Translation sentence example
He found her translation of the piece breathtaking.
Instantly the translation came back.
The translation of Aristotle's Politics, the revision of Plato, and, above all, the translation of Thucydides many times revised, occupied several years.
The translator was not always good at picking up every word, but she didn't need the translation of the unknown word.
The expression on his face as he handed the translation to her said he needed the confidence that moment provided.Advertisement
Of the Latin version there were about thirty editions, founded on the original translation by Gerard of Cremona.
Cousin dedicated to him the fourth volume of his translation of Plato, and the long dedication is a compressed biography.
In 1812 his Escuela de los maridos, a translation of Moliere's Ecole des maris, was produced at Madrid, and in 1813 El Medico a Palos (a translation of Le Medecin malgre lui) at Barcelona.
By his translation (from the English) of the Sakuntala of Kalidasa (1791), he first awakened German interest in Indian literature.
The essays which should have accompanied the translation of Thucydides were never written.Advertisement
Mendelssohn himself published a German translation of the Vindiciae judaeorum by Menasseh ben Israel.
I read La Fontaine's "Fables" first in an English translation, and enjoyed them only after a half-hearted fashion.
Cynthia went on to say Fred had been excited by her translation of Annie's notebook and had left in a rush.
That Douglas undertook this work and that he makes a plea for more accurate scholarship in the translation have been the basis of a prevalent notion that he is a Humanist in spirit and the first exponent of Renaissance doctrine in Scottish literature.
In the spring of 1625 1 It was only published after the author's death; and of it, besides the French version, there exists an English translation " by a Person of Quality."Advertisement
Mendelssohn added a new section to this chapter by his German translation of the Pentateuch and other parts of the Bible.
In 1 744 he published another translation of Logan's, Cicero On Old Age, which Franklin thought typographically the finest book he had ever printed.
In the 6th century A.D., a translation into Pahlavi of a number of these old fables was made by a physician at the court of Chosroes I.
Luther had meanwhile been concealed by his friends in the Wartburg, near Eisenach, where he busied himself with a new German translation of the New Testament, to be followed in a few years by the Old Testament.
The first prominent French scholar to " preach Christ from the sources " was Jacques Lefebvre of Etaples, who in 1512 published a new Latin translation of the epistles of St Paul.Advertisement
His first literary work, except the bombastic but eloquent Essai sur le despotisme (Neufchatel, 1 775), was a translation of Robert Watson's Philip II., done in Holland with the help of Durival; his Considerations sur l'ordre de Cincinnatus (London, 1788) was based on a pamphlet by Aedanus Burke (1743-1802), of South Carolina, who opposed the aristocratic tendencies of the Society of the Cincinnati, and the notes to it were by Target;, his financial writings were suggested by the Genevese exile, Claviere.
In the autumn of 397 Rufinus embarked for Rome, where, finding that the theological controversies of the East were exciting much interest and curiosity, he published a Latin translation of the Apology of Pamphilus for Origen, and also (398-99) a somewhat free rendering of the 7rep1 apXwv (or De Principiis) of that author himself.
A complete translation of Ovid's Metamorphoses (he had published six books with the Heroic Epistles some years previously) followed in 1697.
The size and number of the volumes, however, and their great expense, made them difficult of access, and Frau von Mohl published the French translation (1876-1878) with her illustrious husband's critical notes and introduction in a more convenient and cheaper form.
The only complete translation is Il Libro dei Rei, by I.Advertisement
We have more in the Latin translation of Rufinus; but this translation in by no means trustworthy, since Rufinus, assuming that Origen's writings had been tampered with by the heretics, considered himself at liberty to omit or amend heterodox statements.
Valerius's translation was completely superseded by that of Leo, arch-priest of Naples in the 10th century, the socalled Historia de Preliis.
Navet, Nikolaus von Damascus (1853), containing an account of his life and writings, and translation of the fragments.
The translation was no doubt originally extemporary, and varied with the individual translators, but its form gradually became fixed and was ultimately written down.
During the period which followed the later canonical books, not only was translation, and therefore exegesis, cultivated, but even more the amplification of the Law.Advertisement
Yet he contrived to write his great commentary on the Pentateuch and other books of the Bible, treatises on philosophy (as the Yesodh mora), astronomy, mathematics, grammar (translation of Ilayyu j), besides a Diwan.
It was Moses Mendelssohn's German translation of the Pentateuch (1 7 80 - 1 793) which marked the new spirit, while the views of his opponents belong to a bygone age.
We learn from Suetonius that, like Ennius after him, he obtained his living by teaching Greek and Latin; and it was probably as a school-book, rather than as a work of literary pretension, that his translation of the Odyssey into Latin Saturnian verse was executed.
In his translation he discarded the native Saturnian metre, and adopted the iambic, trochaic and cretic metres, to which Latin more easily adapted itself than either to the hexameter or to the lyrical measures of a later time.
His work on music also is not a translation from Pythagoras, who left no writing behind him.Advertisement
Chaucer translated it into English prose before the year 1382; and this translation was published by Caxton at Westminster, 1480.
There is also an English translation entitled Metapsychical Phenomena (London, 1905).
Flournoy, Des Indes a la Planete Mars (Geneva, 1900; there is an English translation published in London); Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, passim.
An English translation of the embassy to Constantinople is in Ernest Henderson's Select Documents of the Middle Ages (Bohn series, 1896).
He favoured the Jesuits, especially in their conflict with the Jansenists, forbade in 1661 the translation of the Roman Missal into French, and in 1665 canonized Francis of Sales.Advertisement
It may be presumed that he took his degree, as he uses the title of "Syr" in his translation of Sallust, and in his will he is called doctor of divinity.
There is an English translation in the Library of the Ante-Nicene Fathers.
I also read Tibullus, Catullus, Propertius, Horace (with Dacier's and Torrentius's notes), Virgil, Ovid's Epistles, with l"leziriac's commentary, the Ars amandi and the Elegies; likewise the Augustus and Tiberius of Suetonius, and a Latin translation of Dion Cassius from the death of Julius Caesar to the death of Augustus.
A small impression was slowly dispersed; the bookseller murmured, and the author (had his feelings been more exquisite) might have wept over the blunders and baldness of the English translation.
The French translation of Le Clerc de Septchenes, continued by Demeunier, Boulard and Cantwell (1788-1795), has been frequently reprinted in France.Advertisement
A new edition of the complete translation, prefaced by a letter on Gibbon's life and character, from the pen of Suard, and annotated by Guizot, appeared in 1812 (and again in 1828).
The Italian translation (alluded to by Gibbon himself) was, along with Spedalieri's Confutazione, reprinted at Milan in 1823.
A French translation of the Miscellaneous Works by Marigne appeared at Paris in 1798.
There is also a German translation (Leipzig, 1801).
It may be added that a special translation of the chapter on Roman Law (Gibbon's historische Ubersicht des romischen Rechts) was published by Hugo at GÃ¶ttingen in 1839, and has frequently been used as a text-book in German universities.Advertisement
Smith's Dictionary of Christian Biography and Dictionary of the Bible, and he also joined the committee for revising the translation of the New Testament.
A considerable part of this translation was accomplished during his career as an undergraduate in Cambridge.
At Alexandria in particular Alexander provided for a Jewish colony which soon became Hellenic enough in speech to require a translation of the Law.
From the text which Philo uses, it is probable that the translation had been transmitted in writing; and his legend probably fixes the date of the commencement of the undertaking for the reign of Ptolemy Lagus.
Mendelssohn's translation of the Pentateuch into German with a new commentary by himself and others introduced the Jews to more modern ways of thinking.
He went over every part of the translation with me, observed on every passage in which justice was not done to the thought or the force of the expression lost, and made many useful criticisms. During this occupation we had occasion to see one another often, and became very intimate; and, as he had read much, had seen a great deal of the world, was acquainted with all the most distinguished persons who at that time adorned either the royal court or the republic of letters in France; had a great knowledge of French and Italian literature, and possessed very good taste, his conversation was extremely interesting and not a little instructive.
The original works of Rufinus are - (I) De Adulteratione Librorum Origenis - an appendix to his translation of the Apology of Pamphilus, and intended to show that many of the features in Origen's teaching which were then held to be objectionable arise from interpolations and falsifications of the genuine text; (2) De Benedictionibus XII Patriarcharum Libri II - an exposition of Gen.
This suspicion is strengthened by the fact (discovered by von Sybel) that even the very preface to his book is taken almost word for word from Rufinus's translation of Origen's commentary on the epistle to the Romans.
The celebrated expression certaminis gaudia assuredly came at first neither from the suave minister Cassiodorus nor from the small-souled notary Jordanes, but is the translation of some thought which first found utterance through the lips of a Gothic minstrel.
The fields were fenced in from seed-time to harvest, after which the fences were taken 1 Translation by Clement-Mullet (Paris, 1864).
The entire poem (which only existed in MS. up to the beginning of the 19th century) was published (1831-1868) with a French translation in a magnificent folio edition, at the expense of the French government, by the learned and indefatigable Julius von Mohl.
His best known work was Die Betooverde Wereld (1691), or The World Bewitched (1695; one volume of an English translation from a French copy), in which he examined critically the phenomena generally ascribed to spiritual agency, and attacked the belief in sorcery and "possession" by the devil, whose very existence he questioned.
An English translation of the Theses, with brief life of Erastus (based on Melchior Adam's account), was issued in 1659, entitled The Nullity of Church Censures; it was reprinted as A Treatise of Excommunication (1682), and, as revised by Robert Lee, D.D., in 1844.
Brisson's work was in French, with a parallel translation (edited, it is said, by Pallas) in Latin, which last was reprinted separately at Leiden three years afterwards.
This was the work of Salerne, published after his death, and is often spoken of as being a mere translation of Ray's Synopsis, but a vast amount of fresh matter, and mostly of good quality, is added.
Muller brought out at Nuremberg a German translation of the Systema Naturae, completing it in 1776 by a Supplement containing a list of animals thus described, which had hitherto been technically anonymous, with diagnoses and names on the Linnaean model.
Historiconaturalis, in which are described many birds, mostly from his A German translation by Bechstein subsequently appeared.
Of those travellers then the first to be here especially named is Marsigli, the fifth volume of whose Danubius Pannonico-Mysicus is devoted to the birds he met with in the valley of the Danube, and appeared at the Hague in 1725, followed by a French translation in 1744.8 Most of the many pupils whom Linnaeus sent to foreign countries submitted their discoveries to him, but Kalm, Hasselqvist and Osbeck published separately their respective travels in North America, the Levant and China.
C. Miiller's Faeroernes Fuglefauna (8vo, 1862), of which a German translation has appeared.'
Thanks to Mr Sclater, the Ray Society was induced to publish, in 1867, an excellent translation by Mr Dallas of Nitzsch's Pterylography, and thereby, however tardily, justice was at length rendered by British ornithologists to one of their greatest foreign brethren.'
These laws, as formulated by him, are that (1) there is a coincidence of form of the anterior palatal and of the cranium in birds of the same order; (2) there is a likeness between the anterior palatal bones in birds of the same order; (3) there are relations of likeness 1 The title of the English translation is Johannes Muller on Certain Variations in the Vocal Organs of the Passeres that have hitherto escaped notice.
This paper is indeed little more than an English translation of one published by the author in the annual volume (Arsskrift) of the Scientific Society of Upsala for 1860, and belonging to the pre-Darwinian epoch should perhaps have been more properly treated before, but that at the time of its original appearance it failed to attract attention.
Its subject, which is of high historical value as a record of costume, represents the translation of the body of St Mark, and gives us a view of the west façade of the church as it was at the beginning of the 13th century before the addition of the ogee gables, with alternating crockets and statues, and the intermediate pinnacled canopies placed between the five great arches of the upper storey.
In 1529 on his way to Hamburg he was wrecked on the Dutch coast, and lost his newly completed translation of Deuteronomy.
His translation of the Bible was so sure and happy that it formed the basis of subsequent renderings, especially that of the authorized version of 1611.
Their opportunity came with the disaster which befell the Roman army under Valerian (q.v.) at Edessa, a disaster, says ' The full text, both Greek and Palmyrene, with an English translation, is given in NSI, pp. 313-340.
The controversy between nominalists and realists arose from a passage in Boethius' translation of Porphyry's Introduction to the Categories of Aristotle, which propounded the problem of genera and species, (1) as to whether they subsist in themselves or only in the mind; (2) whether, if subsistent, they are corporeal or incorporeal; and (3) whether separated from sensible things or placed in them.
Henceforth his name was known in all European countries; the English translation by Mrs Austin was the occasion of one of Macaulay's most brilliant essays.
In 1881 he published a work on monasticism, Das M onchtum, seine Ideale and seine Geschichte (5th ed., 1900; English translation, 1901), and became joint-editor with Emil Schiirer of the Theologische Literaturzeitung.
One of his more recent historical works is Die Mission and Ausbreitung des Christentums in den ersten drei Jahrhunderten (1902; English translation in two volumes, 1904-1905).
This translation also contained a continuation by various hands down to 1277; while besides the continuation embedded in the Livre d'Eracles, there are separate continuations, of the nature of independent works, by Ernoul and Bernard the Treasurer.
The Itinerarium Peregrinorum, a work in ornate Latin prose, is (except for the first book) a translation of the Carmen masquerading under the guise of an independent work.
Damas Hinard has published the poem, with a literal French translation and notes, and John Hookham Frere has rendered it into English with extraordinary spirit and fidelity.
One of the greater flamens was attached to the service of Quirinus, a second college of Salii founded in his honour, and a festival "Quirinalia" celebrated on the 17th of February, the day of the supposed translation of Romulus to heaven.
His translation of Xenophon's Cyropaedia into Latin cannot be praised for accuracy.
In reading the service he altered or omitted phrases which seemed to him untrue, and in reading the Scriptures pointed out errors in the translation.
This persecution gave the book an extraordinary vogue, and it passed through twenty-two editions in three years, besides being translated into several languages; there is an English translation by Lord Falconbridge, son-in-law of Oliver Cromwell.
Amelot next published in 1683 a translation of Fra Paolo Sarpi's History of the Council of Trent.
A correspondence relating to the French translation of the work has also come to light among the papers of Sir Edward Nicholas.
Quatremere (3 vols., Paris, 1858), often republished in the East, and a French translation was made by McG.
Another Syriac MS., in the library of Cambridge University, contains a translation of a work by Zosimus which is so far unknown in the original Greek.
So far as they are Latin versions of Arabico-Greek treatises, they must have been much remodelled in the course of translation; but there is reason to suppose that many of them, even when pretending to be translations, are really original compositions.
He published the first Italian translation of Euclid (1543), and the earliest version from the Greek of some of the principal works of Archimedes (1543).
The Memoires are contained in the collection of Michaud and Poujoulat, and have been published separately by Guessard (the best, 1842), Lalanne, Caboche, &c. An English translation with introduction by Violet Fane appeared in 1892.
Gregorovius's Lucrezia Borgia (Stuttgart, 1874) contains a great deal of information on the Borgia family; P. Villari's Machiavelli (English translation, new ed., 1892) deals with the subject at some length.
The maps which accompany St Jerome's translation of the Onomasticon of St Eusebius (388).
The new maps of the Basel edition of 1540, twenty-one in number, are by Sebastian Munster; Jacob Gastaldo supplied the Venice edition of 1548 with 34 modern maps, and these with a few additions are repeated in Girolamo Ruscelli's Italian translation of Ptolemy published at Venice in 1561.
The first Greek translation was used by our Lord, by St Paul, and other New Testament writers.
Nitzsch, Dillmann, Ritschl and Sinker are convinced that the book was not a translation but was written originally in Greek.
The best edition is by Paul Marquard, with German translation and full commentary, Die harmonischen Fragmente des Ari stoxenus (Berlin, 1868).
Hare assisted Thirlwall, afterwards bishop of St David's, in the translation of the 1st and 2nd volumes of Niebuhr's History of Rome (1828 and 1832), and published a Vindication of Niebuhr's History in 1829.
The celebrated " homo sum " is a translation from Alexis, and the spirit of it breathes in many passages of the Greek drama.
Seven years later he felt himself a sufficiently ripe Greek scholar to begin the translation of Plato, by which his name is famous in the history of scholarship, and which is still the best translation of that author Italy can boast.
While the translation was still in progress Ficino from time to time submitted its pages to the scholars, Angelo Poliziano, Cristoforo Landino, Demetrios Chalchondylas and others; and since these men were all members of the Platonic Academy, there can be no doubt that the discussions raised upon the text and Latin version greatly served to promote the purpose of Cosimo's foundation.
This was shortly followed by the translation of Plotinus into Latin, and by a voluminous commentary, the former finished in 1486, the latter in 1491, and both published at the cost of Lorenzo de' Medici just one month after his death.
What Ficino achieved of really solid, was his translation.
Besides the works already noticed, Ficino composed a treatise on the Christian religion, which was first given to the world in 1476, a translation into Italian of Dante's De monarchia, a life of Plato, and numerous essays on ethical and semi-philosophical subjects.
These are the adjective vigadabhi applied to the stone, and rendered in our translation "flawless"; and secondly, the last word, rendered in our translation "one-eighth part (of the crop)."
This was republished in a Latin translation with considerable alterations and omissions by Paolo Aringhi in 1651; and a century after its first appearance the plates were reproduced by Giovanni Bottari in 1737, and illustrated with great care and learning.
The translation is Dean Burgon's.
Oncken's Lassalle (Stuttgart, 1904); another excellent work on his life and writings is George Brandes's Danish work, Ferdinand Lassalle (German translation, 4th ed., Leipzig, 1900).
Under the name of Humayun Nama (Imperial Book) 'Ali Chelebi made a highly esteemed translation of the well-known Persian Classical classic Anvar-i Suheyli, dedicating it to Suleiman I.
The first printing-press in Turkey was established by an Hungarian who had assumed the name of Ibrahim, and in 1728 (1141) appeared the first book printed in that country; it was Vanlpuli's Turkish translation of Jevheri's Arabic dictionary.
Notes in Latin on the first epistle of Peter, the epistle of Jude, and the first two of John have come down to us; but whether they are the translation of Cassiodorus, or indeed a translation of Clement's work at all, is a matter of dispute.
Voltaire published his Le Cafe, ou l'Ecossaise (1760), Londres (really Geneva), as a translation from the work of Mr Hume, described as Pasteur de l'eglise d'Edimbourg, but Home seems to have taken no notice of the mystification.
A Latin translation of a different copy of this work, now lost, was published by Colgan.
The word is commonly used in the Alexandrian Greek translation of the Old Testament (Septuagint) for the Hebrew word (ger) which is derived from a root (gur) denoting to sojourn.
An English translation by the side of the Welsh text of the so-called triads of Dyvnwal Moel Mud is given by Owen, in the The Ancient Laws of Wales.
The Latin text is much shorter than the Welsh, but we do not know whether this abridgment was made on purpose, or whether the translation is an imitation of an earlier text.
The quatrains have been edited at Calcutta (1836) and Teheran (1857 and i862); text and French translation by 3.
Between 1808 and 181 r he travelled much both in England and the south of Europe, and in 1812 published a blank verse translation of the Inferno.
The commentary gives also a careful translation of the texts.
In addition to the works already mentioned, his Cosmotheoros- a speculation concerning the inhabitants of the planets - was printed posthumously at the Hague in 1698, and appeared almost simultaneously in an English translation.
A German translation of part of his works was made by Ziethen (Leipzig 1854-1857).
Literature - modern as well as ancient - occupied his attention; one of his works was a translation of four parts of Clarissa; and translations of some of the then current English paraphrases on biblical books manifested his sympathy with a school which, if not very learned, attracted him by its freer air.
Besides those already mentioned it is sufficient to refer to his New Testament Introduction (the first edition, 1750, preceded the full development of his powers, and is a very different book from the later editions), his reprint of Robert Lowth's Praelectiones with important additions (1758-1762), his German translation of the Bible with notes (1773-1792), his Orientalische and exegetische Bibliothek (1775-1785) and Neue 0.
The accuracy of this law was in 1832 confirmed by Gauss, 3 who employed an indirect but more perfect method than that of Coulomb, and also, as Maxwell remarks, 1 The quotations are from the translation published by the Gilbert Club, London, 1900.
A Syriac version, with an English translation, was published by Wright in 1875.
The discovery of the Coptic translation of these Acts in 1897, and its publication by C. Schmidt (Acta Pauli aus der Heidelberger koptischen Papyrushandschrift herausgegeben, Leipzig, 1894), have confirmed what had been previously only a hypothesis that the Acts of Thecla had formed a part of the larger Acts of Paul.
These two letters are preserved only in Syriac which is a translation from the Greek.
Forester's translation in Bohn's Antiquarian Library (London, 1854) gives the work of Taxter also.
The translation of his relics to Soissons in 826 made that town a new centre of his cult.
His (anonymous) translation of Chariton's Chaereas and Callirrhoe (1763) marked him as an excellent Greek scholar.
The protocols and the judgment were drawn up in French accompanied by an official English translation.
This name is probably a translation of the Saxon name.
In 1802-1804 he published a Latin translation (2 vols.) from the Persian of the Oupnek'hat or Upanishada.
During the next two years he published five shorter satires, all of which were well received by the public. The great event of 1721 was the erection of the first Danish theatre in GrOnnegade, Copenhagen; Holberg took the direction of this house, in which was played, in September 1722, a Danish translation of L'Avare.
In translations they had only the Categories and the De interpretatione of Aristotle in the versions of Boetius, the Timaeus of Plato in the version of Chalcidius, and Boetius's translation of Porphyry's Isagoge.
Some general information as to the Platonic doctrines (chiefly in a Neoplatonic garb) was obtainable from the commentary with which Chalcidius (6th century) accompanied his translation, from the work of Apuleius (2nd century) De dogmate Platonis, and indirectly from the commentary of Macrobius (c. 400) on the Somnium Scipionis of Cicero, and from the writings of St Augustine.
The other tract, known as Categoriae decem, and taken at first for a translation of Aristotle's treatise, is really a rapid summary of it, and certainly does not belong to Augustine.
The English title of lord-lieutenant is generally used as the best translation of Faispdn or comes (in this connexion).
During his primacy (1616-1637), when he had the whole influence of the court, and the sympathy and the assistance of the Catholic world behind him, he put the finishing touches to his life's labour by founding a great Catholic university at Nagyszombat (1635), and publishing a Hungarian translation of the Bible to counteract the influence of Gaspar Karoli's widely spread Protestant version.
To these monks the first extant Magyar version of part of the Scriptures (the Vienna or Revai Codex') is directly assigned by Dobrentei, but the exact date either of this copy or of the original translation cannot be ascertained.
Amongst other important codices are the Jorddnszky Codex (1516-1519), an incomplete copy of the translation of the Bible made by Ladislaus Batori, who died about 1456; and the Dobrentei or Gyulafehervdr Codex (1508), containing a version of the Psalter, Song of Solomon, and the liturgical epistles and gospels, copied by Bartholomew Halabori from an earlier translation (KSrnyei, A Magyar nemzeti irodalomtortenet vdzlata, 1861, p. 30).
The last, considered the best, was corrected and re-edited by Albert Molnar at Hanau in 1608.7 Heltai published also (1571) a translation, improved from that by Blasius Veres (1565), of the Tripartitum of VerbOczy, and Chronika (1575) adapted from the Decades of Bonfini.
His translation of the Iliad appeared at Sarospatak in 1821.
Those of John Kis, the friend of Berzsenyi, cover a wide range of subjects, and comprise, besides original poetry, many translations from the Greek, Latin, French, German and English, among which last may be mentioned renderings from Blair, Pope and Thomson, and notably his translation, published at Vienna in 1791, of Lowth's " Choice of Hercules."
More popular than any of the preceding, and well known in England through Sir John Bowring's translation, are the charming lyrics of Alexander Petofi (q.v.), the " Burns " of Hungary.
The Rozsdk (Zombor, 1875) is a translation by Eugene Pavlovits from the Servian of Jovan Jovanovits.
In 1555 he published his first work, a translation of Oppian's Cynegeticon into Latin verse, with a commentary.
Here he had the pleasure of finding that the Republique was studied at London and Cambridge, although in a barbarous Latin translation.
The original, which consisted of a preface and thirteen books, is not lost, but we have a Latin translation of the first six books and a fragment of another on polygonal numbers by Xylander of Augsburg (1575), and Latin and Greek translations by Gaspar Bachet de Merizac (1621-1670).
His treatise on algebra and arithmetic (the latter part of which is only extant in the form of a Latin translation, discovered in 1857) contains nothing that was unknown to the Greeks and Hindus; it exhibits methods allied to those of both races, with the Greek element predominating.
Neckam also wrote Corrogationes Promethei, a scriptural commentary prefaced by a treatise on grammatical criticism; a translation of Aesop into Latin elegiacs (six fables from this version, as given in a Paris MS., are printed in Robert's Fables inedites); commentaries, still unprinted, on portions of Aristotle, Martianus Capella and Ovid's Metamorphoses, and other works.
Of this word '/ aXµos, " psalm," is a translation, and in the Greek Bible the whole book is called 1'aXpoi or 1liaXT17Pcov.
An inferior limit for the final collection is given by the Septuagint translation.
But this translation was not written all at once, and its history is obscure; we only know from the prologue to Ecclesiasticus that the Hagiographa, and doubtless therefore the Psalter, were read in Greek in Egypt about 130 B.C. or somewhat later.'
Indeed it is at least equally probable that it was the recent translation of some of the poetical books of the Old Testament which fired him with a desire to translate his grandfather's book, and perhaps add the work of a member of the family to the Bible of the Egyptian Jews.
In English we have, among others, the useful work of Perowne (5th ed., 1883), that of Lowe and Jennings, (2nd ed., 1885), and the valuable translation of Cheyne (1884).
His pupil Richer has left us a detailed account of his system of teaching at Reims. So far as the trivium is concerned, his text-books were Victorinus's translation of Porphyry's Isagoge, Aristotle's Categories, and Cicero's Topics with Manlius's Commentaries.
At Turin he resumed his philosophic studies and his translation of Plato, but in 1858 refused a professorship of Greek at Pavia, under the Austrian government, only to accept it in 1859 from the Italian government after the liberation of Lombardy.
I, 1-2), to the Septuagint version of the book (produced between 260 and 130 B.C.), in which the disputed prophecies are already found, and to the Greek translation of the Wisdom of Jesus, the son of Sirach, which distinctly refers to Isaiah as the comforter of those that mourned in Zion (Eccles.
Often, moreover, the Syriac translation became in turn the parent of a later Arabic version.
The translation was executed entirely from the Hebrew, but underwent later revision which brought it more into conformity with the LXX - this to a greater degree in some books than in others.
The activity of his life left him little time for writing, but he was the author of " an anaphora, sundry letters, a creed or confession of faith, preserved in Arabic and a secondary Ethiopic translation, and a homily for the Feast of the Annunciation, also extant only in an Arabic translation" (Wright).
The entire text of the London MS. was published by Land in the third volume of his Anecdota syriaca; and there is now an English translation by Hamilton and Brooks (London, 1899), and a German one by Ahrens and Kruger (Leipzig, 1899).
His translation, which was edited by Bickell with an introduction by Benfey, must be distinguished from the much later Syriac translation made from the secondary Arabic version and edited by Wright in 1884.2 Ilannana of I.Iedhaiyabh, who nearly produced a disruption of the Nestorian Church by his attempt to bridge over the interval which separated the Nestorians from Catholic orthodoxy, was the author of many commentaries and other writings, in some of which he attacked the teaching of Theodore of Mopsuestia.
From the 4th century on are recorded cases of translation of the bodies of saints, and they did not even shrink from dividing the sacred relics.
Fauchet took part in a translation of the Annals of Tacitus (1582).
In 1547 appeared Martin's French translation of Vitruvius, the illustrations of which were due, the translator tells us in his "Dedication to the King," to Goujon, "nagueres architecte de Monseigneur le Connetable, et maintenant un des votres."
His other works include a Vie de Socrate (1650), a translation of the Cyropaedia of Xenophon (1658), and the Traite de la peinture parlance (1684).
Soranus is known by a work, still extant in the Greek original, on the diseases of women, and also by the Latin work of Caelius Aurelianus, three centuries later, on acute and chronic diseases, which is based upon, if not, as some think, an actual translation of, the chief work of Soranus, and which is the principal source of our knowledge of the methodic school.
On the other hand, inheritance was dismissed, or survived only as a "susceptibility," in the cases of tubercle, leprosy and some other maladies now recognized as infectious; while in others, as in syphilis, it was seen to consist in a translation of the infectious element from parent to offspring.
There is also a translation by Cyril Bailey (Oxford, 1910).
She wrote Institutions dehysique (1740), Dissertation sur la nature et la propagation du feu (1 744), Doutes sur les religions reculees (1792), and in 1756 published a translation of Newton's Principia.
The three books on Mechanics survive in an Arabic translation which, however, bears a title" On the lifting of heavy objects."This corresponds exactly to Barulcus, and it is probable that Barulcus and Mechanics were only alternative titles for one and the same work.
A German translation is added throughout.
In 1797, at the instance of English statesmen, he published a translation of a history of French finance by Francois d'Ivernois (1757-1842), an eminent Genevese exile naturalized and knighted in England, extracts from which he had previously given in his journal.
There is no complete translation of the Dhammathats, but a good many of them have been translated.
For a cavity filled with liquid in the interior of the body, since the liquid inside moves bodily for a motion of translation only, 41 = - x, 42 = -, 43 = - z; (2) but a rotation will stir up the liquid in the cavity, so that the'x's depend on the shape of the surface.
The Syriac is a translation from the Greek, and the Greek in turn from the Hebrew.
A German translation of the Greek appears in Kautzsch's Apok.
Dulaurier published from a Parisian Sahidic MS., subjoining a French translation, what is termed a fragment of the apocryphal revelations of St Bartholomew (Fragment des revelations apocryphes de Saint Barthelemy, &c., Paris, 1835), and of the history of the religious communities founded by St Pachomius.
His translation of Georg Christian Knapp's Christian Theology (1831-1833) was long used as a text-book in American theological seminaries.
The first volume of his well-known commentary on Isaiah (Der Prophet Jesaja), with a translation, appeared in 1821; but the work was not completed until 1829.
Two volumes of an English translation, with copious notes, by James Nichols, were published at London, 1825-1828; three volumes (complete) at Buffalo, 1853.
He wrote also an introduction to Miss Ffoulkes's translation of Morelli's Italian Painters (1892-1893), and edited that part of Murray's Handbook of Rome (1894) which deals with pictures.
A part of this poem, as is mentioned in the article C.Edmon, is extant only in an Old English translation.
It has been edited, with an English translation (1907) by (Rev.) Lonsdale and Laura Ragg, who hold that it was the work of a Christian renegade to Mahommedanism about the 13th-16th century.
The old view held by Toland and others that the Italian was a translation from the Arabic is demonstrably wrong.
These were much used by later writers, and we have many extracts from them, but none of the works themselves except a sort of romance based on his account of the death of Hosain (Husain) of which Wiistenfeld has given a translation.
On the other hand, some interpolations took place, one in the 1 For details see the introduction to Noldeke's translation of Tabari's Geschichte der Perser and Araber zur Zeit der Sasaniden (aeiden, 1879).
There is an excellent French translation by Zotenberg (1874).
The first published account of the simple camera obscura was discovered by Libri in a translation of the Architecture of v.
The English translation of Porta's Natural Magick was published in 1658.
He was the author of a Greek translation of a Latin grammar, intended to assist the Greekspeaking inhabitants of the empire in learning Latin.
The translation, at first word for word, becomes less frequent, and finally is discontinued altogether.
It appeared in the English Bible in Tyndale's translation of the Pentateuch (1530), and is found in all English Protestant versions of the 16th century except that of Coverdale ('' 1 535) In the Authorized Version of 161 i it occurs in Exod.
His Epistolae were published at Leiden in 1647, and a French translation at Paris in 1668-1670.
A valuable edition of the De aquis (text and translation) has been published by C. Herschel (Boston, Mass., 1899).
Another famous hero and centre of a 14th-century cycle of romance was Amadis of Gaul; its earliest form is Spanish, although the Portuguese have claimed it as a translation from their own language.
The standard modern work on Savonarola is Pasquale Villari's, La Storia di Fra Girolamo Savonarola e de' suoi tempi (Florence, 1887) based on an exhaustive study of the original authorities and containing a number of new documents (English translation by Linda Villari, London, 1889).
There is an English verse translation of the elegies by Plumptre (1907).
He was most successful in his translation of popular song, in which he shows a rare sympathetic insight into the various feelings and ideas of peoples as unlike as Greenlanders and Spaniards, Indians and Scots.
He occupied his leisure by writing a rhymed translation of the Odes of Horace, and preparing an elaborately annotated edition of Butler's Analogy and Sermons.
It is a curious fact that the printed editions always give it in conjunction with this latter and that the two have also been preserved together in a Welsh manuscript translation.
This was at one time claimed as the original source of all the Perceval romances, but this theory cannot be maintained in face of the fact that the writer gives in one place what is practically a literal translation of Chretien's text in a passage which there is strong reason to believe was borrowed by Chretien from an earlier poem.
The Welsh text, with translation, has been edited by Canon Williams. A fine translation by Dr Sebastian Evans is published in "The Temple Classics," under the title of The High History of the Holy Grail.
A universal geography (by Uchida Masao); a history of nations (by Mitsukuri Rinsho); a translation of Chamberss Encyclopaedia by the department of education; Japanese renderings of Herbert Spencer and of Guizot and Buckleall these made their appearance duringthe first fourteen years of the epoch.
This idea of subserving literature to political ends is said to have been suggested by Nakae Tokusukes translation of Rousseaus Contrat social.
They possess - not in Hebrew, of which they are altogether ignorant, but in Ethiopic (or Geez)- the canonical and apocryphal books of the Old Testament; a volume of extracts from the Pentateuch, with comments given to Moses by God on Mount Sinai; the Te-e-sa-sa Sanbat, or laws of the Sabbath; the Ardit, a book of secrets revealed to twelve saints, which is used as a charm against disease; lives of Abraham, Moses, &c.; and a translation of Josephus called Sana Aihud.
The above must not be confused with Alexander Cunningham, British minister to Venice (1715-1720), a learned historian and author of The History of Great Britain (from 1688 to the accession of George I.), originally written in Latin and published in an English translation after his death.
He was thus enabled to go to; Italy to study the Vatican text of Plutarch, on the translation on whose Lives (1 559; 1 565) he had been some time engaged.
His translation reads like an original work.
An incomplete translation of the Spectator was published at Amsterdam in 1714, and many volumes of extracts from the Tatler, Spectator and Guardian were issued in France early in the 18th century.
In 1797 he published a translation of Young's Night Thoughts, which does not of itself show that he was well acquainted with English, for the version may have been made with the help of the French.
In 1813 he published at Bourges a translation of Milton's Paradise Lost.
He also collected and emended valuable MSS., which his monks were instructed to copy, and superintended the translation of various Greek works into Latin.
See also Bismarck, Reflections and Reminiscences; Rennell Rodd, Frederick, Crown Prince and Emperor (1888); Gustav Freytag, Der Kronprinz and die deutsche Kaiserkrone (1889; English translation, 1890); Otto Richter, Kaiser Friedrich III.
In 1706 appeared the True Relation of the Apparition of one Mrs Veal, long supposed to have been written for a bookseller to help off an unsaleable translation of Drelincourt, On Death, but considerable doubt has been cast upon this by William Lee.
Sir Sayad Ahmad Khan, K.C.S.I., who died in 1898, founded in 1864 the Aligarh Institute and Scientific Society for the translation into the vernacular of western literature; and afterwards the Mahommedan Anglo-Oriental college, under English professors, with an English school attached.
His Mathematical and Philosophical Dictionary, a valuable contribution to scientific biography, was published in 1795 (2nd ed., 1815), and the four volumes of Recreations in Mathematics and Natural Philosophy, mostly a translation from the French, in 1803.
A French translation of the German edition (as above) appeared, in 18 vols., at Paris and Geneva (1837-1851).
The same may be said of his translation of the Odyssey, which was still used as a school-book in the days of Horace, and the religious hymn which he was called upon to compose in 207 had no high literary pretensions.
Amongst his published works were a commentary on the Book of Job (1850), a translation of the Song of Songs (1852), an exposition of Isaiah xl.-lxvi.
The energy is less than that of an ideal gas by the term npc. If we imagine that the defect of volume c is due to the formation of molecular aggregates consisting of two or more single molecules, and if the kinetic energy of translation of any one of these aggregates is equal to that of one of the single molecules, it is clear that some energy must be lost in co-aggregating, but that the proportion lost will be different for different types of molecules and also for different types of co-aggregation.
If two monatomic molecules, having energy of translation only, equivalent to 3 degrees of freedom, combined to form a diatomic molecule with 5 degrees of freedom, the energy lost would.
In the later Historia of Goeffrey of Monmouth, and its French translation by Wace, Gawain plays an important and "pseudo-historic" role.
The Talmudic tradition, however, is, doubtless, correct in connecting the origin of Targums with the custom of reading sections from the Law at the weekly services in the synagogues, since the need for a translation into the vernacular must first have arisen on such occasions.
The practice of accompanying these readings with a translation into Aramaic is, further, so generally recognized by the 2nd century A.D.
Later regulations are also laid down in the Talmuds in order to prevent any appearance of authority attaching to the translation, and also to ensure reverential 1 Cf.
It is noticeable that none of the passages cited conveys any rules or information as to the character of the translation to be employed.
It would, however, be incorrect to suppose that the translation of the text was left entirely to the individual taste of the translator.
Translations of separate treatises into German began to be made in 1738, and in 1776-1779 there appeared a complete German translation of the Characteristics.
The result of his studies there was the translation of the Chronicon of Eusebius, with a continuation 1 of twenty-eight homilies of Origen on Jeremiah and 1 Cf.
Damasus suggested to him to revise the "Old Latin" translation of the Bible; and to this task he henceforth devoted his great abilities.
The results of this journey may be traced in his translation with emendations of the book of Eusebius on the situation and names of Hebrew places, written probably three years afterwards, when he had settled down at Bethlehem.
These were followed by a mediocre edition of the Arabic text of Edrisi's Description of Spain (1799), with notes and a translation.
First Principles of the Reformation, the Three Primary Works of Dr Martin Luther, edited by Wace and Buchheim, - an English translation of the famous pamphlets of 1520.
After his translation to Ely (1609), he again controverted Bellarmine in the Responsio ad Apologiam, a treatise never answered.
The editio princeps is that of Turnebus (Paris, 1 553); it was followed by that of Morell, with Latin translation by Petavius (1612; greatly enlarged and improved, 1633; reprinted, inaccurately, by Migne, 1859).
Many of his theological writings were collected in one volume (Paris, 1622), and at the time of his death in 1623 he was engaged on a translation of the New Testament which is still in manuscript.
Odgers has published an English translation with introduction and notes (London, 1906).
Dr C. Taylor in 1886 drew attention to some important parallels in Jewish literature; his edition contains an English translation.
Hence an important form of literary activity came to be the translation of the homilies approved by the church into the vernacular.
Darboy was the author of a number of works, of which the most important are a Vie de St Thomas Becket (1859), a translation of the works of St Denis the Areopagite, and a translation of the Imitation of Christ.
After the accession of Edward VI., Ferrar was, probably through the influence of Bishop Barlow, appointed chaplain to Protector Somerset, a royal visitor, and bishop of St David's on Barlow's translation to Bath and Wells in 1548.
The first complete translation into a modern language was the English one of Littlebury, published in 1737.
This was followed in 1786 by the French translation of Larcher, a valuable work, accompanied by copious notes and essays.
A good German translation, but without note or comment, was brought out by Friedrich Lange at Berlin in 181 1.
In 1822 Auguste Miot endeavoured to improve on Larcher; and in 1828-1832 Dr Adolf Scholl brought out a German translation with copious notes (new ed., 1855), which has to some extent superseded the work of Lange.
The translation was attacked in the Quarterly as favourable to scepticism, and the translators jointly replied.
According to the German Freiherr von Herberstein (1486-1566), in his Moscovia, of which an Italian translation was published at Venice in 1550, the aurochs survived in Poland (and probably also in Hungary) during the latter middle ages.
For Waldo had a translation of the New Testament made into Provençal, and his preachers not only stirred up men to more holy lives but explained the Scriptures at their will.
Eliot produced his Indian translation of the Scriptures in 1661-1663, and by about 1675 there were six Indian churches with some 4 000 converts.
Lady Duff-Gordon published in 1861 an English translation of part of this book, to which are added lectures on the crusades delivered in Munich in 1858, under the title History and Literature of the Crusades.
For early accounts of the Maori race, see Cook's Voyage and Boose's translation of Crozet's Voyage.
He took part in revising the Dutch translation of the Old Testament in 1633, and after his death a book by him, called the Lyra Davidis, was published, which sought to explain the principles of Hebrew metre, and which created some controversy at the time, having been opposed by Louis Cappel.
His advocacy of a revised translation of the New Testament (1858) aided to promote another great national undertaking.
During the interval between the citation and the appearance of the accused, the professorial members of the synod was instructed to prepare themselves to be able to confute the Arminian errors, and the synod occupied itself with deliberations as to a new translation of the Bible, for which a commission was named, made arrangements for teaching the Heidelberg catechism, and granted permission to the missionaries of the East Indies to baptize such children of heathen parents as were admitted into their families.
To this old track the name of " pilgrims' way " has been given, for along it passed the stream of pilgrims coming through Winchester from the south and west of England and from the continent of Europe by way of Southampton to Canterbury Cathedral to view the place of the martyrdom of Thomas Becket, in the north transept, to the relics in the crypt where he was first buried after his murder, in 1170, and the shrine in the Trinity Chapel which rose above his tomb after the translation of the body in 1220.
There were two festivals for the pilgrimage, on the 29th of December, the day of the martyrdom, and on the 7th of July, the day of the translation.
It is famous for its temple ruins of the Roman period, before which we have no record of it, certain though it be that Heliopolis is a translation of an earlier native name, in which Baal was an element.
His work was translated by Ennius into Latin, but the work itself is lost, and of the translation only a few fragments, and these very short, have come down to us.
At the age of ten he composed a tragedy under the inspiration of Caesarotti's translation of the Ossianic poems. On the marriage of his twin sister Rosina with a maternal cousin at Lyons he went to reside in that city, devoting himself during four years to the study of French literature.
This is highly improbable, but he may have derived particular sayings from the Aramaic source itself of that document by independent translation; and may also have learned both sayings and narratives in other ways.
Towards the latter end of the 17th century, Cotton, the friend of Isaac Walton, executed a complete translation, which, though not extraordinarily faithful, possesses a good deal of rough vigour.
The country had four universities, those of Leipzig, Wittenberg, Jena and Erfurt; books began to increase rapidly, and, by virtue of Luther's translation of the Bible, the Saxon dialect became the ruling dialect of Germany.
In English we have Malan's translation of the Ethiopic Book of Adam (1882), and Issaverden's translation of another Book of Adam from the Armenian (Venice, 1901).
An excellent translation of the Ain by Francis Gladwin was published in Calcutta, 1783-1786.
He published in 1810 a translation of the Parthenais of the Danish poet Baggesen, with a preface on the various kinds of poetry; in 1823 translations of two tragedies of Manzoni, with a preface "Sur la the orie de l'art dramatique"; and in 1824-1825 his translation of the popular songs of modern Greece, with a "Discours preliminaire" on popular poetry.
In 1836 he was elected a member of the Academy of Inscriptions, and in 1837 he published (with an introduction the conclusions of which would not now all be endorsed) a translation of a Provencal poem on the Albigensian war.
Marr of the Grusian (Georgian) text, and he added to it (Leipzig, 1904) a translation of various small exegetical pieces, which are preserved in a Georgian version only (The Blessing of Jacob, The Blessing of Moses, The Narrative of David and Goliath).
An English translation is to be found in the Ante-Nicene Christian Library (Edinburgh, 1868-1869).
He had previously published a catechism in Latin verse dedicated to the king, a work highly approved even by his opponents, and also a Latin translation of the Scottish Confession of Faith.
Murner also wrote the humorous Chartiludium logicae (1507) and the Ludus studentum freiburgensium (151 I), besides a translation of Justinian's Institutiones (1519).
In this was included a translation into Latin of part of Jodocus Schouten's account of Siam (Appendix de religione Siamensium, ex Descriptione Belgica Iodoci Schoutenii), and chapters on the religions of various peoples.
In 1716 an Italian edition appeared at Naples; in 1750 a Dutch translation followed; and in 1755 a French version, from Shaw's edition, came out at Paris.
A translation was published in London in the same year under the title The Policy of Denmark towards the Duchies of Schleswig-Holstein.
Here he devoted himself to the preparation of school-books, and the translation of the Bible and Prayer-Book into Yoruba and other dialects.
Besides these works, Zunz published a new translation of the Bible, and wrote many essays which were afterwards collected as Gesammelte Schriften.
An English translation of the De rebus christianorum was published by Murdock in 1851.
The results of his leisure were in 1787 a new translation of Newton's Optics, and in 1788 his Memoires academiques, ou nouvelles decouvertes sur la lumiere.
The device is a translation into stone of a type not uncommon in gem-cutter's and goldsmith's work of the " Mycenaean " age.
It is a free imitation and in parts a translation of the work of Apollonius of Rhodes, already familiar to the Romans in the popular version of Varro Atacinus.
Handlyng Synne, a poem of nearly 13,000 lines, is a free translation, with many additions and amplifications, from William of Waddington's Manuel des Pechiez.
A third work, usually ascribed to Mannyng, chiefly on the ground of its existing side by side with the Handlyng Synne in the Harleian and Bodleian MSS., is the Medytacyuns of the Soper of oure lorde Jhesu, And also of hys passyun And eke of the peynes of hys swete modyr, Hayden marye, a free translation of St Bonaventura's De coena et passione Domini....
While Froude often strayed away from his authorities, Freeman kept his authorities always before his eyes, and his narrative is here and there little more than a translation of their words.
Galvao (Lisbon, 1563 and 1731), of which a translation entitled Discoveries of the World was made for Richard Hakluyt and reprinted by the Hakluyt Society (London, 1862).
This other evidence consists partly of letters from Nestorius, preserved among the works of those to whom they were written, some sermons collected in a Latin translation by Marius Mercator, an African merchant who was doing business in Constantinople at the time of the dispute, and,other material gathered from Syriac manuscripts.
The most widely accepted opinion is that it is a translation of a French original.
Though thus afflicted he never ceased his literary activity, dictating his tract On the Purity of the Church, and revising the sheets of a translation of Origen which was passing through the Froben press.
This translation, with the justificatory notes which accompanied it, though not itself a work of critical scholarship, became the starting-point of modern exegetical science.
In England a translation of them made in 1548 was ordered to be placed in all parish churches beside the Bible.
We may gradually invent means of tracing more and more closely the average drifts of translation or orientation, or of changes of arrangement, of the atoms; but there will always remain an unaveraged residue devoid of any recognized regularity, which we can only estimate by its total amount.
The nature of the motion, if any, that is produced in the surrounding regions of the aether by the translation of matter through it can be investigated by optical experiment.
In the simplest case, that of uniform translation, these components of the gradient will each be constant throughout the region; at a distant place in free aether where there is no motion, they must thus be equal to -u,-v,-w, as they refer to axes moving with the matter.
They take this simple form, however, only when the movement of the matter is one of translation.
His principal works, besides the translation of Aristotle and a number of studies connected with the same subject, are Des Vedas (1854), Du Bouddhisme (1856) and Mahomet et le Coran (1865).
In the 6th century Cassiodorus had a translation made of the histories of Socrates, Sozomen and Theodoret, which were woven into one continuous narrative and brought down to 518.
Moller (1889 ff., second edition by von Schuberth, 1898 ff., greatly enlarged and improved), the translation of the latter (1892 ff.) being the most useful text-book in English.
There is a convenient English translation of most of the writings of the ante-Nicene Fathers by Roberts and Donaldson (Ante-Nicene Christian Library, 25 vols., Edinburgh, 1868 ff., American reprint in nine vols., 1886 ff.).
Kruger (1895, English translation 1897) is a very convenient summary.
This translation is made from Charles's text, and his analysis of the text is in the main accepted by this scholar.
An English translation, by Sir David Brewster, from the eleventh French edition, was published in 1823, and is well known in England.
The soundest history of Lithuania, before its union with Poland, is still Lelewel's History of Lithuania (Pol., Leipzig, 1839), of which a French translation was published at Paris in 1861.
The date of the manuscript appears to be the middle of the 14th century, and probably in its present form it is only a copy of a much older text; there is also a translation of the fiftieth psalm belonging to the 13th century.'
Lelewel, the Polish historian, considers that it is merely a translation into Latin of some such name as Kura, signifying "a fowl."
The translation was executed by Jan Koszycki, as the printer informs us in the preface, and the work is dedicated to Anna Wojnicka, the wife of a castellan.
In 1522, a Polish translation of Ecclesiastes appeared from that press, and before the conclusion of that year The Life of Christ, with woodcuts, translated into Polish by Balthasar Opec. Many other presses were soon established.
He also executed a translation of the Psalms. He wrote a play - a piece of one act, with twelve scenes - The Despatch of the Greek Ambassadors.
He executed the first translation of the New Testament in 1551.
In 1553 appeared at Brzesc the Protestant translation of the whole Bible made by a committee of learned men and divines, and published at the expense of Nicholas Radziwill, a very rich Polish magnate who had embraced the Protestant doctrines.
It was not published in French until 1870, although an English translation was printed by the Hakluyt Society in 1859.
Some of these letters appeared in the German newspapers, and an English translation was published by Rivington.
After his surrender in 1847 he devoted himself anew to theology and philosophy, and composed a philosophical treatise, of which a French translation was published in 1858 under the title of Rappel d l'intelligent.
His fame rests chiefly on the preface and notes to his translation of Pufendorf's treatise De Jure Naturae et Gentium.
An increasing number of workers in this field of plant biology in England, on the Continent and in America has produced a great mass of observations, which have recently been brought together in Dr Paul Knuth's classic work, Handbook of Flower Pollination, an English translation of which has been published (1908) by the Clarendon Press.
Plato was mainly represented by the Latin translation of the Timaeus.
To the Latin transla tions of Aristotle and to his interpreters he refers in more than three hundred passages, while the number of his references to the Latin translation of the Timaeus of Plato is less than ten.
The translation of Aristotle was entrusted to three of the learned Greeks who had already arrived in Italy, Trapezuntius, Gaza and Bessarion, while other authors were undertaken by Italian scholars such as Guarino, Valla, Decembrio and Perotti.
His translation of a treatise of Galen was printed at Cambridge in 1521 by Siberch, who, in the same year and place, was the first to use Greek type in England.
He is more original when he insists on the value of translation and retranslation for acquiring a mastery over Latin prose composition, and when he protests against compelling boys to converse in Latin too soon.
The leaving examination (Abgangspriifung), instituted in that year, required Greek translation at sight, with Greek prose composition, and ability to speak and to write Latin.
The Proverbs of Jesus, the son of Sirach (c. 200 B.C.), which form now the apocryphal book Ecclesiasticus, were translated into Greek by the grandson of the author at about 130 B.C.; and in the preface prefixed by him to his translation he speaks of " the law, and the prophets, and the other books of our fathers," and again of " the law, and the prophets, and the rest of the books," expressions which point naturally to the same threefold division which was afterwards universally recognized by the Jews.
C. Burkitt, Fragments of the Books of Kings according to the Translation of Aquila.
We further possess a Samaritan Targum of the Pentateuch written in the Samaritan dialect, a variety of western Aramaic, and also an Arabic translation of the five books of the law; the latter dating perhaps from the 11th century A.D.
The name Septuagint, strictly speaking, only applies to the translation of the Pentateuch, but it was afterwards extended to include the other books of the Old Testament as they were translated.
That the interval which elapsed before the Prophets and the Hagiographa were also translated was no great one is shown by the prologue to Sirach which speaks of " the Law, the Prophets and the rest of the books," as already current in a translation by 132 B.C. The date at which the various books were combined into a single work is not known, but the existence of the Septuagint as a whole may be assumed for the 1st century A.D., at which period the Greek version was universally accepted by the Jews of the Dispersion as Scripture, and from them passed on to the Christian Church.
Its slavish adherence to the original caused the new translation to be received with favour by the Hellenistic Jews, among whom it quickly superseded the older Septuagint.
A peculiar feature of his translation is his excessive use of transliteration, but, apart from this, his work has many points of contact with the Septuagint, which it closely resembles in style; hence it is not surprising to find that later MSS.
In the case of the book of Daniel, as we learn from Jerome (praefatio in Dan.), the translation of Theodotion was definitely adopted by the Church, and is accordingly found in the place of the original Septuagint in all MSS.
The most probable explanation of this phenomenon is that these renderings are derived from an early Greek translation, differing from the Septuagint proper, but closely allied to that which Theodotion used as the basis of his revision.