Amazon remembers millions of transactions perfectly.
Credit cards are able to work and charge low fees because almost all transactions are honest.
To the original nomadic Pesah (Passover) - sacrifice of a lamb - there was attached a distinct and agricultural festival of unleavened cakes (ynassoth) which marks the beginning of the corn harvest in the middle of the month Abib (the name of which points to its Canaanite and 1 The tablet is neo-Babylonian and published by Dr Pinches in the Transactions of the Victoria Institute, and is cited by Professor Fried.
In business transactions Alex was frugal with his money, but when it came to his family, he was generous.
Mr Thomas laid stress on what had been advanced on the other side by Mr Caldwell (Philosophical Transactions, clxxviii.
The analogous formula appertaining to n systems of quantities which Vienna Transactions, t.
In consequence of these transactions, he was suffered to betake himself unharmed to Venice.
That Danby, in spite of these compromising transactions, remained in intention faithful to the national interests, appears clearly from the hostility with which he was still regarded by France.
Nine memoirs, entitled "Electro-Physiological Researches," were published in the Philosophical Transactions, 1845-1860.
Taxes proper are divided into (a) taxes on business transactions and (b) taxes on articles of consumption.
But, in proportion as the people gained more power in the field the consuls rose into importance, superseded the bishops and began to represent the city in transactions with its neighbors.
He won the good-will of his employers by devoting himself to the improvement of their manufacturing business, and he kept his hands clean from the prevalent taint of pecuniary transactions with the nawab of the Carnatic. One fact of some interest is not generally known.
The essay appeared in the Transactions of the Royal Society (1748).
These official prices are sometimes prices actually paid, and sometimes prices settled by 1 Transactions of too bales only.
A Republican convention in his district demanded his resignation, and re-election seemed impossible; but he defended himself in two pamphlets, "Increase of Salaries" and "Review of the Transactions of the Credit Mobilier Company," made a village-to-village canvass, and was victorious.
To,the above taxes must be added the tax on Stock Exchange transactions and the tax of 4% on dividends from stocks and shares (other than state loans).
He defined almost every principle that governed commercial transactions in such a manner that his successors had only to apply the rules he had laid down.
Further, if the Sabbaths fell on each 7th day through the year, any indication by dated documents of a falling off in the number of transactions on the 7th day of the month must obviously be completely disguised.
The Royal Society printed six important memoirs in the Philosophical Transactions, and a few other memoirs are to be found in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and of the Royal Irish Academy, in the Bulletin de 1' Academic de St-Petersbourg for 1862 (under the name G.
Johnson, Thoughts on the late Transactions respecting Falkland's Islands (1771); L.
In his eighteenth year, while still a student in Edinburgh, he contributed two valuable papers to the Transactions of the same society - one of which, " On the Equilibrium of Elastic Solids," is remarkable, not only on account of its intrinsic power and the youth of its author, but also because in it he laid the foundation of one of the most singular discoveries of his later life, the temporary double refraction produced in viscous liquids by shearing stress.
The Royal Society printed six important memoirs in the Philosophical Transactions, and a few other memoirs are to be found in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and of the Royal Irish Academy, in the Bulletin de 1' Academic de St-Petersbourg for 1862 (under the name G.
Johnson, Thoughts on the late Transactions respecting Falkland's Islands (1771); L.
Regist?ation (enregistrement) duties are charged on the transfer of property in the way of business (fi titre onreux); on changes in ownership effected in the way of donation or succession (a litre gratuit), and 011 a variety of other transactions which must be registered according to law.
He remained too steamed up over the Claire Quincy transactions.
Westergaard, Ober den altesten Zeitraum der indischen Geschichte, p. 87; Rhys Davids, Transactions of the Philological Society (1875), p. 70; Kuhn, Beitrage zur Pali Grammatik, 7-9.
The results of his investigations were communicated from time to time in papers to the Philosophical Transactions of London and other scientific journals, and were admirably and impartially summarized by James D.
To the transactions of various learned societies he contributed from first to last between three and four hundred papers, and few of his contemporaries wrote so much for the various reviews.
The Select Transactions of this society were collected and published in 1743 by Robert Maxwell, who took a large part in its proceedings.
In 1757 Maxwell issued another work entitled The Practical Husbandman; being a collection of Miscellaneous papers on Husbandry, F&'c. In it the greater part of the Select Transactions is republished, with a number of new papers, among which an Essay on the Husbandry of Scotland, with a proposal for the improvement of it, is the most valuable.
In 1797 the fear of foreign invasion led to a panic and run upon the banks, in which emergency the Bank Restriction Act, suspending cash payment, was passed, and ushered in a system of unlimited credit transactions.
In 1828, shortly after the discontinuance of the Farmers' Magazine, its Prize Essays and Transactions began to be issued statedly in connexion with the Quarterly Journal of Agriculture.
His first contributions to mathematical physics were two papers published in 1873 in the Transactions of the Connecticut Academy on "Graphical Methods in the Thermodynamics of Fluids," and "Method of Geometrical Representation of the Thermodynamic Properties of Substances by means of Surfaces."
Forster published a Catalogue of the Animals of North America in London in 1771, and the following year described in the Philosophical Transactions a few birds from Hudson Bay.
" Observations on the Natural Affinities that connect the Orders and Families of Birds," read before the Linnean Society of London in 1823, and afterwards published in its Transactions (xiv.
Hutton, Mr Potts and others are to be found in the Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute.
Yarrell in 1829, and published with elaborate figures in its Transactions (xvi.
Bonaparte, in his Saggio di una distribuzione metodica degli Animali Vertebrati, published at Rome, and in 1837 communicated to the Linnean 'Society of London, " A new Systematic Arrangement of Vertebrated Animals," which was subsequently printed in that Society's Transactions (xviii.
Parker broke, as most will allow, entirely fresh ground by communicating to the Zoological Society a memoir " On the Osteology of Balaeniceps," subsequently published in that Society's Transactions (iv.
Owen com municated a detailed description of them to the Philosophical Transactions (1863, pp. 33-47), proving their bird-like nature, and referring them to the genus Archaeopteryx of Hermann von Meyer, hitherto known only by the impression of a single feather from the same geological beds.
When the agents of the spinners, that is, the buying brokers, by becoming principals in some transactions, had acquired interests diametrically opposed to those of their customers, the consequent feeling of distrust among spinners gave birth to the Cotton Buying Company, which, constituted originally of twenty to thrity limited cotton-spinning companies, represents to-day nearly 6,000,000 spindles distributed among nearly one hundred firms. Its object was to squeeze out some middlemen and economize for its members on brokerage.
In order to protect dealers against the losses due to the insolvency of those with whom they have had transactions, weekly settlements on the exchange have been made compulsory; between brokers and their clients they are also usual.
1 Transactions of loo bales only.
As the cost of dealing in " futures " is only one shilling on each transaction for a member of the Cotton Exchange (the outsider is charged in addition a commission by his broker), it is not surprising that the transactions taking place in " futures " number legion.
We now return to exchange " future " transactions regarded as a genus.
May we infer deductively that they have been attained because of the increase of speculative transactions?
"Futures" are not used in all markets-for instance, they are not to be found at Bremen; and in those in which they are used they play parts of different prominence-at Havre, for instance, the transactions in "futures" are of incomparably less relative importance than they are at Liverpool.
In 1721 he wrote a supplement to the Geometria organica, which he afterwards published, with extensions, in the Philosophical Transactions for 1735.
He was the author of over 70 papers on mechanics and physics published in the transactions of learned societies, notably Sub-Mechanics of the Universe, issued by the Royal Society, whose gold medal he won in 1888.
His political and courtly employments, however, did not absorb all his time, and he contributed during his stay in Bavaria a number of papers to the Philosophical Transactions.
All the arrangements should be carried out according to the rules of business usually followed in such transactions.
The Indian rupee and the Persian kran are widely circulated through Mesopotamia; in Basra transactions are counted in krans, taking as a fixed exchange £T1 = 34.15 krans.
Groves, Residence in Baghdad (1830-1832); Transactions of Bombay Geog.
29; Expedition de la Moree, ii.; Curtius, Peloponnesus, ii.; Transactions of Roy.
Schlafli, " Ueber die Resultante eines Systemes mehrerer algebraischen ï¿½leichungen," Vienna Transactions, t.
Its fluctuations in value have been not only a serious inconvenience in commercial transactions, but also the cause of heavy loss to the people.
The bank, in addition to its private functions, farmed many of the regalia, and was in the practice of advancing large sums to the state, transactions which gave rise to extensive corruption, and terminated some years later in the breaking of the bank.
Towards the close of 1828 he felt the approach of a fatal malady - a tumour in the brain - and devoted his last days to a careful revisal of his unpublished researches and industrial processes, dictating several papers on these subjects, which were afterwards published in the Philosophical Transactions.
Among the regular organs of the academy are the Transactions (from 1840), in some 60 vols., and the Annuals.
Between 1862 and 1866 valuable philological studies bearing on the same subject were published by Joseph Budenz in the Nyelvtudomdnyi kozlemenyek (Philological Transactions).
The principal contributors to the " Transactions " of this section of the academy were--for anatomy and physiology, Coloman Balogh, Eugene Jendrassik, Joseph Lenhossek and Lewis Thanhoffer; for zoology, John Frivaldszky, John Kriesch and Theodore Margo; for botany, Frederick Hazslinszky, Lewis Juranyi and Julius Klein; for mineralogy and geology, Joseph Szabo, Max Hantken, Joseph Krenner, Anthony Koch and Charles Hoffman; for physics, Baron Lorando Eotviis, Coloman Szily and Joseph Sztoczek; for chemistry, Charles Than and Vincent Wartha; for meteorology, Guido Schenzl.
We cannot solve the equation 7s.+X=4s.; but we are accustomed to transactions of lending and borrowing, and we can therefore invent a negative quantity - 3s.
For the record and diffusion of rapidly growing knowledge, learned societies, universities and laboratories, greatly increased in number and activity, issue their transactions in various fields; and by means of yearbooks and central news-sheets the accumulation of knowledge is organized and made accessible.
The early existence of an accurate system of dating is not surprising; it was necessitated by the fact that Babylonia was a great trading community, in which it was not only needful that commercial and legal documents should be dated, but also that it should be possible to refer easily to the dates of former business transactions.
Even if he was ordained then, his stay at the latter place was probably prolonged beyond that date; for he communicated to the Philosophical Transactions (xxxii.
In 1830 he published in the Philosophical Transactions a paper on the iodine and bromine of mineral waters.
After he had acquired what he considered to be a sufficient stock of material, and this happened before he had completed the Positive Philosophy, he abstained from reading newspapers, reviews, scientific transactions and everything else, except two or three poets (notably Dante) and the Imitatio Christi.
See also Transactions of the International Swedenborg Congress (London, 1910), summarized in The New Church Magazine (August, 1910).
St Petersburg, 1776-1802); Novae species quadrupedum, 1778 - 1779; Pallas's contributions to the dictionary of languages of the Russian empire, 1786-1789; Icones insectorum, praesertim Rossiae Siberiaeque peculiarium, 1781-1806; Zoographia rossoasiatica (3 vols., 1831); besides many special papers in the Transactions of the academies of St Petersburg and Berlin.
In the article Societies an account is separately given of the transactions and proceedings of learned and scientific bodies.
Germany The earliest trace of the literary journal in Germany is to be found in the Erbauliche Monatsunterredungen (1663) of the poet Johann Rist and in the Miscellanea curiosa medico-physica (1670-1704) of the Academia naturae curiosorum Leopoldina-Carolina, the first scientific annual, uniting the features of the Journal des savants and of the Philosophical Transactions.
6 parts folio, with index), includes journals, reviews, magazines and other works issued periodically, with the exception of transactions and proceedings of learned societies and of British and Colonial newspapers later than 1700.
In 1705 appeared The Consolidator, or Memoirs of Sundry Transactions from the World in the Moon, a political satire which is supposed to have given some hints for Swift's Gulliver's Travels; and at the end of the year Defoe performed a secret mission, the first of several of the kind, for Harley.
This account appeared in the Philosophical Transactions for 1778, was afterwards reprinted in the second volume of his Tracts on Mathematical and Philosophical Subjects, and procured for Hutton the degree of LL.D.
Pearson, of the Philosophical Transactions.
His researches were published in the Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (1785-1799).
Neville in the Philosophical Transactions, by N.
He was present at the Marburg conference in 1529, at the Augsburg diet in 1530 and at the signing of the Schmalkald articles in 1537, and took part in other public transactions of importance in the history of the Reformation; that he had an exceptionally large number of personal enemies was due to his vehemence, coarseness and arrogance in controversy.
The Supreme Magus, Dr William Wynn Westcott, has written its History (1900), with other important works on the subject, and the published Transactions of the Society are most valuable.
During the political campaign of 1872 he was accused, with other prominent politicians, of being implicated in corrupt transactions with the Credit Mobilier, and a congressional investigation brought out the fact that he had agreed to take twenty shares from this concern, and had received dividends amounting to $1200.
To the transactions of that society he contributed papers on the Wrekin and the Shropshire coalfield, &c. Later he became secretary of the Society of Arts, and in 1841 treasurer of the Chemical Society.
Hudleston, in Transactions Victoria Inst., 1904; also papers on the results of Dr W.
Before' the invention of letters the memory of past transactions could not be preserved beyond a few years with any tolerable degree of accuracy.
After political relations began to be established, the necessity of preserving a register of passing seasons and years would soon be felt, and the practice of recording important transactions must have grown up as a necessary consequence of social life.
In their correspondence and transactions with Europeans, they generally follow the era of the Incarnation, and adopt the Julian year.
Cajetan was employed in several other negotiations and transactions, being as able in business as in letters.
He contributed two memoirs to the Philosophical Transactions, one, "Logometria," which discusses the calculation of logarithms and certain applications of the infinitesimal calculus, the other, a "Description of the great fiery meteor seen on March 6th, 1716."
It is the universal medium of exchange throughout China for all retail transactions.
Reports of many minor expeditions and researches have appeared in the Reports of the Fishery Board for Scotland; the Marine Biological Association at Plymouth; the Kiel Commission for the Investigation of the Baltic; the Berlin Institut fur Meereskunde; the bluebooks of the Hydrographic Department; the various official reports to the British, German, Russian, Finnish, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Belgian and Dutch governments on the respective work of these countries in connexion with the international cooperation in the North Sea; the Bulletin du musee oceanographique de Monaco (1903 seq.); the Scottish Geographical Magazine; the Geographical Journal; Petermanns Mitteilungen; Wagner's Geogi'aphisches Jahrbuch; the Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Societies of London and Edinburgh; the Annalen der Hydrographie; and the publications of the Swedish Academy of Sciences.
The attempts to implicate him in corrupt transactions were not successful; but his political opponents endeavoured to make capital in subsequent campaigns, out of the "Cipher Dispatches."
His discoveries were for the most part made public in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, to the notice of which body he was introduced by R.
Leeuwenhoek's contributions to the Philosophical Transactions amounted to one hundred and twelve; he also published twenty-six papers in the Memoirs of the Paris Academy of Sciences.
He reproduces and further develops and defends his own views in his Mathematical Memoirs, and in his paper in the Philosophical Transactions for 1785.
In France, at Embrun, Peter de Bruys founded a sect known as Petrobrusians, who denied infant baptism, the need of consecrated churches, transubstantiation, 2 Bradshaw, in Transactions of Cambridge Antiquarian Society (1842).
The main results of his work are embodied in a very numerous and brilliant series of papers in the Transactions of the Chemical Society.
Soc. Transactions, i.
of the Congregational Historical Society's Transactions (1901-), themselves a growing store of fresh materials.
Percy Smith, Hawaiki (New Zealand, 1903); John White, The Ancient History of the Maori (6 vols., London, 1889); and many papers - especially by the three last-named, and Colenso, Stack, Wohlers, Best, von Haast, Travers and Shand - in the Transactions of the New Zealand Institute (New Zealand, annual), and the Journal of the Polynesian Society (New Zealand, annual).
He received commissions from the cathedral of Cadiz, from the grand duke Paul, from the king of Prussia, from the directors of the Concert Spirituel at Paris; beside his transactions with Breitkopf and Hertel, and with La Chevardiere, he sold to one English firm the copyright of no less than 129 compositions.
Important magnetic observations were begun at Makerstoun in 1841, and the results gained him in 1848 the Keith prize of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, in whose Transactions they were published.
In 1692 he began his Lettres historiques, containing an account of the most important transactions in Europe; he carried on this work till the end of 1698, after which it was continued by others.
The definitive decline of the sun's power after the autumnal 1 Sayce, Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, iii.
In addition to the Transactions of these societies - many of which contain valuable contributions to their respective departments in their relation to the East Indies - a considerable number of publications are issued in Batavia.
The principal establishment for monetary transactions is the Java Bank, established in 1828 with a capital of 50o,000.
In this and certain other transactions Claudius seems to have acted from avaricious motives, - a result of his early poverty.
At Warsaw, since the last insurrection, the university has become entirly Russianized, and its Transactions are published in Russian; but Polish works of merit still issue from the press - among others the leading Polish literary journal, Biblioteka warszawska.
Monthly meetings covering smaller districts, were organized to consider local matters, the transactions of which were to be reported to the Quarterly Association, to be confirmed, modified, or rejected.
as king and man"), printed in the transactions of the Swedish Academy (vols.
Adnitt (Transactions of the Shropshire Archaeological and Nat.
Transactions, 1869; Ibid.
Ramsay's " Address on Efficiency in Education " (Glasgow, 1902, 17-20), from the Transactions of the Amer.
34): "The interesting series of communications on the contact of curves and surfaces which are contained in the Philosophical Transactions of 1862 and subsequent years would alone account for the high rank he obtained as a mathematician....
His papers, numbering over 100, were published principally in the Philosophical Transactions, Proceedings of the Royal Society, Quarterly Journal of Mathematics, Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society and Crelle, and one or two in the Comptes rendus of the Paris Academy; a list of them, arranged according to the several journals in which they originally appeared, with short notes upon the less familiar memoirs, is given in Nature, xxvii.
-- In everyday transactions with reference to weights and measures, the British legislature also exercises control in industrial pursuits.
Money, however, is in men's actual transactions the measure of value, as well as the vehicle of exchange; and the precious metals are best suited for this function, as varying little in their own value for periods of moderate length; for distant times, corn is a better standard of comparison.
The national revenues are derived from import and export duties, port dues and other taxes levied on foreign commerce; from excise and stamp taxes and other charges upon internal business transactions; from direct taxes levied in the federal district and national territories, covering a land tax in rural districts, a house tax in the city, commercial and professional licences, water rates, and sundry taxes on bread, pulque, vehicles, saloons, theatres, &c.; from probate dues and registry fees; from a surcharge on all taxes levied by the states, called the " federal contribution," which is paid in federal revenue stamps; from post and telegraph receipts; and from some minor sources of income.
At the end of 1908 the total public indebtedness of the republic was: The fiscal or tax valuation of property throughout the republic in 1904 was computed to be - the fiscal value being two-thirds of the real value: Total $1,053,849,446 Previous to 1905 all monetary transactions in Mexico were based in practice on a fluctuating silver standard and free coinage.
Restrictions on speculative operations in real estate and on the use of hypothecated and discounted paper as security for other transactions, together with the publication of detailed monthly balance sheets, have kept these banks free from unsound methods, and their record thus far (1909) has been conspicuously good.
Mexico adopted the metric system in 1862, and it is used in all official transactions, land measurements, railway calculations and public school work.
See Cerf, "Pierre Cauchon de Sommievre, chanoine de Reims et de Beauvais, eveque de Beauvais et de Lisieux, son origine, ses dignites, sa mort et sa sepulture," in the Transactions of the Academy of Reims (1896-1898).
Occasional articles of value are to be found in the American Naturalist and Science, and in the Transactions and Proceedings of various state and municipal academies of science, societies, &c. (R.
These taxes included in the last periodthat of the Civil Warincome and legacy taxes, taxes on commercial transactions, and taxes on persons and property.
Bradley, Canada in the Twentieth Century (1903); Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada (yearly since 1883); R.
Fleming, The Intercolonial (1876); John Davidson, " Financial Relations of Canada and the Provinces " (Economic Journal, June 1905); Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, passim, for valuable papers by H.
Dionne'S List Of Publications From The Earliest Times In The Transactions Of The Royal Society Of Canada For 1905.
Wheatstone's physical investigations are described in more than thirty-six papers in various scientific journals, the more important being in the Philosophical Transactions, the Proceedings of the Royal Society, the Comptes rendus and the British Association Reports.
of the Transactions of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland.
Robert Maxwell (1695-1765) was the author of Select Transactions of the Society of Improvers and was a great benefactor to Scottish agriculture.
Is 7 Weeks Trinity Sunday 8 Weeks Style) Act 1750 Was Passed For The Adoption Of The New Style In All Public And Legal Transactions.
Desaguliers in the Philosophical Transactions for March and April 1730, No.
Quin's universal hydrometer is described in the Transactions of the Society of Arts, viii.
Thus in Germany the commercial code fixes the legal rate of interest on commercial transactions at 5%.
In France, again, the Code fixes the rate of interest on ordinary loans at 5%, and on commercial transactions at 6%.
His valuable notes on Indian dialects are in The Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (1862), in The American Journal of Science (1862) and in The Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society (1869).
Of the public transactions of this period we have but scant information, but, to judge by what we possess, those twenty-two years were not remarkably eventful.
Owen, furnished that eminent anatomist, in conjunction with other specimens of the same kind received from Drs Lyon and George Bennett, with the materials of the masterly monograph laid before the society in instalments, and ultimately printed in its Transactions (ii.
cit., p. 93; Transactions, vol.
C. Bruce, Roman Wall (3rd ed., 1867); reports of excavations by Haverfield in the Cumberland Archaeological Society Transactions (1894-1904); and R.
In 1769, in a letter to Dr Franklin, he wrote some observations on the expectation of lives, the increase of mankind, and the population of London, which were published in the Philosophical Transactions of that year; in May 1770 he communicated to the Royal Society a paper on the proper method of calculating the values of contingent reversions.
Smith, writing in the Philosophical Transactions for 1683-1684, says of the Turks (p. 439), "They have no genius for Seavoyages, and consequently are very raw and unexperienced in the art of Navigation, scarce venturing to sail out of sight of land.
Litigation in the yarn trade is very unusual, and Lancashire traders generally have only vague notions of the bearing of law upon their transactions, and a wholesome dread of the exp'erience that would lead to better knowledge.
Transactions with distant markets are now done almost entirely by cable, and a remarkable development of the telegraphic code has enabled merchants to pack a good deal into a brief message.
Transactions between spinners and manufacturers are largely effected on Tuesdays and Fridays, the old "market days," when the manufacturing towns are well represented, but a large amount of business is transacted every day.
Some few years ago an attempt was made to mark more clearly the course of business in Manchester, and a scheme was prepared for the recording of daily transactions.
A good many transactions on the Manchester Exchange are intermediate, without fulfilling any useful function, and could be accomplished by the principals if they were brought together.
It is, of course, the verbal bargain that binds, and large transactions are commonly completed without witnesses, though before the contract or memorandum of sale passes the fluctuations of the market may have made the bargain, to one side or the other, a very bad one.
See Bradshaw, Transactions of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society (1866); the prolegomena in Horstmann's edition; Skeat, Brus (S.
Neilson, John Barbour, Poet and Translator (1900) (a reprint from the Transactions of the Philological Society); J.
For the substantial publication of these researches reference must be made to the Transactions of the Royal Society; but an account of many of them was incorporated in his best-known books, namely, the famous Heat as a Mode of Motion (1863; and later editions to 1880), the first popular exposition of the mechanical theory of heat, which in 1862 had not reached the textbooks; The Forms of Water, &c. (1872); Lectures on Light (1873); Floating Matter in the Air (188x); On Sound (1867; revised 1875, 1883, 1893).
Turner's article on the king's minority in Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, New Series, vol.
But apart from the doubtful morality of his transactions he must still be regarded as one of the great Scottish writers.
Sinclair, A Dissertation on the Authenticity of the Poems of Ossian (1806); Transactions of the Ossianic Society (Dublin, 1854-1861); Cours de litterature celtique, by Arbois de Jubainville, editor of the Revue celtique (1883, &c.); A.
The first of his published writings is a paper in the Philosophical Transactions (1723, vol.
in all these transactions, in which other and better men were concerned.
Stevenson (Edinburgh, 1883); Sir James Melville's Memoirs of his own Life (Bannatyne Club, 1827); Richard Bannatyne, Memoriales of Transactions in Scotland (Edinburgh, 1836); William Camden's Annales (Eng.
Of course there are many transactions, generally in the cheaper and coarser kinds of furs, used only in central Europe, Russia and Asia which in no way interest the London market, and there are many direct consignments of skins from collectors in America and Russia to London, New York and Leipzig merchants.
Moreover, he had a pharmaceutical system of his own which did not harmonize with the commercial arrangements of the apothecaries, and he not only did not use up their drugs like the Galenists, but, in the exercise of his functions as town physician, he urged the authorities to keep a sharp eye on the purity of their wares, upon their knowledge of their art, and upon their transactions with their friends the physicians.
Ray Lankester in the Transactions of the Zoological Society of London (xvi.
The mines of Golconda and Kurnool were described as early as 1677 in the twelfth volume of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.
unfortunately, strikingly displayed in the transactions connected with the Spanish marriages, which led to the king's downfall, and ruined him in the eyes of all Europe" (Letters, pop. ed., iii.
In 1850 Homeyer was elected a member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences, in the Transactions of which he published various papers exhibiting profound learning (Ober die Heimat, 1852; Genealogic der Handschriften des Sachsenspiegels, 1859; Die Stadtbiicher des Mittelalters, 1860; Der Dreissigste, 1864, &c.).
Wallis replied shortly in the Philosophical Transactions (August 1666).
Wallis replied in the Transactions, and then finally held his hand.
Parker's researches, which were afterwards printed in the Zoological Transactions (v.
- xli.), and was further substantiated by him in the Philosophical Transactions (1866, pp. 174-178, pl.
He became secretary to the Royal Society in 1693, and edited the Philosophical Transactions for twenty years.
The transactions of all these companies included in 1900 over 4,179,000 persons, and the amount of insurances effected was 80,000,000.
Besides many memoirs in the Transactions of learned societies, he published Acadian Geology: The geological structure, organic remains and mineral resources of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island (1855; ed.
In 1667 Ray was elected a fellow of the Royal Society, and in 1669 he published in conjunction with Willughby his first paper in the Philosophical Transactions on "Experiments concerning the Motion of Sap in Trees."
Besides a large number of archaeological papers in periodicals, in the Annali of the Institute of Rome, and in the Transactions of the Berlin Academy, and several illustrated catalogues of Greek, Roman and other antiquities in the Berlin, Naples and Vatican Museums, Gerhard was the author of the following works: Antike Bildwerke (Stuttgart, 1827-1844); Auserlesene griech.
Milne, Seismology (London, 1898); Transactions of the Seismological Society of Japan, vols.
Slave-dealing and transactions of every kind in slaves were now made illegal.
Properly a "duty" differs from a "tax" in being levied on specific commodities, transactions, estates, &c., and not on individuals; thus it is right to talk of import-duties, excise-duties, deathor succession-duties, &c., but of income-tax as being levied on a person in proportion to his income.
Financial transactions by Jews settled at the southern extremity of Egypt, at Assuan, are found as early as the reign of Artaxerxes.
The society of sciences, that of northern antiquaries, the natural history and the botanical societies, &c., publish their transactions and proceedings, but the Naturhistorisk Tidsskrift, of which 14 volumes with 259 plates were published (1861-1884), and which was in the foremost rank in its department, ceased with the death in 1884 of the editor, the distinguished zoologist, I.
The Philosophical Transactions contain several of his papers.
Atwood's published works, exclusive of papers contributed to the Philosophical Transactions, for one of which he obtained the Copley medal, are as follows: - Analysis of a Course of Lectures on the Principles of Natural Philosophy (Cambridge, 1784); Treatise on the Rectilinear Motion and Rotation of Bodies (Cambridge, 1784), which gives some interesting experiments, by means of which mechanical truths can be ocularly exhibited and demonstrated, and describes the machine, since called by Atwood's name, for verifying experimentally the laws of simple acceleration of motion; Review of the Statutes and Ordinances of Assize which have been established in England from the 4th year of King John, 1202, to the 37th of his present Majesty (London, 1801), a work of some historical research; Dissertation on the Construction and Properties of Arches (London, 1801), with supplement, pt.
Now Hagenbach is known to have committed many cruelties like those attributed to the bailiffs in the legend, and it has been plausibly conjectured that his case has really given rise to these stories, especially when we find that the Confederates had a hand in his capture and execution, that in a document of 1358 Hagenbachs and Gesslers appear side by side as witnesses, and that the Hagenbachs had frequent transactions with the Habsburgs and their vassals.
His article "On Recent Discussions of Grimm's Law" in the Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association for 1873 in large part anticipated Verner's law.
Welstede, but in all probability by himself, was inserted by him in his Oratory Transactions.
When an immigrant moved to Rome from one of the cities of the Latin league, or any city which enjoyed the jus commercii with Rome, and by the exercise of the right of voluntary exile from his own state (jus exulandi), claimed Roman citizenship, it is impossible to suppose that it was necessary for him to make application to a Roman patron to represent him in his legal transactions; for the jus commercii gave its holder the right of suing and being sued in his own person before Roman courts.
On the Arab coast the rupee is legal tender, and is almost exclusively used for commercial transactions, but the Maria Teresa dollar circulates freely, and is preferred by the inhabitants of the interior of Arabia.
Hogg in the Transactions of the Royal Literary Society, may with some probability be assigned to the middle of the 4th century.
It was entitled a Criticism on the Transactions of the Estates of Wurttemberg in 1815-1816.
"The belts that pass from one nation to another in all treaties, declarations and important transactions are very carefully preserved in the chiefs' cabins, and serve not only as a kind of record or history but as a public treasury.
Full explanations do not remove from some important transactions in his political life an impression of indirectness.
Smith, "Early History of Credition," in Devonshire Association for the Advancement of Science, Literature and Art, Transactions, vol.
King, "The Church of St Mary and of the Holy Cross, Credition," in Exeter Diocesan Architectural Society, Transactions, vol.
of Flamsteed's Historia coelestis (1725); Synopsis astronomiae cometicae (Oxford, 1705); Astronomical Tables (London, 1752); also eighty-one miscellaneous papers of considerable interest, scattered through the Philosophical Transactions.
For the part played by Nelson in these transactions see the articles Caracciolo and Nelson.
And even for the history of the " finds " made in the Villa Suburbana the necessity for further studies makes itself felt, since there is a lack of agreement between the accounts given by Alcubierre and Weber and those communicated to the Philosophical Transactions (London, vol.
A proclamation forbidding transactions with a state which might still be capable of maintaining its independence could obviously bind only those subject to the authority of the state issuing it.
In 1728 was published "A Letter from Dr Clarke to Benjamin Hoadly, F.R.S., occasioned by the controversy relating to the Proportion of Velocity and Force in Bodies in Motion," printed in the Philosophical Transactions.
Nearly all commercial transactions in salt with White Russia are effected at Kremenchug.
From the close of the 13th century downwards countless transactions on the basis of leases for terms of years occur between the peasants themselves, any suitably kept set of 14th-century court rolls containing entries in which such and such a villein is said to appear in the halimote and to surrender for the use of another person named a piece of land belonging to the holding.
With the growth of intercourse and security money became more frequent and the number of such transactions increased in proportion.
Savine, " Bondmen under the Tudors," in the Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, xvii.
As instances we may take Goodwin's and O'Brien's papers in the Cambridge Philosophical Transactions for 1849.
C and IC, as k was frequently written, would easily be confusedin writing, and Professor Hempl (Transactions of the American Philological Association for 18 99, pp. 24 ff.) shows that the Chalcidian form of y` - = developed into shapes which might have partaken of the confusion.
The learned societies of Washington are to a large degree more national than local in their character; among them are: the Washington Academy of Sciences (1898), a "federal head" of most of the societies mentioned below; the Anthropological Society (founded 1879; incorporated 1887), which has published Transactions (1879 sqq., with the co-operation of the Smithsonian Institution) and The American Anthropologist (1888-1898; since 1898 published by the American Anthropological Association); the National Geographic Society (1888), which since 1903 has occupied the Hubbard Memorial Building, which sent scientific expeditions to Alaska, Mont Pelee and La Souffriere, and which publishes the National Geographic Magazine (1888 sqq.), National Geographic Monographs (1895) and various special maps; the Philosophical Society of Washington (1871; incorporated 1901), devoted especially to mathematical and physical sciences; the Biological Society (1880), which publishes Proceedings (1880 sqq.); the Botanical Society of Washington (1901); the Geological Society of Washington (1893): the Entomological Society of Washington (1884), which publishes Proceedings (1884 sqq.); the Chemical Society (1884); the Records of the Past Exploration Society (1901), which publishes Records of the Past (1902 sqq.); the Southern History Association (1896), which issues Publications (1897 sqq.); the Society for Philosophical Inquiry (1893), which publishes Memoirs (1893 sqq.); the Society of American Foresters (1900), which publishes Proceedings (1905 sqq.); and the Cosmos Club.
Most of the original papers on this subject of engini balancing are to be found in the Transactions of the Institution 01 Naval Architects.
Carroll, Principles and Practice of Finance, deal with finance in the wider sense of business transactions.
But Bacon did not know the true character of the transactions in which Essex had been.
had in the transactions of the Earl of Glamorgan for bringing over a body of Irish rebels (London, 1756); Historical view of Negotiations between the Courts of England, France and Brussels 1592-1617 (London, 1749); Life of Archbishop Tillotson (London, 1753); Memoirs of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth from 1581 (London, 1754); History of the Royal Society of London (London, 1756-1757); Life of Henry, Prince of Wales (London, 1760), and many other works.
Kirk (Transactions of the New Zealand Institute, vol.
(1802); Euclidis datorum liber (1803); Virgil's Two Seasons of Honey, &c. (1805); and papers in the Philosophical Transactions from 1767 to 1776.
of the Transactions of the Philosophical Society.
Thus the commercial transactions of the United Kingdom with foreign states and British colonies increased more than sevenfold in the course of fifty years.
In the Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society for 1905 may be found a paper, "The Bloomington Convention of 1856 and Those Who Participated in it."
Sclater, "On the Struthious Birds living in the Zoological Society's Menagerie," Transactions, iv.
1VIuir (Edinburgh Transactions, vol.
In consequence of this depreciation of the coinage and the fall in the price of silver, partly also in consequence of exchange transactions by banks, the value of the kran has since 1895 rarely been more than 4.8od., or half what it was in 1874, and fell to less than 4d.
Until then the banking was done by the natiye money-changers (sarrafs) and some merchantsforeign and nativewho occasionally undertook special outside transactions.
For advances with good security a native sarraf charges at least 12% interest per annum; ac the security diminishes in value the rate of interest increases, and transactions at 10% a month, or more than 120% per annum, are not infrequent.
These transactions, though perhaps necessary to save the credit of the sovereign at the least possible cost, infuriated the opposition.
Several papers appeared in the Philosophical Transactions.
In the years 1815-1817 he contributed three papers on the "Calculus of Functions" to the Philosophical Transactions, and in 1816 was made a fellow of the Royal Society.
The five numbers of his Contributions to Electricity and Magnetism (1835-1842) were separately republished from the Transactions.
29th, 1864) and Transactions of the Ethnological Society of London (June 2 ist, 1864).
The transactions on the stock exchange rival those of Montreal.
On the lower Congo transactions are in cash, but on the middle and upper Congo the use of coins in place of barter or the native brass wire currency makes but slow progress.
His first memoir on the subject was published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London.
He made some preliminary use of these expressions in 1817, in a paper on Kepler's Problem (Transactions Berlin Academy, 1816-1817, p. 49), and fully developed them seven years later, for the purposes of a research into planetary perturbations (Ibid.
Although no longer the centre of the banking transactions of the world, the Amsterdam exchange is still of considerable importance in this respect.
One of the chief wants of Ireland in that day, and for many a day afterwards, was that of small currency adapted to the daily transactions of life.
A discussion of this question may be found in a paper on the Araucarieae by Seward and Ford, published in the Transactions of the Royal Society of London (1906).
When of moderate account, however, dues of this sort appear no more objectionable than harbour dues already mentioned, or any other moderate charges on transactions.
The transactions of that revolt chiefly took place in northern India, and are narrated in the article Indian Mutiny.
Blades, and Transactions of the Bedfordshire Natural History and Field Club.
International commercial transactions were based on the American gold dollar, which was usually worth loo pesos of this depreciated currency.
In the interior and in all domestic transactions the old Spanish weights and measures are still used - including the Spanish libra of 1.102 lb avoirdupois, the arroba of 25 libras (122 kilogrammes), the quintal of Too libras (50 kilog.), the carga of 250 libras (125 kilogs.), the vara of 80 centimetres, and the fanega.
The paper was finally entitled " Theory of Systems of Rays," and the first part was printed in 1828 in the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy.
It is understood that the more important contents of the second and third parts appeared in the three voluminous supplements (to the first part) which were published in the same Transactions, and in the two papers " On a General Method in Dynamics," which appeared in the Philosophical Transactions in 1834-1835.
The step from optics i to dynamics in the application of the method of " Varying Action " was made in 1827, and communicated to the Royal Society, in whose Philosophical Transactions for 1834 and 1835 there are two papers on the subject.
(including his earliest publication, "On the Arithmetic of Impossible Quantities," 1779, and an "Account of the Lithological Survey of Schehallion," 1811) and in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh ("On the Causes which affect the Accuracy of Barometrical Measurements," &c.), also the articles "Aepinus" and "Physical Astronomy," and a "Dissertation on the Progress of Mathematical and Physical Science since the Revival of Learning in Europe," in the Encyclopaedia Britannica (Supplement to fourth, fifth and sixth editions).
80 of the Philosophical Transactions.
He subsequently published many papers in the Philosophical Transactions on various parts of the science of optics, and, although some of his views have been found to be erroneous, and are now almost universally rejected, his investigations led to discoveries which are of permanent value.
Upon receiving a copy of this work, Sir Isaac Newton printed, in the Philosophical Transactions for 1725, a paper entitled " Remarks on the observations made on a Chronological Index of Sir Isaac Newton, translated into French by the observator, and published at Paris."
Even in commercial transactions, in dealing with sums of money, the statement of an amount often has reference to the last item added rather than to a total; and geometrical measurements are practically ordinal (§ 26).
Text-books on arithmetic usually contain explanations of the chief commercial transactions in which arithmetical calculations arise; it will be sufficient in the present article to deal with interest and discount, and to give some notes on percentages and rates in the £.
C(okayne)'s Complete Peerage; Jeayes's Descriptive Catalogue of the Charters and Muniments at Berkeley Castle (1892); Dictionary of National Biography; Transactions of Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society, 3 vols., viii., xlv., et passim; The Red Book of the Exchequer, Chronicles of Roger of Wendover, Matthew Paris, Adam of Murimuth, Robert of Gloucester, Henry of Huntingdon, &c. (Rolls Series); British Museum Charters, &c. (0.
Not all the transactions in which Burke was a combatant could furnish an imperial theme.
His speeches are lmost the one monument of the struggle on which a lover of english greatness can look back with pride and a sense of wort ness, such as a churchman feels when he reads Bossuet, or an A glican when he turns over the pages of Taylor or of Hooker.: urke's attitude in these high transactions is really more imp essive than Chatham's, because he was far less theatrical than Ch tham; and while he was no less nobly passionate for freedom and j stice, in his passion was fused the most strenuous political argu entation and sterling reason of state.
His memoirs on the "Foundation of Algebra," in the 7th and 8th volumes of the Cambridge Philosophical Transactions, contain some of the most important contributions which have been made to the philosophy of mathematical method; and Sir W.
In October 1846 he completed the first of his investigations, in the form of a paper printed in the Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society (vol.
of the Cambridge Philosophical Transactions.
He was the author, however, of an Essay on Mineralogical Classification, published in 1828, and contributed various memoirs on the tides to the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society between 1833 and 1850.
His great pleasure was to contrast the hidden motive with the public pretext of transactions."
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