Translated sentence example
His book on animals was translated by Michael Scot.
It certainly cannot be translated "the day of rest."
In 1856 he was translated to the see of Durham, and in 1860 he became archbishop of York.
He translated into Hebrew a large number of Arabic books (including the Arabic form of Euclid).
Land (1891-1893, for which a recently discovered MS. was consulted); see also the same editor's Arnold Geulincx and seine Philosophie (1895), and article (translated) in Mind, xvi.Advertisement
Five plays have been translated in the metres of the original by Sugden (1893).
The care of his diocese and of his new foundation were not enough for his ardent charity, and in 1609 he published his famous introduction to a Devout Life, a work which was at once translated into the chief European languages and of which he himself published five editions.
This enthusiastic love of poverty is certainly the keynote of St Francis's spirit; and so one of his disciples in an allegorical poem (translated into English as The Lady of Poverty by Montgomery Carmichael, 1901), and Giotto in one of the frescoes at Assisi, celebrated the "holy nuptials of Francis with Lady Poverty."
Sisenna also translated the tales of Aristides of Miletus, and is supposed by some to have written a commentary on Plautus.
As implied by its name, which may be translated " the narrow places," Uzhitse is built in a narrow and lonely glen amongst the south-western moun t Perhaps a mistake or an abbreviation for Aram.Advertisement
In 1737 he was translated to Oxford, and he received the deanery of St Paul's in 1750.
Oldenberg; and the more important parts of it have been translated into English by Rhys Davids and Oldenberg in their Vinaya Texts.
The four principal ones have been published for the Pali Text Society, and some volumes have been translated into English or German.
Of the seven treatises contained in the Abhidhamma Pitaka five, and one-third of the sixth, had by 1910 been published by the Pali Text Society; and one, the Dhamma Sangani, had been translated by Mrs Rhys Davids.
AuTH0RITIE5.Sachs, Lectures on the Physiology of Plants, translated by Marshall Ward; Vines, Lectures on the Physiology of Plants; Pfeffer, The Physiology of Plants, trans.Advertisement
This system of geography founded a new epoch, and the book - translated into English, Dutch and French - was the unchallenged standard for more than a century.
Bergman's Physical Description of the Earth was published in Swedish in 1766, and translated into English in 1772 and into German in 5774.
The works of the ancient Greek geographers were translated into Arabic, and starting with a sound basis of theoretical knowledge, exploration once more made progress.
Alfred the Great, king of the Salons in England, not only educated his people in the learning of the past ages; he inserted in the geographical works he translated many narratives of the travel of his own time.
The curious narrative of King Hayton was translated by Klaproth.Advertisement
At the pope's desire he translated his work on Africa into Italian.
The terms employed, especially for the subdivisions, cannot be easily translated into other languages, and the English equivalents in the following table are only put forward tentatively Richthofen'S Classification Of Mountains I.
Mention need only be made further of Isaac of Troki, whose anti-Christian polemic (1593) was translated into English by Moses Mocatta under the title of Faith Strengthened (1851); Solomon of Troki, whose Appiryon, an account of Karaism, was written at the request of Pufendorf (about 1700); and Abraham Firkovich, who, in spite of his impostures, did much for the literature of his people about the middle of the 19th century.
His treatises on the verbs, written in Arabic, were translated into Hebrew by Moses Giqatilla (11th century), himself a considerable grammarian and commentator, and by Ibn Ezra.
He was distinguished in his profession as a physician, and wrote a number of medical works in Arabic (including a commentary on the aphorisms of Hippocrates), all of which were translated into Hebrew, and most of them into Latin, becoming the text-books of Europe in the succeeding centuries.Advertisement
Maimonides also wrote an Arabic commentary on the Mishnah, soon afterwards translated into Hebrew, commentaries on parts of the Talmud (now lost), and a treatise on Logic. His breadth of view anti- and his Aristotelianism were a stumbling-block to the orthodox, and subsequent teachers may be mostly classified as Maimonists or anti-Maimonists.
In the first half of the 13th century, Abraham ibn Ilasdai, a vigorous supporter of Maimonides, translated (or adapted) a large number of philosophical works from Arabic, among them being the Sepher ha-tappuah, based on Aristotle's de Anima, and the Mozene Zedeq of Ghazzali on moral philosophy, of both of which the originals are lost.
The first of them, Judah ibn Tibbon, translated works of Bahya ibn Paqudah, Judah ha-levi, Seadiah, Abu'lwalid and Ibn Gabirol, besides writing works of his own.
His son Samuel, who died at Marseilles about 1230, was equally prolific. He translated the Moreh Nebhukhim during the life of the author, and with some help from him, so that this may be regarded as the authorized version; Maimonides' commentary on the Mishnah tractate Pirge.Abhoth, and some minor works; treatises of Averroes and other Arabic authors.
His son Moses, who died about the end of the 13th century, translated the rest of Maimonides, much of Averroes, the lesser Canon of Avicenna, Euclid's Elements (from the Arabic version), Ibn al-Jazzar's Viaticum, medical works of IIunain ben Isaac (Johannitius) and Razi (Rhazes), besides works of less-known Arabic authors.Advertisement
Both the 14th and 15th centuries in Spain were largely taken up with controversy, as by Isaac ibn Pulgar (about 1350), and Shem Tobh ibn Shaprut (about 1380), who translated St Matthew's gospel into Hebrew.
In the first half of the 14th century lived the two translators Qalonymos ben David and Qalonymos ben Qalonymos, the latter of whom translated many works of Galen and Averroes, and various scientific treatises, besides writing original works, e.g.
One consequence of the Mendelssohn movement was that many writers used their vernacular language besides or instead of Hebrew, or translated from one to the other.
A few of these have been translated, but as yet no European scholar possesses knowledge sufficient to enable him to study these valuable documents at first hand.
It is no dwelling of the dead nor part of the lower world, but distinguished heroes are translated thither without dying, to live a life of perfect happiness.Advertisement
He translated into Latin Aristotle's Analytica Priora et Posteriora, the Topica, and Elenchi Sophistici; and he wrote commentaries on Aristotle's Categories, on his book lrEpi Epµnvcias, also a commentary on the Isagoge of Porphyrius.
The statement of Cassiodorus that he translated Nicomachus is rhetorical.
Alfred translated it into Anglo-Saxon.
Chaucer translated it into English prose before the year 1382; and this translation was published by Caxton at Westminster, 1480.
It is said that, after the invention of printing, amongst others Queen Elizabeth translated it, and that the work was well known to Shakespeare.Advertisement
So in Scotland, Thomas Erskine and Thomas Chalmers - the latter in contradiction to his earlier position - hold that the doctrine of salvation, when translated into experience, furnishes " internal evidence " - a somewhat broader use of the phrase than when it applies merely to evidence of date or authorship drawn from the contents of a book.
Baur in excluding,' and also the teaching of the Pistis Sophia (translated by C. Schmidt, p. 182, &c.).
In 1501 Bishop Luke of Prague edited the first Protestant hymn-book; in 1502 he issued a catechism, which circulated in Switzerland and Germany and fired the catechetical zeal of Luther; in 1565 John Blahoslaw translated the New Testament into Bohemian; in1579-1593the Old Testament was added; and the whole, known as the Kralitz Bible, is used in Bohemia still.
Haarmann before the Verein der Deutschen Eisenhuttenleute on Dec. 8, 1907, translated in the Railway Gazette (London) on April 3, 10 and 17, 1908.
Horner, The Statutes of the Apostles, translated from Ethiopic and Arabic MSS.Advertisement
This name is twice translated "adder," but as nothing is told of it beyond its poisonous character and the intractability of its disposition, it is impossible accurately to determine the species.
He says he translated "oute of Laten, Frenche, and Doche," but he seems to have been most familiar with the Latin version.
The berosh, or beroth, of the Hebrew Scriptures, translated "fir" in the authorized version, in I Kings v.
A portion of it, containing an elaborate survey of astronomy as known to the Arabs, was translated into Latin in 1342 at the request of Clement VI.
Probably the best modern Life is that by Jean Guiraud, in the series Les Saints (translated into English by Katharine de Mattos, 1901); the bibliography contains a useful list of the chief sources for the history of St Dominic and the order, and of the best modern works thereon.Advertisement
An earlier edition was translated into English under the title History of the Jewish People (Edinburgh, 1890, 1891).
He became a canon of Windsor in 1702, and in 1708 he was nominated to the see of St Asaph, from which he was translated in 1714 to that of Ely.
Erigena translated Dionysius into Latin along with the commentaries of Maximus, and his system is, essentially based upon theirs.
All Boehme's works were translated into English in the time of the Commonwealth, and regular societies of Boehmenists were formed in England and Holland.
The author, Ulrich von Zatzikhoven, tells us that he translated his poem from a French (welsches) book in the possession of Hugo de Morville, one of the English hostages, who, in 1194, replaced Richard Coeur de Lion in the prison of Leopold of Austria.
After a period of work in Holland he betook himself to England, where his treatise on lettres de cachet had been much admired, being translated into English in 1787, and where he was soon admitted into the best Whig literary and political society of London, through his old schoolfellow Gilbert Elliot, who had now inherited his father's baronetcy and estates, and become a leading Whig member of parliament.
The Considerations sur l'ordre de Cincinnatus which Romilly translated was the only important work Mirabeau wrote in the year 1785, and it is a good specimen of his method.
He saw also that much of the inefficiency of the Assembly arose from the inexperience of the members and their incurable verbosity; so, to establish some system of rules, he got his friend Romilly to draw up a detailed account of the rules and customs of the English House of Commons, which he translated into French, but which the Assembly, puffed up by a belief in its own merits, refused to use.
The missing books were apparently lost early, for there is no reason to suppose that the Arabs who translated or commented on Diophantus ever had access to more of the work than we now have.
Olshausen's department was New Testament exegesis; his Commentary (completed and revised by Ebrard and Wiesinger) began to appear at Konigsberg in 1830, and was translated into English in 4 vols.
Dandolo published in Italian several treatises on agriculture, vine-cultivation, and the rearing of cattle and sheep; a work on silk-worms, which was translated into French by Fontanelle; a work on the discoveries in chemistry which were made in the last quarter of the 18th century (published 1796); and translations of several of the best French works on chemistry.
The Ladder has been translated into several foreign languages - into English by Father Robert, Mount St Bernard's Abbey, Leicestershire (1856).
In 1577 appeared the Foure Bookes of Husbandry, translated, with augmentation, from the work of Conrad Heresbach.
Many of these have been translated into German, and there is a German edition by Th.
Asterisks are placed against those works which have been translated into English.
By Ur, Ruha, while P'tahil was engaged in his work of creation, became mother of three sets of seven, twelve and five sons respectively; all were translated by P'tahil to the heavenly firmament (like the Archons of Mani), the first group forming the planets and the next the signs of the zodiac, while the third is as yet undetermined.
The chief authority for the bishop's life is William de Chambre (printed in Wharton's Anglia Sacra, 1691, and in Historiae Dunelmensis scriptores tres, Surtees Soc. 1839), who describes him as an amiable and excellent man, charitable in his diocese, and the liberal patron of many learned men, among these being Thomas Bradwardine, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury, Richard Fitzralph, afterwards archbishop of Armagh, the enemy of the mendicant orders, Walter Burley, who translated Aristotle, John Mauduit the astronomer, Robert Holkot and Richard de Kilvington.
The "Luck of Eden Hall," which has been celebrated in a ballad by the duke of Wharton, and in a second ballad written by Uhland, the German poet, and translated by Longfellow, is an enamelled goblet, kept in a leathern case dating from the times of Henry IV.
Between 1666 and 1669 Perrault edited at Paris eight accounts of the dissection by du Verney of as many species of birds, which, translated into English, were published by the Royal Society in 1702, under the title of The Natural History of Animals.
Nab, whose vizier Bal'ami translated Tabari's universal history into Persian (961976); Nab II.
These works had an enormous sale, and portions of them were translated into French and Dutch.
These have all passed through several editions, and have also been translated into French.
Some of his books have been translated into French, and several have gone through two or more editions.
Pico, with a biography, which was translated by Sir Thomas More as Life of John Picus, Earl of Mirandola, in 1510.
Several of his books have passed into new and revised editions and have been translated into English.
Several of his works have been translated into English by Philip Wicksteed.
Many of Ranke's works have been translated into English.
The XpovcKOV Teel, ' (composed in Greek verse some time after 1300, apparently by an author of mixed Frankish and Greek parentage, and translated into French at an early date under the title "The Book of the Conquest of Constantinople and the Empire of Rumania") narrates in a prologue the events of the Fourth (as indeed also of the First) Crusade.
This persecution gave the book an extraordinary vogue, and it passed through twenty-two editions in three years, besides being translated into several languages; there is an English translation by Lord Falconbridge, son-in-law of Oliver Cromwell.
Not only are new words employed, and old words in new significations, but the grammatical structure has a modern stamp - some phrases have the appearance of having been translated out of Aramaic into Hebrew.
An edition of the Arabic text has been printed at Bulaq, (7 vols., 1867) and a part of the work has been translated by the late Baron McG.
The Autobiography of Ibn Khaldun was translated into French by de Slane in the Journal asiatique, ser.
The Liber de compositione alchemiae, which professes to be by Morienus - perhaps the same as the Marianus who was the teacher of Khalid - was translated by Robertus Castrensis, who states that he finished the work in 1182, and speaks as if he were making a revelation - " Quid sit alchemia nondum cognovit vestra Latinitas."
It is curious that although we possess a certain number of works on alchemy written in Arabic, and also many Latin treatises that profess to be translated from Arabic, yet in no case is the existence known of both the Arabic and the Latin version.
The book was translated into English, but by order of James II.
Other works by him were Reponse au livre de P. Nouet sur l'eucharistie (1668); CEuvres posthumes (Amsterdam, 1688), containing the Traite de la composition d'un sermon, translated into English in 1778.
Tartaglia's writings on gunnery were translated into English by Lucar in 1588, and into French by Rieffel in 1845.
The religious poem, Le Miroir de lame pecheresse was translated by Queen Elizabeth.
Ignatius wrote originally in Spanish, but the book was twice translated into Latin during his lifetime.
This has been translated into English under the title of The testament of Ignatius Loyola, being sundry acts of our Father Ignatius, under God, the first founder of the Society of Jesus, taken down from the Saint's own lips by Luis Gonzales (London, 1900); and the above account of Ignatius is taken in most places directly from this, which is not only the best of all sources but also a valuable corrective of the later and more imaginative works.
Bibelwerk has been translated, enlarged and revised under the general editorship of Dr Philip Schaff.
Schmidt gives a full bibliography of the numerous writings of Menius, who translated several of Luther's biblical commentaries into German.
In 182 2 he was sent to the Kreuzschule at Dresden, where he did so well that, four years later, he translated the first twelve books of the Odyssey for amusement.
Ptolemy were translated into Arabic, and in 827, in the reign of the caliph Abdullah al Mamun, an arc of the meridian was measured in the plain of Mesopotamia.
Such indications of will were implicitly obeyed, or were translated by the worshippers as their own caprice or interest indicated.
Mrs Buchan claimed prophetic inspiration and pretended to confer the Holy Ghost upon her followers by breathing upon them; they believed that the millennium was near, and that they would not die, but be translated.
For several centuries it was wholly lost sight of, and it was not till the 13th century that it was rediscovered through the agency of Robert Grosseteste, bishop of Lincoln, who translated it into Latin, under the misconception that it was a genuine work of the twelve sons of Jacob, and that the Christian interpolations were a genuine product of Jewish prophecy.
The a Version seems to have been translated first, indeed before A.D.
On the ground of the above quotations we assume, therefore, that a was used by St Paul, and that H a was therefore translated into Greek at latest before A.D.
Translated into the chief modern languages, many thousands of copies were circulated among the working classes in Catholic countries.
When James Beaton was translated to St Andrews in 1522 he resigned the rich abbacy of Arbroath in his nephew's favour, under reservation of one half of the revenues to himself during his lifetime.
The History of Great Britain has been translated into French, and has passed into several English editions.
Mirandola so convinced Pope Sixtus of the paramount importance of the Kabbalah as an auxiliary to Christianity that his holiness exerted himself to have Kabbalistic writings translated into Latin for the use of divinity students.
This book was widely read by Christians; it was rendered into various languages, and in 1650 was translated into English by Edward Chilmead.
Translated from the Edition of 1683, &c. (New York, 1880).
Translated by C. Fraser (London, 1830).
The most distinguished prose writers of this period are perhaps Rashid, the imperial historio grapher, 'Asim, who translated into Turkish two great lexicons, the Arabic Itamus and the Persian Burhan-i and Kani, the only humorous writer of merit belonging to the old school.
Cassiodorus translated them into Latin, freely altering to suit his own ideas of orthodoxy.
At the beginning of the 1 Translated by Abel Remusat, Nouveaux Mélanges Asiatiques (1829).
Translated into French, then into Italian (14th century) and into English (r6th century), it was known by Wycliffe and Luther, and was not without an influence on the Reform movement.
Many of his works have been translated into English and other languages.
He was made bishop of Rochester in 1891, and was translated to Winchester in 1895.
The Hebrew word tebah, translated in the A.V.
It has been commonly assumed, and the assumption has been translated into practice, that the rubrics of 1549 prescribed the use of all the old "mass vestments."
The papal letters were translated into Persian, and thence into Mongol, and so presented to Baiju; but the Tatars were greatly irritated by the haughtiness of the Dominicans.
The book attained an almost unprecedented popularity both in America and in Europe, where it was translated into several languages; and it came to be considered a classic. Immediately after the appearance of this book Dana began the practice of law, which brought him a large number of maritime cases.
They have been extensively translated.
He wrote An Astronomical Description of the late Comet (1619); Canicularia (1648); and translated Proclus' De Sphaera, and Ptolemy's De Planetarum Hypothesibus (1620).
It was translated into French, German, Russian, Swedish, Dutch and Danish.
He was translated to the see of Winchester in 1662.
It has been maintained by Camden and others that More wrote an account of Edward's reign in French, and that this was translated into Latin by Geoffrey and used by him in compiling his Chronicon.
Monod, was translated into English.
His Belle Dame sans merci was translated into English by Sir Richard Ros about 1640, with an introduction of his own; and Clement Marot and Octavien de Saint-Gelais, writing fifty years after his death, find many fair words for the old poet, their master and predecessor.
In 1873 James Clerk Maxwell published his classical Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, in which Faraday's ideas were translated into a mathematical form.
Since this surplusage is in turn derived from the Septuagint, from which the old Latin version was translated, it thus follows that the difference between the Protestant and the Roman Catholic Old Testament is, roughly speaking, traceable to the difference between the Palestinian and the Alexandrian canons of the Old Testament.
The Book of Jubilees was written in Hebrew by a Pharisee between the year of the accession of Hyrcanus to the high-priesthood in 135 and his breach with the Pharisees some years before his death in 105 B.C. Jubilees was translated into Greek and from Greek into Ethiopic and Latin.
The Latin is undoubtedly translated from the Greek.
This gospel must have been translated at an early date into Greek, as Clement and Origen cite it as generally accessible, and Eusebius recounts that many reckoned it among the received books.
Actually, only some foreign counts could be said to be equivalent to English earls; but "earl" is always translated by foreigners by words (comte, Graf) which in English are represented by "count," itself never used as the synonym of "earl."
He had been nominated bishop of St Asaph in 1536, translated to St David's in the same year, and to Bath and Wells in 1547.
The only poem he published at this time was the famous Nicolai Klimii iter subterraneum (1741), afterwards translated into Danish by Baggesen.
The Iter subterraneum has been three several times translated into Danish, ten times into German, thrice into Swedish, thrice into Dutch, thrice into English, twice into French, twice into Russian and once into Hungarian.
John the Scot was still E acquainted with Greek, seeing that he translated the work of the pseudo-Dionysius; and his speculative genius achieved the fusion of Christian doctrine and Neoplatonic thought in a system of quite remarkable metaphysical completeness.
By special command of Raimund, archbishop of Toledo, the chief of these works were translated from the Arabic through the Castilian into Latin by the archdeacon Dominicus Gonzalvi with the aid of Johannes Avendeath (=ben David), a converted Jew, about 1150.
He fell under the suspicion of the Inquisition; his mystical teaching was said to be heretical, and his most famous book, the Guia de Peccadores, still a favourite treatise and one that has been translated into nearly every European tongue, was put on the Index of the Spanish Inquisition, together with his book on prayer, in 1559 His great opponent was the restless and ambitious Melchior Cano, who stigmatized the second book as containing grave errors smacking of the heresy of the Alumbrados and manifestly contradicting Catholic faith and teaching.
The only works translated into English are two pamphlets on the war of 1870, What we demand from France (London, 1870), and The Firetest of the North German Confederation (1870).
The first volume was printed in German in 1836, and subsequently translated into Czech.
It appears, moreover, that up to that date public business was transacted in period, Hungarian, for the decrees of King Coloman the Learned (1095-1114) were translated from that language into Latin.
Among the few prose writers of distinction were Andrew Spangar, whose " Hungarian Bookstore," Magyar Konyvtdr (Kassa, 1738), is said to be the earliest work of the kind in the Magyar dialect; George Baranyi, who translated the New Testament (Lauba, 1 754); the historians Michael Cserei and Matthew Bel, which last, however, wrote chiefly in Latin; and Peter Bod, who besides his theological treatises compiled a history of Hungarian literature under the title Magyar Athends (Szeben, 1766).
Under the rule of the Abbasids, Bagdad became the centre of scientific thought; physicians and astronomers from India and Syria flocked to their court; Greek and Indian manuscripts were translated (a work commenced by the Caliph Mamun (813-833) and ably continued by his successors); and in about a century the Arabs were placed in possession of the vast stores of Greek and Indian learning.
Euclid's Elements were first translated in the reign of Harun-al-Rashid (786-809), and revised by the order of Mamun.
Ptolemy's Almagest, the works of Apollonius, Archimedes, Diophantus and portions of the Brahmasiddhanta, were also translated.
Among these may be mentioned his Brief Outline of the Evidences of the Christian Religion (1825), which passed through several editions, and,; was translated into various languages; The Canon of the Old and New Testament Ascertained; or the Bible Complete without the Apocrypha and Unwritten Traditions (1826); A History of the Israelitish Nation (1852), and Outlines of Moral Science (1852), the last two being published posthumously.
In the part covered by the books of the Bible Josephus follows them, and that mainly, if not entirely as they are translated into Greek by the Seventy (the Septuagint version).
When we thus understand its origin, the tradition becomes really instructive, and may be translated into a statement which throws light on a number of points connected with the book, namely, that the Psalter was (finally, at least) collected with a liturgical purpose.
And the Greek Psalter, though it contains one apocryphal psalm at the close, is essentially the same as the Hebrew; there is nothing to suggest that the Greek was first translated from a less complete Psalter and afterwards extended to agree with the extant Hebrew.
Moreover, it is very doubtful whether the word r y ?c can be translated " Director."
He was highly esteemed in devout circles as the author of De la aficiOn y amor de Jesus (1630), and De la aficion y amor de Maria (1630), both of which were translated into Arabic, Flemish, French, German, Italian and Latin.
To the Prophecy of Restoration we may fitly apply the words, too gracious and too subtly chosen to be translated, of Renan, "ce second Isaie, dont Fame lumineuse semble comme impregnee, six cent ans d'avance, de toutes les rosees, de tous les parfums de l'avenir" (L'Antechrist, p. 464); though, indeed, the common verdict of sympathetic readers sums up the sentence in a single phrase - "the Evangelical Prophet."
From the beginning of the 3rd to the beginning of the 5th century Tatian's Harmony or Diatessaron - whether originally compiled in Syriac, or compiled in Greek and translated into Syriac - was the current form of gospel in the Syriac Church.
Of the large number of Apocryphal books existing in Syriac8 the majority have been translated from Greek, one or two (such as Bar Sira or Ecclesiasticus) from Hebrew, while some (like the Doctrine of Addai above referred to) are original Syriac documents.
As a teacher in the Persian school of Edessa he had translated, probably with the help of his pupils, certain works of " the Interpreter," i.e.
He may possibly have translated a work of Aristotle.'
Among the works which he translated into Syriac and of which his versions survive are treatises of Aristotle, Porphyry and Galen, 3 the Ars grammatica of Dionysius Thrax, the works of Dionysius the Areopagite, and possibly two or three treatises of Plutarch.4 His own original works are less important, but include a " treatise on logic, addressed to Theodore (of Merv), which is unfortunately imperfect, a tract on negation and affirmation; a treatise, likewise addressed to Theodore, On the Causes of the Universe, according to the Views of Aristotle, showing how it is a Circle; a tract On Genus, Species and Individuality; and a third tract addressed to Theodore, On the Action and Influence of the Moon, explanatory and illustrative of Galen's IIEpi rcptaiµwv r t µepwv, bk.
The Mrarrath gazze or Cave of Treasures, translated and edited by C. Bezold (Leipzig, 1883-1888), is akin (as Duval remarks) to the Book of Jubilees.
Some of his separate works have been very frequently reprinted and also translated.
The Pluralite des mondes was translated into modern Greek in 1794.
On the 25th of April 1884 he was consecrated bishop of Chester, and in 1889 was translated to the see of Oxford.
Some of his poems have been translated with great success by Arthur Symons in Images of Good and Evil; the most convenient edition of his works, which have been frequently reprinted, is that contained in vol.
According to one account he was lost at sea, according to another he died at Stymphalus in Arcadia, and according to a third at Leucas, from grief at the loss by shipwreck of his baggage, containing a number of new plays which he had translated from Menander.
Terence was translated into English verse by George Colman (2765).
Now this incident of the "Three Days' Tournament" is found alike in the prose Lancelot and in the German Lanzelet, this latter translated from a French poem which, in 1194, was in the possession of Hugo de Morville.
After saying how Map translated the romance from the Latin at the bidding of King Henry, the usual statement, the scribe adds "qui riche loier l'en donor."
There is no doubt that his work is chiefly a compilation; and Daremberg, with other scholars, has traced a large number of passages of the Latin text to the Greek originals from which they were translated.
A writer with the (perhaps assumed) name of Apuleius Platonicus produced a herbal which held its ground till the 15th century at least, and was in the 9th translated into Anglo-Saxon.
Certain writings of Joannitius, translated into Latin, were popular in the middle ages in Europe, and were printed in the 16th century.
It was translated into Latin, and more than once printed, as were some of his lesser works, which thus formed a part of the contribution made by the Arabians to European medicine.
His works exist chiefly in the original Arabic or in Hebrew translations; only some smaller treatises have been translated into Latin, so that no definite opinion can be formed as to their medical value.
It is thus evident that the circumstance of having been translated (which may have been in some cases almost an accident) is what has chiefly determined the influence of particular writers on Western medicine.
The best-known is the rhyming Latin poem on health by Joannes de Meditano, Regimen sanitatis Salerni, professedly written for the use of the "king of England," supposed to mean William the Conqueror; it had an immense reputation in the middle ages, and was afterwards many times printed, and translated into most European languages.
A more important work, the Practica seu lilium medicinae, of Bernard Gordon, a Scottish professor at Montpellier (written in the year 1307), was more widely spread, being translated into French and Hebrew, and printed in several editions.
Thus even gout was regarded as a" neurosis."These pathological principles of Cullen are contained in his First Lines of the Practice of Physic, an extremely popular book, often reprinted and translated.
His work, entitled Observations on the Diseases of an Army, was translated into many European languages and became the standard authority on the subject.
Corvisart translated the Inventum novum into French, and Auenbrugger's method rapidly attained a European reputation.
Forbes also translated the works of Laennec and Auenbrugger, and an entire revolution was soon effected in the knowledge of diseases of the chest.
The Memoirs of the marquise were translated into English by Sir Walter Scott, and issued as a volume of "Constable's Miscellany" (Edinburgh, 1827).
The employment of " witch doctors " for " smelling out " criminals or abatagati (usually translated " wizards," but meaning evildoers of any kind, such as poisoners), once common in Zululand, as in neighbouring countries, was discouraged by Cetywayo, who established " kraals of refuge " for the reception of persons rescued by him from condemnation as abatagati.
The Meditationes sacrae (1606), a work expressly devoted to the uses of Christian edification, has been frequently reprinted in Latin and has been translated into most of the European languages, including Greek.
Hero also wrote Catoptrica (on reflecting surfaces), and it seems certain that we possess this in a Latin work, probably translated from the Greek by Wilhelm.
There is no complete translation of the Dhammathats, but a good many of them have been translated.
Jaidev is better known as the author of the Gitagobind, which was translated by Sir Edwin Arnold, than as a religious reformer; but in the Adi Granth are found two hymns of his in the Prakrit language of the time, in which he represents God as distinct from nature, yet everywhere present.
The preface was translated into German by Theodor Noldeke in his Beitrage (Hanover, 1864), pp. 1-51.
A considerable amount of Semitic Babylonian literature was translated from Sumerian originals, and the language of religion and law long continued to be the old agglutinative language of Chaldaea.
Astronomy was of old standing in Babylonia, and the standard work on the subject, written from an astrological point of view, which was translated into Greek by Berossus, was believed to go back to the age of Sargon of Akkad.
He was much influenced by Lotze, whose Outlines of Philosophy he translated (6 vols., 1877), and was one of the first to introduce (1879) the study of experi mental psychology into America, the Yale psychological laboratory being founded by him.
Archaeology (1903), and " Hittite Inscriptions, translated and annotated," ibid.
Now it is acknowledged by Christian and Jewish scholars alike to have been written in Hebrew in the 2nd century B.C. From Hebrew it was translated into Greek and from Greek into Armenian and Slavonic. The versions have come down in their entirety, and small portions of the Hebrew text have been recovered from later Jewish writings.
The former was translated by Bonwetsch in 1896, in the Nachrichten von der kOnigl.
He wrote a book entitled The Method of Preparing Medicines and Diet, which was translated into Hebrew in the year 1280, and thence into Latin by Paravicius, whose version, first printed at Venice, 1490, has passed through several editions.
Martensen was a distinguished preacher, and his works were translated into various languages.
His best legal treatise is Memoire pour le comte de Morangies (Paris, 1772); Linguet's imprisonment in the Bastille afforded him the opportunity of writing his Memoires sur la Bastille, first published in London in 1789; it has been translated into English (Dublin, 1783, and Edinburgh, 1884-1887), and is the best of his works, though untrustworthy.
The works of Croce have been translated into many languages.
The most important was his De Origine ac Progressu schismatis Anglicani, which was continued after 1558 by Edward Rishton, and printed at Cologne in 1585; it has been often re-edited and translated, the best English edition being that by David Lewis (London, 1877).
Mosheim in 1725; and translated into English by the Rev. John Guthrie, 1854.
To understand the feudal state it is essential to make clear to one's mind that all sorts of services, which men ordinarily owe to the public or to one another, were translated into a form of rent paid for the use of land, and defined and enforced by a private contract.
Somewhat curiously, but very naturally, Enoch the son of Cain is confused with the Enoch who was translated to heaven - an error which the author of the Old English Genesis avoids, though (according to the existing text) he confounds the names of Enoch and Enos.
Under his reign chess was introduced from India, and the famous book of Kalilah and Dimnah was translated.
Ibn Muqaffa` translated the great Book of Persian Kings, and others followed his example.
Half a century later began versions from the Greek either direct or through the Syriac. The pieces translated were mostly philosophical; but the Arabs also learned something, however superficially, of ancient history.
And there has lately come to light a MS. of the 9th or 10th century in Sogdianese, an Indo-Iranian language spoken in the north-east of Asia,which shows that theNestorians had translated the New Testament into that tongue and had taught the natives the alphabet and the doctrine.
This has been translated into German and parts of it into French and Spanish, and a fifth edition was issued in 1819.
Much of the Arabic material has been collected and translated by Fraehn, "Veteres Memoriae Chasarorum" in Mem.
Some Greek-Latin exercises by an unknown writer of the 3rd century, to be learnt by heart and translated, were added to the grammar.
His travels have been translated into many languages, and his Autobiography was written in English.
His history of Venice was published by his brother in 1623 (Venice), and translated into Italian by Senator Girolamo Molin (Venice, 1782).
He was translated to the see of Canterbury in 1716 on the death of Thomas Tenison.
Josias Simler's Oratio, published in 1563 and translated into English in 1583, is the basis of subsequent accounts of Vermigli.
About forty volumes are available in English, and many have been translated into most of the European languages as well as into Arabic, Hindi and Japanese.
Here he translated Theagene et Chariclee from Heliodorus (1547 fol.), for which he was rewarded by Francis I.
He translated seven books of Diodorus (1554), the Daphnis et Chloe of Longus (1559) and the Opera Moralia of Plutarch (1572).
His vigorous and idiomatic version of Plutarch, Vies des hommes illustres, was translated into English by Sir Thomas North, and supplied Shakespeare with materials for his Roman plays.
Of the excellence of his style and of his practical religious zeal we are able to judge from the thirteen homilies on the Christian life and character which have been edited and translated by Budge (London, 1894).
The book was never finished, but the fragment he completed was published in 1808, and was translated into French by Armand Carrel in 1846.
At the headquarters of his order, in Fremona, he soon acquired the two chief dialects of the country, translated a catechism, and set about the education of some Abyssinian children.
But the reprints and editions of Crusoe have been innumerable; it has been often translated; and the eulogy pronounced on it by Rousseau gave it special currency in France, where imitations (or rather adaptations) have also been common.
This scholar holds that " Michabo " has properly nothing to do with " Great Hare," but should be translated " the Great White One," i.e.
Chenier's influence has been specially remarkable in Russia, where Pushkin imitated him, Kogloff translated La Jeune Captive, La jeune Tarentine and other famous pieces, while the critic Vesselovsky pronounces "Il a retabli le lyrisme pur dans la poesie frangaise."
It was translated into English and improved with notes by Tindal, in 2 vols.
In the year after the war (240), when the armies had returned and the people were at leisure to enjoy the fruits of victory, Livius Andronicus substituted at one of the public festivals a regular drama, translated or adapted from the Greek, for the musical medleys (saturae) hitherto in use.
For fuller details and explanations of the elements of the subject, the reader must be referred to general treatises such as Baynes's Thermodynamics (Oxford), Tait's Thermodynamics (Edinburgh), Maxwell's Theory of Heat (London), Parker's Thermodynamics (Cambridge), Clausius's Mechanical Theory of Heat (translated by Browne, London), and Preston's Theory of Heat (London).
Bishop Challoner was the author of numerous controversial and devotional works, which have been frequently reprinted and translated into various languages.
The Historica Descriptio of the siege and capture of Gotha appeared in 1568 and has been translated into French and German.
On the same lines the Belgian Confession of 1561, written by Guido de Bres in French, and translated into Dutch was widely accepted in the Netherlands and confirmed by the synod of Dort (1619).
It was written in 1640 in Russian, was translated into Greek, and approved by the council of Jassy and the patriarchs of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem.
The word is translated into Latin by legatus, gubernator and praefectus.
Here he did most of his literary work and, throwing aside his unfinished plan of a translation from Origen's Hexaplar text, translated the Old Testament directly from the Hebrew, with the aid of Jewish scholars.
The result of all this labour was the Latin translation of the Scriptures which, in spite of much opposition from the more conservative party in the church, afterwards became the Vulgate or authorized version; but the Vulgate as we have it now is not exactly Jerome's Vulgate, for it suffered a good deal from changes made under the influence of the older translations; the text became very corrupt during the middle ages, and in particular all the Apocrypha, except Tobit and Judith, which Jerome translated from the Chaldee, were added from the older versions.
Earlier in life he had a great admiration for Origen, and translated many of his works, and this lasted after he had settled at Bethlehem, for in 389 he translated Origen's homilies on Luke; but he came to change his opinion and wrote violently against two admirers of the great Alexandrian scholar, John, bishop of Jerusalem, and his own former friend Rufinus.
As, one after another, the various tablets and cylinders and annalistic tablets have been translated, it has become increasingly clear that here are almost inexhaustible fountains of knowledge, and that sooner or later it may be possible to check the Hebrew accounts of the most important periods of their history with contemporaneous accounts written from another point of view.
When the annalistic tablet of Cyrus was translated, it was made to appear, to the consternation of Bible scholars, that the city of Babylon had capitulated to the Persian - or more properly to the Elamite - conqueror without a struggle.
In the Chinese history translated into the Tatar dialect by order of the emperor K'ang-hi, who died in 1721, the characters of the cycle begin to appear at the year 2357 B.C. From this it has been inferred 8th May.
This work vas translated into German (1824-1825), French (1825) and English (1854).
Benrath (2nd ed., Brunswick, 1892), translated into English by Helen Zimmern (London, 1876).
His principal work, Wahres Christentum (1606-1609), which has been translated into most European languages, has served as the foundation of many books of devotion, both Roman Catholic and Protestant.
Both these books have been translated into English; Paradiesglirtlein with the title the Garden of Paradise.
There were at first murmurings among his clergy against what they deemed his harsh control, but his real kindness soon made itself felt, and, during the sixteen years of his tenure of the see, his sound and vigorous rule dissipated the prejudices against him, so that when, on the death of Dr John Jackson in 1885, he was translated to London, the appointment gave general satisfaction.
Some assume it to be Erichthonius, son of Athena and Hephaestus, who was translated to the skies by Zeus on account of his invention of chariots or coaches.
In February 1421 he was translated to Chichester, and in November following to London.
It was favourably mentioned by Reid, Stewart and others, was frequently referred to by the Leibnitzians, and was translated into German by von Eschenbach in 1756.
His historical work was translated into English in part by Mr Gladstone and in part under his superintendence.
It has been translated into Spanish, Danish, Swedish, Welsh, Polish, Gaelic, Russian, Bohemian, Dutch, Catalan, Chinese, modern Greek and phonetic writing.
Experiments and Observations on Electricity (London, 1769) was translated into French by Barbeu Dubourg (Paris, 1773); Vaughan attempted a more complete edition, Political, Miscellaneous and Philosophical Pieces (London, 1 779); an edition in three volumes appeared after Franklin's death (London, 1806); what seemed the authentic Works, as it was under the care of Temple Franklin, was published at London (6 vols., 1817-1819; 3 vols., 1818) and with some additional matter at Philadelphia (6 vols., 1818).
The MS. of this work, written in Phoenician characters, was said to have been found in his tomb (enclosed in a leaden box) at the time of an earthquake during the reign of Nero, by whose order it was translated into Greek.
In the iith century the German monk Notker Labeo translated the first two books into Old High German.
It has passed through many editions, has been translated into German and into English, and is still one of the books most valued by expositors of the New Testament.
No traces of this Persian translation can now be found, but nearly two centuries later, Abdallah-ibn-Mokaffa translated the Persian into Arabic; and his version, which is known as the "Book of Kalilah and Dimna," from the two jackals in the first story, became the channel through which a knowledge of the fables was transmitted to Europe.
It was translated into Greek by Simeon Sethus towards the close of the th century; his version, however, does not appear to have been retranslated into any other European language.
But the Hebrew version of Rabbi Joel, made somewhat later, was translated in the 13th century into Latin by John of Capua, a converted Jew, in his Directorium vitae humanae (first published in 1480), and in that form became widely known.
Since then the fables have been translated into nearly every European tongue.
He occupies a high place as a hymnologist, but principally as a translator of ancient and medieval hymns, the best known being probably "Brief life is here our portion," "To thee, 0 dear, dear country," and "Jerusalem, the golden," which are included in the poem of Bernard of Cluny, De Contemptu Mundi, translated by him in full.
Alberti wrote works on sculpture, Della Statua, and on painting, De Pictura, which are highly esteemed; but his most celebrated treatise is that on architecture, De Re Aedificatoria, which has been translated into Italian, French, Spanish and English.
The fragment beginning TfOva F t 'ac -yap xaaov has been translated by Thomas Campbell, the poet.
In 1910 he had published a volume of speeches, which was translated into English, and in 1919 he brought out a work on political conflicts and constitutional reform.
In 1618 he attended the synod of Dort, and was soon after made dean of the Chapel Royal and translated to Winchester, a diocese which he administered with loving prudence and the highest success.
The attempt to harmonize the Stoic demonology with Roman religion led to the Lares being compared with the Greek "heroes" during the period of Greco-Roman culture, and the word is frequently translated ilpcoEs.
Many of his sermons were translated into English (reprinted, 4 vols., 1849).
In these years he had published De la correlation des figures de geometrie (1801), Geometrie de position (1803), and Principes fondamentaux del' equilibre et du mouvement (1803), all of which were translated into German.
His great work on fortification appeared at Paris in 1810 (De la defense de places fortes), and was translated for the use of almost every army in Europe.
B.e.) whose periplus is translated by Avienus (end of 4th cent.
In 1874 he became professor of philosophy, and translated several works of Herbert Spencer and of Schopenhauer into French.
The lapwing's conspicuous crest seems to have been the cause of a common blunder among English writers of the middle ages, who translated the Latin word Upupa, property hoopoe, by lapwing, as being the crested bird with which they were best acquainted.
Benedetto (translated 1896); also, Indexes to standard general histories of the period; Thomas Hodgkin's Italy and Her Invaders and Gregorovius' History of the City of Rome may be specially mentioned.
The Cours d'economie politique pratique, from which Morstadt had given extracts, was translated into German by Max Stirner (1845).
The Catechisme and the Petit Volume have also been translated into several European languages.
His work was translated by Ennius into Latin, but the work itself is lost, and of the translation only a few fragments, and these very short, have come down to us.
Tettau's z8 Monate beim Heere Russlands; von Schwarz, Zehn Monate beim Heere Kuropatkin's, and Kuropatkin's own work (part of which has been translated into English).
Several of his works have been translated into French and German.
In his father's lifetime, and at his request, he had translated the Theologia naturalis of Raymund de Sabunde, a Spanish schoolman (published 1569).
The substance of these reports has been issued as a separate work in England, The Lake Dwellings of Switzerland and other parts of Europe, by Dr Ferdinand Keller, translated and arranged by John Edward Lee, 2nd ed.
Tregelles wrote Heads of Hebrew Grammar (1852), translated Gesenius's Hebrew Lexicon, and was the author of a little work on the Jansenists (1851) and of various works in exposition of his special eschatological views (Remarks on the Prophetic Visions of Daniel, 1852,1852, new ed., 1864).
It was also translated by Professor Blockmann in 1848.
Forneron, translated by Mrs Crawford (1887).
Sir Isaac Newton introduced several important improvements into the Cambridge edition of 1672; in 1715 Dr Jurin issued another Cambridge edition with a valuable appendix; in 1733 the whole work was translated into English by Dugdale; and in 1736 Dugdale's second edition was revised by Shaw.
A new and revised edition of the whole work was published in 1885; it has been translated into French, but not into English.
The best known of such works are Rules for the Conduct of Kings, translated from the Bali, and The Maxims of Phra Ruang, the national hero-king, on whose wonderful sayings and doings the imagination of Siamese youth is fed.
In the West Eusebius' History was translated into Latin by Rufinus, and continued down to the end of the 4th century.
Philo Herennius of Byblus claimed to have translated his mythological writings from the Phoenician originals.
G 2 denotes the Greek text from which the Slavonic and the second Latin Version (consisting of vi.-xi.) were translated.
It first appeared in 1794, and went through very many editions, and has been translated into almost all languages.
In November 1662 he was consecrated bishop of Worcester, and was translated, ten months later, to the see of Salisbury, where he conciliated the nonconformists.
Unlike the people of other Slavonic countries, the Poles are comparatively poor in popular and legendary poetry, but such compositions undoubtedly existed in early times, as may be seen by the writings of their chroniclers; thus Gallus translated into Latin a poem written on Boleslaus the Brave, and a few old Polish songs are included in Wojcicki's Library of Ancient Writers.
In 1522, a Polish translation of Ecclesiastes appeared from that press, and before the conclusion of that year The Life of Christ, with woodcuts, translated into Polish by Balthasar Opec. Many other presses were soon established.
He was a Protestant, and among other religious works translated the Psalms. His best work was Zwierciadio albo zywot poczciwego czlowieka (The Mirror or Life of an Honourable Man) - a somewhat tedious didactic piece.
He translated the Cid of Corneille, and wrote a poem on the subject of Psyche, based upon the well-known Greek myth.
He also wrote an account of the Polish general Chodkiewicz, and translated Tacitus and Horace.
Medieval literature abounds in references to Tristan and Iseult, and their adventures were translated into many tongues and are found depicted in carvings and tapestries.
For the Encyclopedic he compiled and translated a large number of articles on chemistry and mineralogy, chiefly from German sources.
Vuillier (Paris, 1904), the first edition of which has been translated under the title of The Forgotten Isles(London, 1896) - and Islas Baleares, an illustrated volume of 1423 pages, by P. Pifferrer, in the series "Espana" (Barcelona, 1888).
Cuvinte Sufletesci, religious meditations in Rumanian (Bucharest, 1888), was also translated into German (Bonn, 1890), under the name of Seelen-Gespreiche.
Barbeyrac also translated Grotius's De Jure Belli et Pacis, Cumberland's De Legibus Naturae, and Pufendorf's smaller treatise De Officio Hominis et Civis.
Prescott, History of the Reign of Ferdinand and Isabella (1837), where the original authorities are exhaustively enumerated; and for later researches, Baron de Nervo, Isabella the Catholic, translated by Lieut.-Col.
Priscian informs us in his preface that he has translated into Latin such precepts of the Greeks Herodian and Apollonius as seemed suitable, and added to them from Latin grammarians.
Priscian's three short treatises dedicated to Symmachus are on weights and measures, the metres of Terence, and some rhetorical elements (exercises translated from the Hpoyvµvaaµara of Hermogenes).
At Bagdad, in the reign of Mamun (813-833), the son of Harun al-Rashid, philosophical works were translated by Syrian Christians from Greek into Syriac and from Syriac into Arabic. It was in his reign that Aristotle was first translated into Arabic, and, shortly afterwards, we have Syriac and Arabic renderings of commentators on Aristotle, and of portions of Plato, Hippocrates and Galen; while in the 10th century new translations of Aristotle and his commentators were produced by the Nestorian Christians.
Among the scholars of Italian birth, probably the only one in this age who rivalled the Greeks as a public expositor of their own literature was Politian (1454-1494), who lectured on Homer and Aristotle in Florence, translated Herodian, and was specially interested in the Latin authors of the Silver Age and in the text of the Pandects of Justinian.
It will be observed that the study of Greek had been resumed in Florence half a century before the fall of Constantinople, and that the principal writers of Greek prose had been translated into Latin before that event.
For the literary history of the translated English Bible, see the separate article under Bible,, English.
The different order of the books in the English Bible is due to the fact that when the Hebrew Bible was translated into Greek between the 3rd and 1st centuries B.C., the Hebrew tripartite division was disregarded, and the books (including those now known as the " Apocrypha ") were grouped mostly by subjects, the historical books being placed first (Genesis - Esther), the poetical books next (Job - Song of Songs), and the prophetical books last (Isaiah - Malachi).
The Proverbs of Jesus, the son of Sirach (c. 200 B.C.), which form now the apocryphal book Ecclesiasticus, were translated into Greek by the grandson of the author at about 130 B.C.; and in the preface prefixed by him to his translation he speaks of " the law, and the prophets, and the other books of our fathers," and again of " the law, and the prophets, and the rest of the books," expressions which point naturally to the same threefold division which was afterwards universally recognized by the Jews.
The name Septuagint, strictly speaking, only applies to the translation of the Pentateuch, but it was afterwards extended to include the other books of the Old Testament as they were translated.
That the interval which elapsed before the Prophets and the Hagiographa were also translated was no great one is shown by the prologue to Sirach which speaks of " the Law, the Prophets and the rest of the books," as already current in a translation by 132 B.C. The date at which the various books were combined into a single work is not known, but the existence of the Septuagint as a whole may be assumed for the 1st century A.D., at which period the Greek version was universally accepted by the Jews of the Dispersion as Scripture, and from them passed on to the Christian Church.
This new version was translated 1 Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek, p. 51.
Both Lowth's works were translated and became influential in Germany.
These seem to have been the only books translated immediately upon the foundation of the Edessan Church, though an edition of the separate Gospels must have followed either before or very soon afterwards.
It belonged to the bishops of Thetford before the Conquest and remained with the see when it was translated to Norwich.
See Khanikov's Bokhara, translated by De Bode (1845); Vambery, Travels in Central Asia (1864), Sketches of Central Asia (1868).
The Manuductio was translated into English in 1813, under the title A Guide to the Reading and Study of the Holy Scriptures.
They were collected and published in French as Memoires de chymie (Paris, 1785-1788); in English as Chemical Essays, by Thomas Beddoes (London, 1786); in Latin as Opuscula, translated by Schafer, edited by Hebenstreit (Leipzig, 1788-1789); and in German as Sdmmtliche Werke, edited by Hermbstadt (Berlin, 1793).
The Corporation for the Promoting and Propagating of the Gospel of Jesus Christ in New England (founded in 1649) bore the expense of printing both the New Testament and the Bible as a whole (Cambridge, Mass., 1663 - the earliest Bible printed in.America), which John Eliot, one of the Pilgrim Fathers, translated into "the language of the Massachusetts Indians," whom he evangelized.
Impressed by the popular ignorance of the Scriptures, he himself translated, or caused others to translate, the New Testament into French from the Vulgate, and formed an association to distribute copies systematically at low prices.
Philo, who translated the Old Testament religion into the terms of Hellenic thought, holds as an inference from his theory of revelation that the divine Supreme Being is " supra rational," that He can be reached only through " ecstasy ", and that the oracles of God supply the material of moral and religious knowledge.
The former translated the work into English; the latter was concerned with Napier in the change of the logarithms from those originally invented to decimal or common logarithms, and it is to him that the original calculation of the logarithmic tables now in use is mainly due.
In Scotland both Calvin's Geneva Catechism and then the Heidelberg Catechism were translated by order of the General Assembly and annotated.
Among the most curious documents of early America is the Popol-Vuh or national book of the Quiche kingdom of Guatemala, a compilation of traditions written down by native scribes, found and translated by Father Ximenez about 1700, and published by Scherzer (Vienna, 1857) and Brasseur de Bourbourg (Paris, 1861).
His famous Nineteen Letters (1836), with which the Neo-Orthodoxy began, were translated into English by Drachmann (New York, 1899).
In the course of the 10th century the Gospels were glossed and translated.
He translated the whole of St Matthew, and wrote the gloss of St Mark i.
According to his own statement in De vetere testamento, written about loco, he had at that period translated the Pentateuch, Joshua, Judges, Kings, Job, Esther, Judith and the Maccabees.
In fact before the middle of the r4th century the entire Old Testament and the greater part of the New Testament had been translated into the Anglo-Norman dialect of the period.
In fact in the Northern Midlands, and in the North even before the middle of the r4th century, the book of Psalms had been twice rendered into English, and before the end of the same century, probably before the great Wycliffite versions had spread over the country, the whole of the New Testament had been translated by different hands into one or other of the dialects of this part of the country.
A version of the Acts and the Catholic Epistles completes the number of the New Testament books translated in the northern parts of England.
The text of the Gospels was extracted from the Commentary upon them by Wycliffe, and to these were added the Epistles, the Acts and the Apocalypse, all now translated anew.
It is therefore at present impossible to say what part of the Early Version of the New Testament was translated by Wycliffe.'
The note may therefore be taken to refer either to the portion translated by the last or fifth hand, or to the whole of the Old Testament up to Baruch iii.
Judging from uniformity of style and mode of translation the editors of the Bible are inclined to take the latter view; they add that the remaining part of the Old Testament was completed by a different hand, the one which also translated the New Testament.
Richard Grafton and Edward Whitchurch were the first in the field, bringing out a fine and full-sized folio in 1537, " truely and purely translated into English by Thomas Matthew."
In 1576 the New Testament of the Genevan Bible was again revised by Lawrence Tomson and provided with a new commentary mainly translated from Beza.
According to the title-page the New Testament was " translated faithfvlly into English ovt of the authentical Latin, according to the best corrected copies of the same, diligently conferred vvith the Greeke and other editions in diuers languages..
He " wished that some special pains should be taken in that behalf for one uniform translation - professing that he could never yet see a Bible well translated in English - and this to be done by the best learned in both the Universities; after them to be reviewed by the bishops and the chief learned of the Church; from them to be presented to the privy council; and lastly to be ratified by his royal authority; and so this whole church to be bound unto it and none other."
This was translated or adapted in French, German and English.
In 1559 du Bellay published at Poitiers La Nouvelle Maniere de faire son profit des lettres, a satirical epistle translated from the Latin of Adrien Turnebe, and with it Le Poete courtisan, which introduced the formal satire into French poetry.
A long and eloquent Discours au roi (detailing the duties of a prince, and translated from a Latin original written by Michel de l'Hopital, now lost) was dedicated to Francis II.
Bishop Ridley, who in 1550 was translated to the see of London, sent for him and appointed him his chaplain.