two dialects of Coptic. Of these the Akhmim text is the original of the Sahidic. These texts and their translations have been edited by Steindorff, Die Apokalypse des Elias, eine unbekannte Apokalypse and Bruchstiicke der Sophonias-Apokalypse (1899).
His published partial French translations of Calderon and Lope de Vega, and wrote parodies for the Opera Comique and pamphlets in favour of the Jesuits.
The Book of the ioor Nights (Arabian Nights) also has its basis in translations from the Indian through the Persian, made as early as the 9th century.
Tabari and his contemporaries, senior and junior, such as Ibn Qutaiba, Ya`gubi, Dinawari, preserve to us a good part of the information about Persian history made known through such translations.'
German translations by Zedner (Berlin, 1840) and Cassel, Magyar.
- Of Arabic sources accessible in translations the geographical works of Ya`kubi (Descriptio al Magribi, by De Goeje, Leiden, 1860), Al-Bakri (Descr.
The best known of these are Jose Sebastian Barranca, the naturalist and antiquary, Jose Fernandez Nodal, and Gavino Pacheco Zegarra of Cuzco, who published translations of the Inca drama of 011antay, and Leonardo Villar, of Cuzco.
Casanova have published a Scelta di prediche e scritti di Fra Girolamo Savonarola con nuovi documenti (Florence, 1898); Il Savonarola e la critica tedesca (Florence, 1900), a selection of translations from the German.
English translations: Anabasis, Rooke (1812); Anabasis and Indica, E.
- WOrkS, Editions and Translations: Cours de philosophie positive (6 vols., Paris, 1830-1842; 2nd ed.
The poetry of the nation remained immovable in the ancient groove until very modern times, when, either by direct access to the originals or through the medium of very defective translations, the nation became acquainted with the masters of Occidental song.
Occasionally these translations were copied for circulation among officials, but the bulk of the people knew nothing of them.
H~ retained a knowledge of spoken Japanese, but the ideographic script was a sealed book to him, and his editorial part was limited to ora translations from American journals which the editor committee to writing.
His translations of platonic writers are lost, but the treatise De Definitionibus (ed.
promoted him to the bishopric of Auxerre, and here he continued to live in comparative quiet, repairing his cathedral and perfecting his translations, for the rest of his days, though troubled towards the close by the insubordination and revolts of his clergy.
His other translations were subsidiary.
Class magazines were represented by the Edinburgh Farmer's Magazine (1800-1825) and the Philosophical Magazine (1798), established in London by Alexander Tilloch; the latter at first consisted chiefly of translations of scientific articles from the French.
In 1759 Sumarakov founded the Trudolyubivaya Ptcheld, or " Industrious Bee," giving translations from the Spectator, and, for the first time, critical essays.
The Latin translations of the Antiquities of Josephus and of the ecclesiastical histories of Theodoret, Sozomen and Socrates, under the title of Historia Tripartita (embracing the years 3 06 -439), were carried out under his supervision.
Muir, Metrical Translations, pp. 188-189.
His works include: Mes Loisirs (1863); La Voix d'un exile (1867), a satire against the Canadian government; boreales, and Les Oiseaux de neige (1880), crowned by the French academy; La Legende d'un peuple (1887); two historical dramas, Papineau (1880) and Felix Poutre (1880); La Noel au Canada (1900), and several prose works and translations.
A little better is his contemporary, Rufius Festus Avienus, who made some free translations of astronomical and geographical poems in Greek.
and iii., Regimen, and Aphorisms. Of the separate works attributed to Hippocrates the editions and translations are almost innumerable; of the Prognostics, for example, seventy editions are known, while of the Aphorisms there are said to exist as many as three hundred.
For some notice of the Arabic, Syriac and Hebrew translations of works professedly by Hippocrates (Ibukrat or Bukrat), the number of which greatly exceeds that of the extant Greek originals, reference may be made to Fliigel's contribution to the article " Hippokrates " in the Encyklopadie of Ersch and Gruber.
The succeeding age saw the Arthurian story popularized, through translations of the French romances, as far afield as Germany and Scandinavia.
There are English translations by T.
The method, by which the text was thus utilized as a vehicle for conveying homiletic discourses, traditional sayings, legends and allegories, is abundantly illustrated by the Palestinian and later Targums, as opposed to the more sober translations of Onkelos and the Targum to the Prophets.
He made several translations from the Syrian, and in conjunction with his uncle he began the Bibliothecae Apostol.
Translations of separate treatises into German began to be made in 1738, and in 1776-1779 there appeared a complete German translation of the Characteristics.
The result of all this labour was the Latin translation of the Scriptures which, in spite of much opposition from the more conservative party in the church, afterwards became the Vulgate or authorized version; but the Vulgate as we have it now is not exactly Jerome's Vulgate, for it suffered a good deal from changes made under the influence of the older translations; the text became very corrupt during the middle ages, and in particular all the Apocrypha, except Tobit and Judith, which Jerome translated from the Chaldee, were added from the older versions.
Hilarionis eremitae, in his Vita Malchi monachi captivi, in his translations of the Rule of St Pachomius (the Benedict of Egypt), and in his S.
A series of school books, in the Maltese language printed in Roman characters, with translations in English interlined in different type, was produced at the government printing office and sold at cost price.
But when a committee of the Royal Asiatic Society, with George Grote at its head, decided that the translations of an Assyrian text made independently by the scholars just named were at once perfectly intelligible and closely in accord with one another, scepticism was silenced, and the new science was admitted to have made good its claims. Naturally the early investigators did not fathom all the niceties of the language, and the work of grammatical investigation has gone on continuously under the auspices of a constantly growing band of workers.
Doubtless much still remains to be done; but the essential thing, from the present standpoint, is that a sufficient knowledge of the Assyrian language has been acquired to ensure trustworthy translations of the cuneiform texts.
impossible; and they rang the changes on Scots translations of the alleged French originals, and on the French itself.
For example, when Moray, after Mary was in Elizabeth's power (May 16, 1568), wished Elizabeth to have the matter tried, he in May-June 1568 sent John Wood to England with Scots translations of the letters.
Wood was to ask, "if the French originals are found to tally with the Scots translations, will that be reckoned good evidence ?"
Equivalent terms, which are not necessarily identical or literal translations, were adopted for the English, French and German languages, the equivalence being closest and most systematic between the English and German terms.
English translations: - The Spaccio, by Morehead, not as has been supposed by J.
There are also French and German translations.
1878 the New York Tribune (Republican) published a series of telegraphic despatches in cipher, accompanied by translations, by which it attempted to prove that during the crisis folio;ring the election Tilden had been negotiating for the purchase of the electoral votes of South Carolina and Florida.
He was the only son of Dr Philip Francis (c. 1708-1773), a man of some literary celebrity in his time, known by his translations of Horace, Aeschines and Demosthenes.
Among translations are those of William Smith, Popular Writings of Fichte, with Memoir (2 vols., London, 1848-1849, 4th ed.
Among his works are Wegweisen far rationelle Forschungen in den biblischen Schriften (1853); and translations of Nathan der Weise (1869); Sepher Jezirah (1877); and Munz's History of Philosophy among the Jews (1881).
There are English verse translations by R.
More recently we have translations in English by G.
Foster, and full details of further information on the subject, together with a list of modern English translations of Zwingli's works.
In addition to many pamphlets and translations, Faber published the following works: All for Jesus; The Precious Blood; Bethlehem; The Blessed Sacrament; The Creator and the Creature; Growth of Holiness; Spiritual Conferences; The Foot of the Cross (8 vols., London, 1853-1860).
Other works by Einhard are: Epistolae, which are of considerable importance for the history of the times; Historia translations beatorum Christi martyrum Marcellini et Petri, which gives a curious account of how the bones of these martyrs were stolen and conveyed to Seligenstadt, and what miracles they wrought; and De adoranda truce, a treatise which has only recently come to light, and which has been published by E.
Among the various translations of the Vita may be mentioned an English one by W.
Of the Greek translations by Capito Lycius and Paeanius, the version of the latter is extant in an almost complete state.
There are numerous English school editions and translations.
There are two English translations published respectively under the titles A commonwealth of good counsaile, &c. (1607), and The Accomplished Senator, done into English by Mr Oldisworth (1733).
His Einleitung in die Schriften des Neuen Testaments, undoubtedly his most important work, was completed in 1808 (fourth German edition, 1847;, English translations by D.
One in the "Tudor Translations" (1893) has an introduction by G.
In German, see Fuchs's translations in Kautzsch's Die Apokryphen, ii.
He published in 1810 a translation of the Parthenais of the Danish poet Baggesen, with a preface on the various kinds of poetry; in 1823 translations of two tragedies of Manzoni, with a preface "Sur la the orie de l'art dramatique"; and in 1824-1825 his translation of the popular songs of modern Greece, with a "Discours preliminaire" on popular poetry.
The task is one of extraordinary difficulty, for the textual problems of the various writings are complex and confused: the Greek original is extant in a few cases only (the Commentary on Daniel, the Refutation, on Antichrist, parts of the Chronicle, and some fragments); for the rest we are dependent on fragments of translations, chiefly Slavonic, all of which are not even published.
The most useful edition for ready reference, containing critical texts (up to date) and good translations, is Lightfoot's one-volume edition, The Apostolic Fathers (London, 1891).
See also Archaeologia Cantiana (translations of the Kent Archaeological Society, London, from 1858).
In these editions, partly texts, partly translations, it is impossible to determine the respective shares of Erasmus and his many helpers.
There are also two volumes (1901-1904) of translations by F.
Long previously Lord Kelvin himself came nearer this view, in offering the opinion that magnetism consisted, in some way, in the angular momentum of the material molecules, of which the energy of irregular translations constitutes.
Nestorian philosophers and medical practitioners became the teachers of the great Arabian natural philosophers of the middle ages, and the latter obtained their knowledge of Greek learning from Syriac translations of the works of Greek thinkers.
The theologians of the Greek and Latin churches expressly found the conception of a Christian priesthood on the hierarchy of the Jewish temple, while the names by which the sacerdotal character is expressed - iEpEbs, sacerdos - originally designated the ministers of sacred things in Greek and Roman heathenism, and then came to be used as translations into Greek and Latin of the Hebrew kohen.
Kohen, iEpEbs, sacerdos, are, in fact, fair translations of one another; they all denote a minister whose stated business was to perform, on behalf of the community, certain public ritual acts, particularly sacrifices, directed godwards.
Sladek was, with his excellent translations, one of the first to make Czech readers acquainted with the riches of English literature (especially Shakespeare).
Among his principal works are: - Sacred Hermeneutics Developed and Applied (1843), rewritten and republished as A 'Treatise on Biblical Criticism (1852), Lectures on Ecclesiastical Polity (1848), An Introduction to the New Testament (1848-1851), The Hebrew Text of the Old Testament Revised (1855), Introduction to the Old Testament (1862), On a Fresh Revision of the Old Testament (1873), The Canon of the Bible (1877), TheDoctrine of Last Things in the New Testament (1883), besides translations of the New Testament from Von Tischendorf's text, Gieseler's Ecclesiastical History (1846) and Fiirst's Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon.
Translations: In addition to the translations given in the preceding editions, Basset, Les Apocryphes ethiopiens, iii.
This poet was an Anglo-Norman named Thomas; and, although little over 3000 lines of his poem have been preserved, we have three translations; a German, by Gottfried von Strassburg; a Scandinavian, by a certain Brother Robert; and an English, by Thomas, sometimes identified with Thomas of Ercildoune, though this is doubtful.
With the help of the extant fragments and these translations we can form a very good idea of the character and content of Thomas's work, a task now rendered far more easy by M.
The whole of Aristotle's works, presented in the Latin translations and notes of the Arabian commentators, were by him digested, interpreted and systematized in accordance with church doctrine.
Among the translations made by "Carmen Sylva" are German versions of Pierre Loti's romance Pecheur d'Islande, and of Paul de St Victor's dramatic criticisms Les DeuxMasques (Paris,1881-1884); and in particular The Bard of the Dimbovitza, a fine English version by "Carmen Sylva" and Alma Strettell of Helene Vacarescu's collection of Rumanian folk-songs, &c., entitled Lieder aus dem Dimbovitzathal (Bonn, 1889).
Translations from the original works of "Carmen Sylva" have appeared in all the principal languages of Europe and in Armenian.
At Bagdad, in the reign of Mamun (813-833), the son of Harun al-Rashid, philosophical works were translated by Syrian Christians from Greek into Syriac and from Syriac into Arabic. It was in his reign that Aristotle was first translated into Arabic, and, shortly afterwards, we have Syriac and Arabic renderings of commentators on Aristotle, and of portions of Plato, Hippocrates and Galen; while in the 10th century new translations of Aristotle and his commentators were produced by the Nestorian Christians.
The Arabic translations of Aristotle passed from the East to the West by being transmitted through the Arab dominions in northern Africa to Spain, which had been conquered by the Arabs in the 8th century.
In England the 9th century closes with Alfred, who, with the aid of the Welsh monk, Asser, produced a series of free translations from Latin texts, including Boethius and Orosius and Bede, and the Cura Pastoralis of Gregory the Great.
Until 1128 only the first two of the five parts of the Organon were known, and those solely in Latin translations from the original.
1142) was acquainted with no Greek works except in Latin translations, but he has left his mark on the history of European education.
During the hundred and thirty years that elapsed between the early translations of Aristotle executed at Toledo about 1150 and the death in 1281 of William of Moerbeke, the translator of the Rhetoric and the Politics, the knowledge of Aristotle had been greatly extended in Europe by means of translations, first from the Arabic, and, next, from the original Greek.
At Ferrara he spent the last thirty years of his long life (1370-1460), producing textbooks of Greek and Latin grammar, and translations from Strabo and Plutarch.
An educational aim is also apparent in his editions of Terence and of Seneca, while his Latin translations made his contemporaries more familiar with Greek poetry and prose, and his Paraphrase promoted a better understanding of the Greek Testament.
To facilitate the reading of Latin texts, the favourite method was the use of interlinear translations, originally proposed by Locke, first popularized in France by Dumarsais (1722), and in constant vogue down to the time of the Revolution.
He retained, however, those passages of which there was no Hebrew equivalent, and added translations of the Hebrew where the latter was not represented in the Septuagint.
The position of Christian (and Jewish Alexandrian) scholars was considerably worse; for, with rare exceptions, down to the 5th century, and practically without exception between the 5th and 15th centuries, their study was exclusively based on translations.
Yet even so the publication of the Hebrew text by Christian scholars marks an important stage; henceforth the study of the original enters increasingly into Christian Biblical scholarship; it already underlay the translations which form so striking a feature of the 16th century.
of versions in other languages representing translations from the Greek, (C) MSS.
It is still a disputed point whether Tertullian's quotations may be regarded as evidence for a Latin version or as independent translations from the Greek, nor is it certain that this version is African in an exclusive sense; it was undoubtedly used in Africa and there is no evidence that it was known elsewhere originally, but on the other hand there is no proof that it was not.
Fuldensis) translations, in both of which the text has unfortunately been almost entirely conformed to the ordinary type.
The early history of this version is obscure, but it seems probable that there were two translations made in the 4th century: (I) by Mesrop with the help of Hrofanos (Rufinus?) based on a Greek text; (2) by Sahak, based on Syriac. After the council of Ephesus (A.
Wiinsche's valuable translations; to those already mentioned must be added his Aus Israels Lehrhallen (excerpts of a more miscellaneous character (Leipzig, 1907 sqq.).
He had six sons, of whom John (1655-1699), the author of some translations, alone reached manhood.
Translations or revisions in scores of languages are still being carried on by companies of scholars and representative missionaries in different parts of the world, organized under the society's auspices and largely at its expense.
The latter, elaborate and well written, is lacking in critical appreciation and proportion; there are French and Italian translations.
St John Thackeray, Translations from Prudentius (London, 1890); F.
in which it is preserved and by three separate translations into Italian.
pp. 7-70; but in this edition the Mexican text is very corrupt, and the two Spanish translations are by no means exact.
Facsimiles of several of these interesting documents, with their translations, may be seen in Kingsborough; splendid reproductions of the beautiful Mexican and Mixteco-Zapotecan codices have also been published at the expense of the duke of Loubat and by the " Junta Colombina " (Mexico, 1892).
BIBLE The history of the vernacular Bible of the English race resolves itself into two distinctly marked periods - the one being that of Manuscript Bibles, which were direct translations from the Latin Vulgate, the other that of Printed Bibles, which were, more or less completely, translations from the original Hebrew and Greek of the Old and New Testaments.
Some of these translations were made in England, some were brought over to England and copied and.
Apart from these more or less complete versions of separate books of the Bible, there existed also numerous renderings of the Lord's Prayer, the Ten Commandments, accounts of the Life, Passion and Resurrection of our Lord, translations of the ' H.
It is, therefore, in all likelihood to the zeal of Wycliffe and his followers that we owe the two noble 1 4 th-century translations of the Bible which tradition has always associated with his name, and which are the earliest complete renderings that we possess of the Holy Scriptures into English.4 The first of these, the so-called Early Version, was probably completed about 1382, at all events before 1384, the year of Wycliffe's death.
Versions of the Scriptures so far noticed were all secondary renderings of the Vulgate, translations of a translation.
To counteract and supersede all these unauthorized editions, Tyndale himself brought out his own revision of the New Testament with translations added of all the Epistles of the Old Testament after the use of Salisbury.
Attempts have been made to show that especially in the Old Testament he based a great deal of his work on the Wycliffite translations, but in face of this we have his own explicit 4 Reprinted by G.
Thus the Pentateuch and the New Testament were reprinted from Tyndale's translations of 1530 and 1535 respectively, with very slight variations; See Dr Ginsburg's information to Mr Tedder, D.N.B.
It will have been observed that the translations of Holy Scripture which had been printed during these years (1525-1539) were all made by private men and printed without any public authority.
(14) These translations to be used when they agree better with the text than the Bishops' Bible; viz.
(15) Besides the said directors before mentioned, three or four of the most ancient and grave divines in either of the universities, not employed in translating, to be assigned by the vicechancellor upon conference with [the] rest of the heads to be overseers of the translations, as well Hebrew as Greek, for the better observation of the fourth rule above specified."
The edition appeared at length in 1611, the full title being as follows: The Holy Bible, conteyning the Old Testament, and the New: Newly Translated out of the Originall tongues, & with the former Translations diligently compared and reuised, by his Majesties speciall comandement.
Eadie, The English Bible: an External and Critical History of the various English Translations of Scripture (2 vols., 1876: the most complete account); A.
Stoughton, Our English Bible, its Translations and Translators .
Lewis, History of English Translations of the Bible (1818); the historical accounts prefixed to Bagster's issue of The English Hexapla and of Forshall and Madden's edition of the Wycliffite Versions (Oxford, 1850).
Cook's " Introduction on Old English Translations of the Bible," in Biblical Quotations in Old English Prose-writers.
It also contains interesting communications from Bunsen and Professor Loebell, and select translations from the Kleine Schriften.
There are also translations of Flatey and Red Eric Saga in Beamish, Discovery of North America by the Northmen (Lond., 1841); E.
For translations from the ancients he would substitute imitations.
His more important books, of which English translations have been published, are the poems Gitanjali (Song Offerings) (1913), The Crescent Moon (1913), The Gardener (1913), Songs of Kabir (1915), Fruit Gathering (1916), Stray Birds (1917), The Lover's Gift and the Crossing (1918); the plays Chitra (1914), The King of the Dark Chamber (1914), The Post Office (1914),.
Miller's translations includes a long extract of Mani's book called Schapurakan, parts of his Evangelium, and epistles, with liturgies, hymns and prayers, for Tatar Khans who espoused the faith in Khorasan.
Her leisure was occupied with the study of occult and kabbalistic literature, to which she soon added that of the sacred writings of India, through the medium of translations.
Translations from one language into another may help to fix the reading of the original, or this again that of the translation.
In his translations of Euripides' Cyclops, 381, "a bowl I Three cubits wide and four in depth, as much i As would contain four amphorae" the Greek original clearly points to "ten amphorae" and four may have come from the previous line.
(b) Translations from Goethe's Faust; sc. i.
Poste wrote translations of the Posterior Analytics and Sophistici Elenchi; R.
Zimmer, Nennius Vindicatus (Berlin, 1893), an examination into the credibility of Nennius; Geoffrey of Monmouth, Historia Britonum (translations of both histories are in Bohn's Library); Wace, the Brut (ed.
Among translations from original sources (of which the most trustworthy are yet unedited), comp. Mirkhond's Geschichte der Seldschuken (ed.
Nicolas (first dragoman at the French legation at Tehran) has published several important translations, viz.
Of Greek writers he appears to have known nothing at first hand, and very little in translations.
The Timaeus of Plato in the Latin version of Chalcidius was known to him as to his contemporaries and predecessors, and probably he had access to translations of the Phaedo and Meno.
English translations: by W.
Lucien Wolf has shown that the English translations of the Bible aroused so much interest in the Jews that there was a widespread desire to know more about them.
The ultimate source of the subject matter in question, or of the most distinctive and larger part of it, was in all probability an Aramaic one, and in some parts different translations may have been used.
He acquired no inconsiderable facility in the Greek language, from which he made and published some translations.
Steele for the King's Classics (1908), &c. Other translations of Utopia are by Gilbert Burnet (1684) and by A.
7), started in the West the long series of discoveries and translations of hitherto unknown relics.
For translations of these, as well as of Zwingli's Reckoning of his Faith, and of the Tetrapolitan Confession, see H.
At this time Protestant opinions were being disseminated in England chiefly by the surreptitious circulation of the works of Wycliffe, and especially of his translations of the New Testament.
- Galileo, Dialogues (translations: "The System of the World" and "Mechanics and Local Motion," in T.
Salusbury's Mathematical Collections and Translations (1661-1665); Mechanics and Local Motion, by T.
Among the Aramaic-speaking people the revolution which displaced the Arabian court of Damascus in favour of a cosmopolitan world centred at the Babylonian seat of the civilizations dealt with in the preceding paragraphs naturally gave an impulse to the wider scholarship. Translations were made from Greek, as, e.g.
Wilkinson's preliminary discourses to these translations and his criticisms of Coleridge's comments upon Swedenborg displayed a striking aptitude not only for mystical.
Schiefner had begun at St Petersburg in 1849 his series of translations and researches.
In 1861 Lepsius published his paper Ueber chinesische and tibetische Lautverhdltnisse; and after 1864 Leon Feer brought out in Paris many translations of texts from Tibetan Buddhist literature.
Nothing of importance occurred during the following reigns, until that of Ralpachen, who won glory by his care for the translations of the Buddhist scriptures which he caused to be completed, or rewritten more accurately when required.
His principal works were translations of the following portions of Aristotle,- Categoriae, De Interpretatione, Analytica Posteriora, Physica, De Caelo, De Anima, Metaphysica, Ethica Nicomachea, Politica; and an Expositio Ethicorum Aristotelis.
Epigraphik (1898); Cooke, Textbook of North-Semitic Inscriptions (1903), with translations and notes; Landau, Beitreige z.
The genuineness of these so-called translations from the works of a 3rd-century bard was immediately challenged in England, and Dr Johnson, after some local investigation, asserted (Journey to the Western Islands of Scotland, 1775) that Macpherson had only found fragments of ancient poems and stories, which he had woven into a romance of his own composition.
Several of his translations (into Latin) from the Greek tragedians and other writers, made at this time, have been printed.
His editions and translations of the classics were either juvenile exercises prescribed by Scaliger, or "lusus poetici," the amusement of vacant hours.
It is natural, therefore, that it should influence and finally supplant Hebrew in popular use, so that translations even of the Old Testament eventually appear in it (Targums).
There are French translations by Guadet (Paris, 1845, Soc. de l'hist.
The principal are - in Italian, the famous Il Galateo (1558), a treatise of manners, which has been translated into several languages, and in Latin, De officiis, and translations from Thucydides, Plato and Aristotle.
Dr Muir was also the author of a volume of Metrical Translations from the Sanskrit, an anonymous work on Inspiration, several works in Sanskrit, and many essays in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society and elsewhere.
Denmark and Sweden followed suit with translations, and the expression " eternal Jew " passed as a current term into Czech.
The popularity of the pamphlet and its translations soon led to reports of the appearance of this mysterious being in almost all parts of the civilized world.
Translations of Lessing's Dramatic Works (2 vols., 1878), edited by E.
Translations took place in the 9th, 15th and 17th centuries, and the remains now rest beneath the altar in the chapel of Clement VIII.
His commentaries have been frequently reprinted, many of them in Latin translations.
A few translations into other languages exist, as of the Chirurgia magna and some other works into French, and of one or two into Dutch, Italian and even Arabic. The translations into English amount to about a dozen, dating mostly from the middle of the 17th century.
His Catechism (Catechisme ou instruction familiere, 1652) and his Christian's Defense against the Fears of Death (Consolations de l'dme fidele contre les frayeurs de la mort, 1651) became well known in England by means of translations, which were very frequently reprinted.
A little volume of poetry, translations and original pieces, published in 1823 gave its author no fame.
The Hebrew marginal readings occasionally seem to be translations from the Greek or Syriac, e.g.
The needless bitterness of his attacks upon Plato (in the Comparatio Aristotelis et Platonis), which drew forth a powerful response from Bessarion (q.v.), and the manifestly hurried and inaccurate character of his translations of Plato, Aristotle and other classical authors, combined to ruin his fame as a scholar, and to endanger his position as a teacher of philosophy.
For a complete list of his numerous works, consisting of translations from Greek into Latin (Plato, Aristotle and the Fathers) and original essays in Greek (chiefly theological) and Latin (grammatical and rhetorical), see Fabricius, Bibliotheca Graeca (ed.
Of translations may be mentioned Les Elemens philosophiques du citoyen (1649) and Le Corps politique (1652), both by S.
There are translations by F.
In addition to the books quoted in the text, the following may be mentioned: - Bontekoe, Tractat van het excellenste Kruyd Thee (The Hague, 1679); Sylvestre Dufour, Traites Nouveaux et Curieux du Café, du The, et du Chocolat (2nd ed., Lyons, 1688; translation of 1st edition by John Chamberlayne, London, 1685; translations also in Spanish and Latin); J.
There are English translations of the Baharistan by E.
He published also translations of the Samunder Edda and Herwara-Saga, and a history of Sweden to Charles XII.
Editions of the text of the Scriptures are permitted for purposes of study; translations of the Bible into the vulgar tongue have to be approved, while those published by non-Catholics are permitted for the use of scholars (Nos.
It was another step in the same direction when, in 1886, it was ordered that " to avoid frequent translations " business introduced in Czech should be dealt with in the same language in the high courts of Prague and Briinn.
There are English translations of the History of the Wars, by H.
Beside the other canonical books of the Old Testament, translated in many cases with modifications or additions, it included translations of other Hebrew books (Ecclesiasticus, Judith, &c.), works composed originally in Greek but imitating to some extent the Hebraic style (like Wisdom), works modelled more closely on the Greek literary tradition, either historical, like 2 Maccabees, or philosophical, like the productions of the Alexandrian school, represented for us by Aristobulus and Philo, in which style and thought are almost wholly Greek and the reference to the Old Testament a mere pretext; or Greek poems on Jewish subjects, like the epic of the elder Philo and Ezechiel's tragedy, Exagoge.
Not much can be said in praise of the complete translations into the German language, neither of that of Ullmann, which has appeared in several editions, nor of that of Henning (Leipzig) and Grigull (Halle), all of them shallow amateurs who have no notion of the difficulties to be met with in the task, and are almost entirely dependent on Sale.
These tragedies were for the most part adaptations and, in some cases, translations from Euripides.
Both Wheloc and Gibson give Latin translations.
In addition to the translations contained in the editions already mentioned, the following have been issued separately.
These texts are for the most part excessively corrupt, and despite the translations of Pierret, Renouf and Budge, much labor must yet be expended upon them before they can rank as a first-rate source.
Not long ago the supposed meaning of these was extracted chiefly by brilliant guessing, and the published translations of even the best scholars could carry no guarantee of more than approximate exactitude, where the sense depended at all on correct recognition of the syntax.
These consist of episodes in the life of the parish priest "Father Prout," and dialogues after the model of "Christopher North," varied by translations of well-known English songs into Latin, Greek, French and Italian verse, which he humorously represents as being the true originals from which the English authors had merely plagiarized them.
Mahony's translations have been universally admired for the extraordinary command which they display of the various languages into which his renderings are made, and for their spirit and freedom both of thought and expression.
He also produced masterly translations of the popular Slovenic songs current in Carniola (Volkslieder aus Krain, 1850), and of the English poems relating to "Robin Hood" (1864) .
He wrote a number of popular hymns, partly original, partly translations; translated the Pentateuch from the Hebrew; and published (1536) a collection of sermons embodying the reformed doctrine and destined for the use of clergy and laity.
his Grammatik der neusyrischen Sprache, 1868, his III andeiische Grammatik, 1874, and his translations from the Arabian of Tabari, 1881-1882) is meant for specialists, many of his books are of interest to the general reader.
It was to remedy these evils that he established a court school, after the example of Charles the Great; for this he imported scholars like Grimbald and John the Saxon from the continent and Asser from South Wales; for this, above all, he put himself to school, and made the series of translations for the instruction of his clergy and people, most of which still survive.
And, whereas Justinian's constitutions contained in the Codex were all issued in Latin, the rest of the book being in that tongue, these Novels were nearly all published in Greek, Latin translations being of course made for the use of the western provinces.
6 1917), to require that translations of political views and comment touching the United States or any other nation engaged in the war should be filed with the post-office officials at the mailing point in the case of all foreign language publications.
The other works of Lord Hailes include Historical Memoirs concerning the Provincial Councils of the Scottish Clergy (1769); An Examination of some of the Arguments for the High Antiquity of Regiam Majestatem (1769); three volumes entitled Remains of Christian Antiquity (" Account of the Martyrs of Smyrna and Lyons in the Second Century," 1776; " The Trials of Justin Martyr, Cyprian, &c.," 1778; The History of the Martyrs of Palestine, translated from Eusebius," 1780); Disquisitions concerning the Antiquities of the Christian Church (1783); and editions or translations of portions of Lactantius, Tertullian and Minucius Felix.
His numerous polemical writings include A Defense of the sincere true Translations of the holie Scriptures into the English tong (London, 1583), and confutations of Thomas Stapleton (1535-1598), Cardinal Allen and other Roman Catholic controversialists.
Ludwig Hahn, Bibliothek der Symbole, 3rd edition (Breslau, 1897), 183 ff.; for translations compare the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, 2nd series, iv.
In late hieroglyphic the name of Thoth often has the epithet " the twice very great," sometimes " the thrice very great "; in the popular language (demotic) the corresponding epithet is " the five times very great," found as early as the 3rd century B.C. Greek translations give o p..iyas Kai ' Alias and p. yco-Tos: T pio-jeyas occurs in a late magical text.
The interest in German, which Carlyle did so much to promote, suggested to him other translations and reviews during the next few years, and he made some preparations for a history of German literature.
In England the Ridolphi-Norfolk plot was discovered, and at the end of 1571 Buchanan's " Detection" of Mary, with translations of the Casket Letters, was published.
Nor can it be said that the first works of a more extensive and deliberate character show any consciousness of pure art as we find it in contemporary writings in England, though the fact that they are translations has some prospective significance.
In all these distinctively Buddhist verses the existing translations (of which Professor Max Miller's is the best known, and Dr Karl Neumann's the best) are inadequate and sometimes quite erroneous.
Three volumes of translations of these rules, by him and by the present writer, have also appeared in the Sacred Books of the East.
i.-vi., by Chalmers, Neil, Francis, and Rouse, 1895-1897; Buddhism in Translations, by Warren, 1896; Buddhistische Anthologie, by Neumann, 1892.
There are English translations by L.
The manuscripts are very numerous, and many of them are of great antiquity, as are the Syriac and other translations.
His main productions were a diary kept at intervals during eighteen months (1785-1787), and translations of the Antigone, the Manual of Epictetus, &c. But the characteristic feature of his studies was the copious extracts which from this time onward he unremittingly made and preserved.
Heinemann, A Bibliographical List of the English Translations and Annotated Editions of Goethe's Faust (1886).
Amongst her publications are: Poems from the Divan of Ilafaz (translations, 1897), The Desert and the Sown (1907); The Thousand and One Churches (with Sir W.
In spite of his scientific training in philology Lepsius left behind few translations of inscriptions or discussions of the meanings of words: by preference he attacked historical and archaeological problems connected with the ancient texts, the alphabet, the metrology, the names of metals and minerals, the chronology, the royal names.
The Latin translations of most of his works are barbarous and obscure.
In 1786, supported also by such scholars as Benjamin Kennicott and Robert Lowth, Geddes published a Prospectus of a new Translation of the Holy Bible, a considerable quarto volume, in which the defects of previous translations were fully pointed out, and the means indicated by which these might be removed.
He received his early education from his aunt, Helen Maria Williams, an Englishwoman, who at the close of the 18th century gained a reputation by various translations and by her Letters from France.
English translations by Elizabeth Carter (London, 1758); G.
Translations have been made of the entire work into Latin, German and Italian.
It consists of some translations of Livy and Seneca, and of a very large number of interesting and admirably written letters, many of which are addressed to Peiresc, the man of science of whom Gassendi has left a delightful Latin life.
His literary education at this period consisted largely of verse-writing and making translations from Greek authors.
We hear of an early poem named Pontius Glaucus the subject of which is uncertain, and of translations of Xenophon's Oeconomica and the Phenomena of Aratus.
His works are confessedly in the main translations and compilations (Att.
Khalid contented himself with protesting; he was neither a politician nor a soldier, but a student of alchemy and astronomy; translations of Greek books have been ascribed to him (Jahiz, Bayan, i.
That he had a competent acquaintance with Greek is manifest from his translations of Dionysius the Areopagite and of Maximus, from the manner in which he refers to Aristotle, and from his evident familiarity with Neoplatonist writers and the fathers of the early church.
He was enthusiastically received, but as he knew little of the language translations of his speeches had to be read for him.
If theosophy were to be judged solely by the published revelations of this "Secret Doctrine" it would hardly be deserving of serious consideration; for, as suggested in the separate article on Madame Blavatsky, the revelations themselves appear to have been no more than a crude compilation of vague, contradictory and garbled extracts from various periodicals, books and translations.
The theosophic "Path" to the final goal of emancipation or Nirvana, is in a great measure derived from the Buddhist literature, available to the English-speaking peoples through numerous excellent translations, more especially those of Professor T.
Rhys Davids, and also from the many translations in all the European languages of the Bhagavad Gita and Upanishads.
Schmiedel, 1894 ff.), of which several translations have appeared, the latest being by W.
Eleven English translations of the poem have been published (see C. B.
Tinker, The Translations of Beowulf, 1903).
From the analogy of couples to translations which was pointed out in 7, we may infer that a couple is sufficiently represented by a free (or non-localized) vector perpendicular to its plane.
Imperfect acquaintance with authors whom they studied in Latin translations made by Jews from Arabic commentaries on Greek texts, together with almost total ignorance of natural laws, condemned them to sterility.
At the same time Spanish influences reached them through the imitators of Guevara and the dramatists; French influences in the versions of romances; German in fluences in popular translations of the Faust legend, Eulenspiegel and similar productions.
Nigra was a sound classical scholar, and published translations of many Greek and Latin poems with valuable comments; he was also a poet and the author of several works of folk-lore and popular poetry, of which the most important is his Canti popolari del Piemonte.
The sentence quoted above 1 can therefore have been meant only as an apology for the absence of those poetic graces that necessarily disappear in translations into another tongue.
His writings include a collection of hymns (Das geistliche Blumengartlein, 1729; new edition, Stuttgart, 1868), a volume of Gebete, and another of Briefe, besides translations of the writings of the French mystics.
At the present time, in spite of the political troubles, books in almost every branch of research are found in the language, mainly translations or adaptations.
Finally, in December 1624, he published his Apophthegms, and Translations of some of the Psalms, dedicated to George Herbert; and, in 1625, a third and enlarged edition of the Essays.
i.-iii., philosophical writings; iv.-v., translations; vi.-vii., literary and professional works).
Of the many English names occurring in south Pembroke and south Glamorgan, some are exact or fanciful translations of the original Welsh, e.g.
With the accession of Elizabeth a novel and vigorous ecclesiastical policy on truly national lines was now inaugurated in Wales itself, chiefly through the instrumentality of Richard Davies, nominated bishop of St Asaph in 1559 and translated thence to St Davids in 1561, who was mainly responsible for the act of parliament of 1563, commanding the bishops of St Davids, Llandaff, Bangor, St Asaph and Hereford to prepare with all speed for public use Welsh translations of the Scriptures and the Book of Common Prayer.
Two circumstances attending the production of these Welsh translations should be noted: - (1) That the leaders of this remarkable religious, literary and educational revival within the Principality were chiefly natives of North Wales, where for many years St Asaph was regarded as the chief centre of Cambro-British intellectual life; and (2) that all these important works in the Welsh tongue were published of necessity in London, owing to the absence of an acknowledged capital, or any central city of importance in Wales itself.
It would be well-nigh impossible to exaggerate the services rendered to the ancient British tongue, and consequently to the national spirit of Wales, by these Elizabethan and Jacobean translations, issued in 1567, 1588 and 1620, which were able definitely to fix the standard of classical Welsh, and to embody the contending dialects of Gwynedd, Dyfed and Gwent for all time in one literary storehouse.
From such a fate it was largely preserved by the various translations of the Scriptures, undertaken at the command of Queen Elizabeth and performed by a number of native scholars and divines, amongst whom appear prominent the names of Bishops Davies, Morgan and Parry, and of William Salesbury of Llanrwst.
These are superseded by the recent translations made by A.
As regards translations (a subject critically handled by E.
One may, however, mention the translations in English by D.
A good idea of its heterogeneity is afforded by the English translations of Talmudic and other commentaries by P. I.
2 Some of the most influential of the Greek works in the middle ages had passed through Syriac, Arabic and Hebrew translations before they appeared in their more familiar Latin dress !
Akbar (1542-1605) gathered Brahmans and Zoroastrians, Jews, Christians and Mahommedans at his court, and endeavoured to get translations of their scriptures.
Translations from the Scriptures of various religions.
He published several Latin translations of Arabic works, of which the most important was the Chronicon Orientate of Ibnar-Rahib (Paris, 16J3), a history of the patriarchs of Alexandria.
It was first translated into English in 1610, probably under the author's direction, and other translations have subsequently appeared, the best of which is an edition edited by Richard Gough and published in three volumes in 1789, and in four volumes in 1806.
The Annales has been translated into French, and English translations appeared in 1635, 1675 and 1688.
The efficient support which he afforded the government was acknowledged by his successive translations to Rochester in 1793, and to St Asaph in 1802.
There are many translations of special works in all languages;.
Elwes, appeared in 1883, and translations of the Ethics and the De intellectus emendatione were published in 1883 and 1895 by W.
Wolf's translation of the Short Treatise appeared in 1910; previous translations were unscholarly in execution.
He wrote also treatises on the astrolabe (a copy of this is in the British Museum), on the abacus (three copies exist in the Vatican library, the library of Leiden University and the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris), translations of the Kharismian Tables and an Arabic Introduction to Astronomy.
Olof Verelius (1618-1682) had led the way for Rudbeck, by his translations of Icelandic sagas, a work which was carried on with greater intelligence by Johan PeringskjOld (1654-1720), the editor of the Heimskringla (1697), and J.
Gudmund Goran Adlerbeth (1751-1818) made translations from the classics and from the Norse, and was the author of a successful tragic opera, Cora och Alonzo (1782).
He is also the author of translations from Shakespeare and Calderon, and of considerable historical works.
The aesthetic critic and poet, Carl Rupert Nyblom (1832-1907), continued the studies, translations and original pieces which had created him a reputation as one of the most accomplished general writers of Sweden.
Besides translations of particular homilies by G.
Akad., 1904); among them translations of texts of the New Testament (K.
still appended Greek translations to some of their inscrip- Literature.
The real missionaries of culture in the empire were the Aramaeans (Syrians), who were connected with the West by their Christianity, and in their translations diffused Greek literature through the Orient.
Most of the criptions have besides two translations into the more complied kinds of cuneiform character of two other languages of the rsian Empire.
Next in importance to history rank geography, cosmography, and travels (for instance, the Nuzhat-uli~ulub, by liamdallah MustaufI, who died in 1349, and the translations of Istakhris and KazvInIs Arabic works), and the various tadhkiras or biographies of ~fis and poets, with selections in prose and verse, from the oldest of AufI (about 1220) to the last and largest of all, the Makhzan-ulg/zaraib, or Treasure of Marvellous Matters (completed 1803), which contains bi)graphies and specimens of more than 3000 poets.
For the first five centuries of the Hegira compare Eths editions and metrical translations of Rudagis Vorlhufer und Zeitgenossen, in Morgenlandische Forschungen (Leipzig, 1875); of Kisis songs, Firdousis lyrics, and Ab Said b.
German translations of Ibn Yamin were published by 0.
Some parts of the prefaces at the beginning of the English Prayer-Book are free translations of those of Quignonez.
English translations of the following portions of his works have appeared: - Treatise on Comets, by C. Gold, C.B.
He regarded many books of the Old Testament as spurious, questioned the genuineness of 2 Peter and Jude, denied the Pauline authorship of Timothy and Titus, and suggested that the canonical gospels were based upon various translations and editions of a primary Aramaic gospel.
Almost all Michelet's works, the exceptions being his translations, compilations, &c., are published in uniform size and in about fifty volumes, partly by Marpon and Flammarion, partly by Calmann Levy.
His most important extant works are: in prose, Gratiarum Actio, an address of thanks to Gratian for his elevation to the consulship; Periochae, summaries of the books of the Iliad and Odyssey; and one or two epistolae; in verse, Epigrammata, including several free translations from the Greek Anthology; Ephemeris, the occupations of a day; Parentalia and Commemoratio Professorum Burdigalensium, on deceased relatives and literary friends; Epitaphia, chiefly on the Trojan heroes; Caesares, memorial verses on the Roman emperors from Julius Caesar to Elagabalus; Ordo Nobilium Urbium, short poems on famous cities; Ludus Septem Sapientum, speeches delivered by the Seven Sages of Greece; Idyllia, of which the best-known are the Mosella, a descriptive poem on the Moselle, and the infamous Cento Nuptialis.
Dissatisfied with the meagre philosophies of his Italian teachers, he went to Toledo to study in Spanish Moslem schools, then so famous as depositories and interpreters of ancient wisdom; and, having thus acquired a knowledge of the Arabic language, he appears to have devoted the remainder of his life to the business of making Latin translations from its literature.
The Vatican MS. 2392 is stated to contain a eulogy of "Gerard of Cremona" and a list of "his" translations, apparently confusing the two scholars.
There are no recent translations of Juvenal into English verse.
Garrett took in hand the reform of the stage, moved by a desire to exile the translations on which the playhouses had long subsisted.
There are good reasons for thinking that the Christian story did not originate with John of Damascus, and a strong case has been made out by Zotenberg that it reflects the religious struggles and disputes of the early 7th century in Syria, and that the Greek text was edited by a monk of Saint Saba named John, his version being the source of all later texts and translations.
The Ethiopic and Latin Versions: Translations from the Greek.
Ethiopic Text and Translations: This text was first edited by Dillmann from two MSS.
Principal works: Sermoes (Sermons) (15 vols., Lisbon, 1679-1748); there are many subsequent editions, but none complete; translations exist in Spanish, Italian, German and French, which have gone through several editions.
His volumes include Cueille d'avril (1885); Les Cygnes (1887; new series, 1892); La Chevauchee d'Yeldis (1893); Swanhilde, a dramatic poem (1894); Laus Veneris (1895), a volume of translations from Swinburne; Poemes et Poesies (1895), a collection containing much of his earlier work; Phocas le jardinier (1898); and La Legende ailee de Wieland le Forgeron (1899), a dramatic poem.
He published two volumes of translations of Arabic poetry (1885 and 1894), a translation of two ancient Arabic Diwans (1913), as well as articles on Hindustani and Arabic literature in the E.B.
Of Latin translations Choulant mentions one in the 15th and twentytwo in the following century.
The name Geber has long been used to designate the author of a number of Latin treatises on alchemy, entitled Summa perfectionis magisterii, De investigatione perfectionis, De inventione veritatis, Liber fornacum, Testamentum Geberi Regis Indiae and Alchemia Geberi, and these writings were generally regarded as translations from the Arabic originals of Abu Abdallah Jaber ben Hayyam (Haiyan) ben Abdallah al-Kufi, who is supposed to have lived in the 8th or 9th century of the Christian era.
existing in the Paris library and in the university of Leiden, and containing works attributed to Jaber, and had translations made of six treatises - two, of which he gives the titles as Livre de la royaute and Petit Livre de la misericorde,-from Paris, and four - Livre des balances, Livre de la misericorde, Livre de la concentration and Livre de la mercure orientale - from Leiden.
Here again the inference is that the Latin treatises printed from the 15th century onwards as the work of Geber are not authentic, regarded as translations of the Arabic author Jaber, always supposing that the Arabic MSS.
If, therefore, these are original works rather than translations, and contain facts and doctrines which are not to be found in the Arabian Jaber, it follows that, on the one hand,the chemical knowledge of the Arabs has been overestimated and, on the other, that more progress was made in the middle ages than has generally been supposed.
But the great bulk of the collection consists of Mahayana books, belonging to all the previously existing varieties of that widely extended Buddhist sect; and, as the Sanskrit originals of many of these writings are now lost, the Tibetan translations will be of great value, not only for the history of Lamaism, but also for the history of the later forms of Indian Buddhism.
The early revival of the Bohemian language was very modest, and at first almost exclusively translations from foreign languages were published.
Joseph Jungmann (1773-1847) published early in life numerous Bohemian translations of German and English writers.
Both include translations into modern French, which, however, are hardly necessary, for the language is very easy.
For hymnology see Daniel, Thesaurus Hymnologicus (4 vols.); Neale's translations of Eastern Hymns; B.
He also made some translations from Persian into Arabic. (G.
During his school days at the grammar schools of Penzance and Truro he showed few signs of a taste for scientific pursuits or indeed of any special zeal for knowledge or of ability beyond a certain skill in making verse translations from the classics and in story-telling.
Learning Latin, he published Dutch translations from Cicero, Seneca and Boetius.
9, "they made his grave with the wicked, and with the rich in his death" (for various translations, see Hastings's Dict.
For complete bibliography of all works of Bellarmine, of translations and controversial writings against him, see C.Sommervogel, Bibliotheque de laCompagnie de Jesus (Brussels and Paris, 1890 et seq), vol.
Besides his translations of Aristotle's Metaphysics and Xenophon's Memorabilia, his most important work is a treatise directed against George of Trebizond, a violent Aristotelian, entitled In Calumniatorem Platonis.
Its literature consists of numerous translations of Jewish, Greek and Arabic works, besides a valuable version of the Bible.
English translations, with valuable comments, are in Sir H.
Among his other works are his Annotationes in Biblia (1607), of which an English translation (Pious and Learned Annotations upon the Holy Bible) was published in London in 1648, and various polemical treatises, such as De fictitio Pontificiorum Purgatorio (1619); De justa secessione Reformatorum ab Ecclesia Romana (1628); De Antichristo, &c. He also published French translations of Sarpi's History of the Council of Trent, and of Edwin Sandys's Account of the State of Religion in the West.
Translations and editions of Gulliver's Travels have been numerous.
Of the lectures on Dante which he delivered about this time, James Russell Lowell says: "These lectures, illustrated by admirable translations, are remembered with grateful pleasure by many who were thus led to learn the full significance of the great Christian poet."
A huge collection of translations of foreign poetry edited by him, and entitled The Poets and Poetry of Europe, appeared in 1845, and, in 1846, a few minor poems - songs and sonnets - under the title The Belfry of Bruges.
Various translations of parts of it exist, the earliest being a Latin rendering of the section relating to the Arabian conquests in Sicily, by Dobelius, Arabic professor at Palermo, in 1610 (preserved in Muratori's Rerum Italicarum Scriptores, vol.
" Processions," "Stations," "Translations" for details of processions under Constantine, and Du Cange, s.v.
Translations and Commentaries.