Long.), separating the government of Irkutsk from that of Transbaikalia, and has a length of 386 m.
Corner of Transbaikalia, and then along the rivers Argun, Amur and Usuri to the frontier of Korea.
In the plateau there are in reality two terraces - a higher and a lower, both very well defined in Transbaikalia and in Mongolia.
Both rise very gently above it, but have steep slopes towards the lower terrace, which is occupied by the Nerchinsk steppes in Transbaikalia and by the great desert of Gobi in Mongolia (2000 to 2500,ft.
Above the sea; the peak of Sokhondo in Transbaikalia (iii ° E.) reaches nearly 8050 ft.
Several low chains of mountains have their base on the lower terrace and run from south-west to north-east; they are known as the Nerchinsk Mountains in Transbaikalia, and their continuations reach the northern parts of the Gobi.4 The great plateau is fringed on the north-west by a series of lofty border-ranges, which have their southern base on the plateau and their northern at a much lower level.
In Transbaikalia and extending farther south-west through the Gobi to East Turkestan.
Rock-salt occurs at several places on the Lena and in Transbaikalia, and salt-springs are numerous - those of Ust-kutsk on the Lena and of Usolie near Irkutsk being the most noteworthy.
A large number of lakes, especially in Transbaikalia and in Tomsk, yield salt.
Although very heavy falls of snow take place in the alpine tracts - especially about Lake Baikal - on the other side, in the steppe regions of the Altai and Transbaikalia and in the neighbourhood of Krasnoyarsk, the amount of snow is so small that travellers use wheeled vehicles, and cattle are able to find food in the steppe.
In Transbaikalia, whence it turns north to the Arctic Ocean.
In the hill tracts and the marshy depression of the Ob they are unbroken, except by the bald summits of the loftier mountains (goltsy); they have the aspect of agreeable bosquets in the Baraba steppe, and they are thinly scattered through south-eastern Transbaikalia, where the dryness of the Gobi steppe makes its influence appreciably felt.
In south-east Siberia there are fortythree new species belonging to the north Manchurian or Amur fauna; and in south-east Transbaikalia, on the borders of the Gobi steppe, only 103 species were found by G.
The insect fauna is very similar to that of Russia; but a few genera, as the Tentyria, do not penetrate into the steppe region of West Siberia, while the tropical Colasposoma, Popilia and Languria are found only in south-eastern Transbaikalia, or are confined to the southern Amur.
As Lake Baikal is approached the stream of Russian immigration becomes narrower, being confined mostly to the valley of the Angara, with a string of villages up the Irkut; but it widens out again in Transbaikalia, and sends branches up the Selenga and its tributaries.
Tyumen (29,651) in West Siberia, head of Siberian navigation; Barnaul (29,850), capital of the Altai region; Krasnoyarsk (33337) and Tobolsk (21,401), both mere administrative centres; Biysk (17,206), centre of the Altai trade; Khabarovsk (15,082), administrative centre of the Amur region; Chita (11,480), the capital of Transbaikalia; Nikolsk (22,000); Irbit (20,064); Kolyvan (11,703), the centre of the trade of southern Tomsk; Yeniseisk (11,539), the centre of the gold-mining region of the same name; Kurgan (10, 579), a growing town in Tobolsk; and Minusinsk (10,255), in the southern part of .the Yeniseisk province, trading with north-west Mongolia.
In West Siberia, 20,000 in Akmolinsk and Semipalatinsk, 100,000 in East Siberia, 85,000 in Transbaikalia, 40,000 in Amur, and 63,000 in Usuri.
On the lower plateau, in Transbaikalia, grain is successfully raised in the Nerchinsk region, with serious risks, however, from early frosts in the valleys.
South-east Transbaikalia suffers from want of water, and the Buriats have to irrigate their fields.
As an independent pursuit, live-stock breeding is carried on by the Russians in eastern Transbaikalia, by the Yakuts in the province of Yakutsk, and by the Buriats in Irkutsk and Trans- Lave baikalia, but elsewhere it is secondary to agriculture.
From Irkutsk it proceeds to Transbaikalia, Lake Baikal being crossed either by steamer or (when frozen) on sledges, in either case from Listvinichnoe to Misovaya.
A route was laid out about 1868 round the south shore of Lake Baikal in order to maintain communication with Transbaikalia during the spring and autumn, and in 1905 the great Siberian railway was completed round the same extremity of the lake.
Those parts of it which run through Russian territory (in Transbaikalia 230 m.; in the neighbourhood of Vladivostok 67 m.) were opened in 1902, and also the trans-Manchurian line (moo m.), although not quite completed.
Similar Materials for the Altai region, published at St Petersburg by the Cabinet of the emperor, and for Irkutsk and Yeniseisk (12 fasc., Irkutsk, 1889-1893); Materials for Transbaikalia (16 vols., St Petersburg, 1898), summed up in Transbaikalia, by N.
Corner of Transbaikalia in the vicinity of Dalai-nor, thus having on the N.
In the same way the Kentei (or Gentei) Mountains, as they are called, to the north of Urga, and the Yablonoi Mountains of Transbaikalia, separate the higher terrace of north-west Mongolia (drained by the tributaries of the Selenga) from the lower terrace of the Gobi, which is drained by the upper tributaries of the Onon and the Kerulen, both belonging to the basin of the Amur.
Opportunities for administrative work, however, were scanty, and in 1864 Kropotkin accepted charge of a geographical survey expedition, crossing North Manchuria from Transbaikalia to the Amur, and shortly afterwards was attached to another expedition which proceeded up the Sungari River into the heart of Manchuria.
It includes the basins of the Oldoi, Zeya and Bureya, left-bank tributaries of the river Amur, and has the governments of Transbaikalia on the W., Irkutsk and Yakutsk on the N., the Maritime province on the E., and Manchuria on the S.
It is a centre for tea exported to Russia, cattle brought from Transbaikalia and Mongolia for the Amur, and for grain.