Trajan sentence example
At the time of Strabo and Horace, however, it was the practice to travel by canal from Forum Appii to Lucus Feroniae; to Nerva and Trajan were due the paving of the road and the repair of the bridges along this section.
They might have long been a bulwark between Rome and the wild hordes of the desert but for the shortsighted cupidity of Trajan, who reduced Petra and broke up the Nabataean nationality (105 A.D.).
Trajan found himself obliged in A.D.
Its importance is vouched for by the many remains of antiquity which it possesses, of which the most famous is the triumphal arch erected in honour of Trajan by the senate and people of Rome in A.D.
In 1903 the foundations of this temple were discovered close to the Arch of Trajan, and many fragments of fine sculptures in both the Egyptian and the Greco-Roman style belonging to it were found.Advertisement
Paul began the famous Villa Borghese; enlarged the Quirinal and Vatican; completed the nave, facade and portico of St Peter's; erected the Borghese Chapel in Sta Maria Maggiore; and restored the aqueduct of Augustus and Trajan ("Acqua Paolina").
He now " plunged into the ocean of the Augustan history," and " with pen almost always in hand," pored over all the original records, Greek and Latin, between Trajan and the last of the Western Caesars.
Trajan built an aqueduct which can still be traced.
Under Nerva and Trajan the road was repaired; one inscription records expressly the paving with silex (replacing the former gravelling) of the section from Tripontium, 4 m.
The method had been sketched out by Nerva, but its great development was due to Trajan.Advertisement
Until Trajan formed the port of Centumcellae (Civitavecchia) Ostia was the best harbour along the low sandy coast of central Italy between Monte Argentario and Monte Circeo.
The colony of Serdica, founded here by the emperor Trajan, became a Roman provincial town of considerable importance in the 3rd and 4th centuries A.D., and was a favourite residence of Constantine the Great.
Trajan, however, built an aqueduct nearly 20 miles long, which was restored by Theodoric in 503.
Towards the end of Trajan's reign (114-117) the Jews of Egypt and Cyrene rose against their Greek neighbours and set up a king.
The massacres they perpetrated were avenged in kind and all the insurrections were quelled when Hadrian succeeded Trajan.Advertisement
At the root of the work lies a theory, whencesoever derived, which identified the Goths with the Scythians, whose country Darius Hystaspes invaded, and with the Getae of Dacia, whom Trajan conquered.
The Romans left traces of their rule in the Wall of Trajan, which stretches through the modern districts of Kamenets, Ushitsa and Proskurov.
The Phocian League is last heard of under Trajan.
On his father's death in 85 or 86 he was placed under the guardianship of two fellowcountrymen, his kinsman Ulpius Trajanus (afterwards the emperor Trajan), and Caelius Attianus (afterwards prefect of the praetorian guard).
He was soon, however, recalled to Rome by Trajan, and appointed to the offices of decemvir stlitibus judicandis, praefectus feriarum Latinarum, and sevir turmae equitum Romanorum.Advertisement
Trajan, who had been set against Hadrian by reports of his extravagance, soon took him into favour again, chiefly owing to the goodwill of the empress Plotina, who brought about the marriage of Hadrian with (Vibia) Sabina, Trajan's great-niece.
He served with distinction in both Dacian campaigns; in the second Trajan presented him with a valuable ring which he himself had received from Nerva, a token of regard which seemed to designate Hadrian as his successor.
When Trajan, owing to a severe illness, decided to return home from the East, he left Hadrian in command of the army and governor of Syria.
On the 9th of August 117, Hadrian, at Antioch, was informed of his adoption by Trajan, and, on the iith, of the death of the latter at Selinus in Cilicia.
Hadrian's first important act was to abandon as untenable the conquests of Trajan beyond the Euphrates (Assyria, Mesopotamia and Armenia), a recurrence to the traditional policy of Augustus.Advertisement
Large sums of money and games and shows were provided for the people, and, in addition, all the arrears of taxation for the last fifteen years (about £10,000,000) were cancelled and the bonds burnt in the Forum of Trajan.
Dio Chrysostom, the adviser of Trajan, is the first Greek writer who has pronounced the principle of slavery to be contrary to the law of nature " (Mark Pattison).
After careful examination of the nine Acillii, who were consuls, De Rossi concludes that this was the resting-place of that Acilius Glabrio, consul with Trajan, A.D.
The body-guard of Augustus, consisting of foreign soldiers (chiefly Germans and Batavians), abolished by Galba, was revived from the time of Trajan or Hadrian under the above title.
Among such documents connected with the early history of Edessa we have, besides the Doctrine of Addai, certain martyrdoms, those of Sharbel and Barsamya assigned to the reign of Trajan, and those of Gurya and Shamona and of the Deacon Habbibh under Diocletian and Licinius.Advertisement
Trajan as represented on the Arch of Constantine, Roman Art, Plate III., fig.
In the and century a much greater name appears among the methodists, that of Soranus of Ephesus, a physician mentioned with praise even by Tertullian and Augustine, who practised at Rome in the reigns of Trajan and Hadrian.
The bridge by which it crossed the Sillaro was restored by Trajan ill A.D.
Notwithstanding these inventions of the Alexandrian school, its attention does not seem to have been directed to the motion of fluids; and the first attempt to investigate this subject was made by Sextus Julius Frontinus, inspector of the public fountains at Rome in the reigns of Nerva and Trajan.
Gamaliel died before the insurrections under Trajan had brought fresh unrest into Palestine.Advertisement
He died at Rome in the third year of Trajan, A.D.
But it was under Nerva and Trajan that the greatest and most truly representative works of the empire were written.
With the death of Juvenal, the most important part of whose activity falls in the reign of Trajan, Latin literature as an original and national expression of the experience, character, and sentiment of the Roman state and empire, and as one of the great literatures of the world, may be considered closed.
Accordingly, about 111, he was selected by Trajan as governor of Bithynia, under the special title of "legate propraetor with consular power."
I, 4), the modern Citta di Castello, he set up a temple at his own expense and adorned it with statues of Nerva and Trajan (x.Advertisement
Besides the Panegyric, we possess the nine books of Pliny's Letters, and a separate book containing his Correspondence with Trajan.
Pliny's Correspondence with Trajan supplies us with many interesting details as to the government of Bithynia, and as to the relations between the governor and the central authority.
The emperor is afraid that the fire-brigade might become a "political club," and cautiously contents himself with approving the provision of a fire-engine (34) Trajan's fear of factions and clubs in these two last cases has sometimes been connected with the question of his attitude towards the Christians in Bithynia.
Trajan in his reply (Epp. 97) expresses approval of Pliny's course of action in the case of the Christians brought before him.
Hardy that the "double aspect of Trajan's rescript, which, while it theoretically condemned the Christians, practically gave them a certain security," explains "the different views which have since been taken of it; but by most of the church writers, and perhaps on the whole with justice, it has been regarded as favourable and as rather discouraging persecution than legalizing it" (Pliny's Correspondence with Trajan, 63, 210-217).Advertisement
These two grandsons of Judas thereafter " lived until the time of Trajan," ruling the churches " because they had (thus) been witnesses (martyrs) and were also relatives of the Lord."
But in that case we must either reject the testimony of the same Hegesippus that up to their death, and that of Symeon son of Clopas, successor in the Jerusalem see of James the Lord's brother, " who suffered martyrdom at the age of one hundred and twenty years while Trajan was emperor and Atticus governor," " the church (universal) had remained a pure and uncorrupted virgin " free from " the folly of heretical teachers "; or else we must reject the superscription, which presents the grandfather in vehement conflict with the very heresies in question.
But even if we date the rise of heresies in the reign of Domitian instead of Trajan, 2 the attributing of this epistle against 2 O n this point (date of the outbreak of heresy) there is some inconsistency in the reported fragments of Hegesippus.
Its harbour was of considerable importance in imperial times, as the nearest to Dalmatia, 2 and was enlarged by Trajan, who constructed the north quay, his architect being Apollodorus of Damascus.
The younger Trajan was rigorously trained by him, and imbued with the same principles and tastes.Advertisement
Trajan was ordered in hot haste from Further Spain to the Rhine.
When the revolution of 96 came, and Nerva replaced the murdered Domitian, one of the most important posts in the empire, that of consular legate of Upper Germany, was conferred upon Trajan.
Licinius Sura, a lifelong friend of Trajan, and on the 27th of October in the year 97 he ascended the Capitol and proclaimed that he adopted Trajan as his son.
After a little hesitation Trajan accepted the position, which was marked by the titles of imperator, Caesar and Germanicus, and by the tribunician authority.
By politic management Trajan was able to represent the diminution as a sort of discount for immediate payment, while the civilians had to wait a considerable time before their full due was handed to them.
The secret of Trajan's power lay in his close personal relations with the officers and men of the army and in the soldierly qualities which commanded their esteem.
Trajan emphasized at once his personal control and the constitutionality of his sway by bearing on his campaigns the actual title of "proconsul," which no other emperor had done.
Pliny rightly praises Trajan as the lawgiver and the founder of discipline, and Vegetius classes Augustus, Trajan and Hadrian together as restorers of the morale of the army.
The confidence which existed between Trajan and his army finds expression in some of the coins of his reign.
For nearly two years after his election Trajan did not appear in Rome.
The extension of this great barrier southwards to the point at which it met the limes Raetiae was undertaken by Trajan, though we cannot say how far he carried the work, which was not entirely completed till long after his time.
Among a people of roadmakers, Trajan was one of the greatest, and we have definite evidence from inscriptions that some of the military roads in this region were constructed by him.
After his careful survey of the Rhine end of the frontier defences, Trajan proceeded to strengthen them in the direction of the Danube.
It was impossible for a soldier like Trajan to endure the conditions accepted by Domitian; but the conquest of Dacia had become one of the most formidable tasks that had ever confronted the empire.
Trajan no doubt planned a war before he left the Danube for Rome late in 99.
Trajan was absolutely open and simple, and lived with men at Rome as he had lived with his soldiers while on service.
Trajan seized every opportunity for emphasizing his view that the princeps was merely the greatest of the magistrates, and so was not above but under the laws.
Trajan associated with the senators on equal terms, and enjoyed in their company every kind of recreation.
Though not literary himself, Trajan conciliated the literary men, who at all times had close relations with the senate.
The hold which Trajan acquired over the people was no less firm than that which he maintained upon the army and the senate.
But the most striking evidence of Trajan's solicitude for his people's welfare is found in his institution of the alimenta, whereby means were provided for the rearing of poor and orphan children in Italy.
As a soldier, Trajan realized the need of men for the maintenance of the empire against the outer barbarians, and he preferred that these men should be of Italian birth.
The actual effect of Trajan's regulations is hard to measure; they were probably more effectual for their object than those of Augustus.
On the 1st of September in the year zoo, when Trajan was consul for the third time, Pliny, who had been designated consul for a part of the year, was appointed to deliver the "Panegyric" which has come down to us, and forms a most important source of our knowledge concerning this emperor.
The tone of the "Panegyric" certainly lends itself to the supposition of some historians that Trajan was inordinately vain.
On the 25th of March in the year ioi Trajan left Rome for the Danube.
Trajan came back to Italy with Dacian envoys, who in ancient style begged the senate to confirm the conditions granted by the commander in the field.
But the Dacian chief could not school his high spirit to endure the conditions of the treaty, and Trajan soon found it necessary to prepare for another war.
A massive stone bridge was built across the Danube, near the modern Turn Severin, by Apollodorus, the gifted architect who afterwards designed the forum of Trajan.
The work done by Trajan in the Danubian regions left a lasting mark upon their history.
The grand and enduring monument of the Dacian wars is the noble pillar which still stands on the site of Trajan's forum at Rome.
During part of that time Pliny was imperial legate in the provinces of Bithynia and Pontus, and in constant communication with Trajan.
Trajan's notions of civil government were, like those of the duke of Wellington, strongly tinged with military prepossessions.
In advising Pliny about the different free communities in the provinces, Trajan showed the same regard for traditional rights and privileges which he had exhibited in face of the senate at Rome.
On this account the reign of Trajan constitutes a turning-point in civil as in military history.
Trajan never lacked money to expend on great works of public utility; as a builder, he may fairly be compared with Augustus.
Hence the conflict which made Trajan appear in the eyes of Christians like Tertullian the most infamous of monsters.
On the whole, Trajan's civil administration was sound, careful and sensible, rather than brilliant.
Late in 113 Trajan left Italy to make war in the East.
Trajan's campaigns in the East ended in complete though brilliant failure.
Trajan, who narrowly escaped being killed, was forced to withdraw.
Trajan still thought of returning to Mesopotamia and of avenging his defeat at Hatra, but he was stricken with sickness and compelled to take ship for Italy.
Trajan, who had no children, had continually delayed to settle the succession to the throne, though Pliny in the "Panegyric" had pointedly drawn his attention to the matter, and it must have caused the senate much anxiety.
Whether Hadrian, the relative of Trajan (cousin's son), was actually adopted by him or not is impossible to determine; certainly Hadrian had not been advanced to any great honours by Trajan.
The senate had decreed to Trajan as many triumphs as he chose to celebrate.
When Trajan was deified, he appropriately retained, alone among the emperors, a title he had won for himself in the field, that of "Parthicus."
Each succeeding emperor was saluted with the wish that he might be "better than Trajan and more fortunate than Augustus."
Yet the breach made in Trajan's felicitas by the failure in the East was no greater than that made in the felicitas of Augustus by his retirement from the right bank of the Rhine.
The question whether Trajan's Oriental policy was wise is answered emphatically by Mommsen in the affirmative.
The records of Trajan's reign are miserably deficient.
A small Roman temple, dedicated to Trajan and other deified emperors, stood on the left bank, adjoining the bridge.
Heliopolis was made a colonia probably by Octavian (coins of 1 st century A.D.), and there must have been a Baal temple there in which Trajan consulted the oracle.
Near Turnu Severin are the remains of the celebrated Trajan's bridge, the largest in the Roman Empire, built in A.D.
The earliest distinct evidence of the organization of Churches under a single head is found in the Epistles of Ignatius of Antioch, which date from the latter part of the reign of Trajan (c. 116).
This was the state of things in the time of Trajan, when the younger Pliny was appointed governor of the combined provinces (103-105 A.D.), a circumstance to which we are indebted for valuable information concerning the Roman provincial administration.
Pliny's Panegyric was discovered by Aurispa at Mainz (1433), and his correspondence with Trajan by Fra Giocondo in Paris about 150o.
As to his death, we know only that he was not living in the reign of Trajan.
It lies at the seaward end of the Great Wall of Trajan, and has evidently been surrounded by fortifications of its own.
A great revolt of the Jewish settlers in the time of Trajan settled the fate of Cyrene and Barca; the former is mentioned by Ammianus Marcellinus in the 4th century A.D.
The columns of Trajan and Antoninus were restored and bedecked with gilded statues of the Apostles; nor was this the only case in which the high-minded pope made the monuments of antiquity subservient to Christian ideas.
For example, under Trajan Mesopotamia reached the gulf and was bounded by Assyria and Armenia.
Of the half-century that preceded Trajan's great oriental undertaking not much is known.
When in 115 Trajan entered Mesopotamia from the north no serious resistance was offered, and it became a province as far as Singara.
For the revolt that occurred while Trajan was on the Persian Gulf, in which the Jews had an important hand, Nisibis and Edessa suffered capture and destruction.
The emperors Claudius, Nerva and Trajan turned their attention to the district, and under their example and exhortation the Roman aristocracy erected numerous villas within its boundaries, and used them at least for summer residences.
It is the ancient Centum Cellae, founded by Trajan.
Both Vitellius and Trajan were at Cologne when they became emperors.
The beautiful little riverside temple, called the kiosk, was built by Augustus and inscribed by Trajan; and the latest building was the arch of Diocletian.
Under Vespasian the Jewish temple at Leontopolis in the Delta, which Onias had founded in the reign of Ptolemy Philometor, was closed; worse still, a great Jewish revolt and massacre of the Greeks in the reign of Trajan resulted, after a stubborn conflict of many months with the Roman army under Marcius Livianus Turbo, in the virtual extermination of the Jews in Alexandria and the loss of all their privileges.
Agrippa and Tiberius enlarged the theatre, and Trajan finished their work.
Another followed in the next reign; and in 115, during Trajan's sojourn in the place with his army of Parthia, the whole site was convulsed, the landscape altered, and the emperor himself forced to take shelter in the circus for several days.
The bronze column with winding reliefs now at Hildesheim was the result of his study of Trajan's column, and the bronze door which he made for his own cathedral shows classical influence, especially in the composition of the drapery of the figures in the panels.
According to some authorities he lived into the time of Hadrian; he himself mentions the coinage of the emperor Trajan.
Athanaric next attempted to establish himself in the territory between the Pruth and the Danube, and with this object set about heightening the old Roman wall which Trajan had erected in north-eastern Dacia; before his fortifications, however, were complete, the Huns were again upon him, and without a battle he was forced to retreat to the Danube.
The first historical notice of the plague is contained in a fragment of the physician Rufus of Ephesus, who lived in the time of Trajan, preserved in the Collections of Oribasius.
Among these are the supposed traces of 2nd-century Gnosticism and " hierarchical " ideas of organization; but especially the argument from the relation of the Roman state to the Christians, which Ramsay has reversed and turned into proof of an origin prior to Pliny's correspondence with Trajan on the subject.
Under the constraining power of the Roman Empire the older city states were reduced to the position of municipalities, and their financial administration became dependent on the control of the Emperor - as is abundantly illustrated in the correspondence of Pliny and Trajan.
To put an end to this disgraceful arrangement, Trajan resolved to crush the Dacians once and for all.
The history of the war is given in Dio Cassius, but the best commentary upon it is the famous column of Trajan.
Forts were built as a protection against the incursions of the surrounding barbarians, and three great military roads were constructed to unite the chief towns, while a fourth, named after Trajan, traversed the Carpathians and entered Transylvania by the Roteturm pass.
Obviously the empire can never have been at peace during these years, a fact which materially assisted the aggressive campaigns Wars with of Trajan (1I31I7).
Trajan resuscitated the Traian and old project of Crassus and Caesar, by which the P4arcus empire of Alexander as far as India was to be won Aure IUS.
This encroachment on the Roman sphere led to the Parthian war of Trajan.
In 114 Parthamasiris surrendered to Trajan and was killed.
Against them Trajan united with Parthamaspates, whom he placed on the throne, when he had advanced to Ctesiphon (116).
The abuse naturally reappeared under a man like Domitian; the delators, with whom Vespasian had not interfered, although he had abolished trials for majestas, were again banished by Trajan, and threatened with capital punishment in an edict of Constantine; but, as has been said, the evil, which was an almost necessary accompaniment of autocracy, lasted till the end of the 4th century.
Thus the manners and personages of the age of Domitian often supply the material of satiric representation, and are spoken of as if they belonged to the actual life of the present,' while allusions even in the earliest show that, as a finished literary composition, it belongs to the age of Trajan.
The publication of this book belongs to the early years of Trajan.
The time at which this satire was composed cannot be fixed with certainty, but some allusions render it highly probable that it was given to the world in the later years of Trajan, and before the accession of Hadrian.
In the eighth satire another reference is made (120) to the misgovernment of Marius in Africa as a recent event, and at line 51 there may be an allusion to the Eastern wars that occupied the last years of Trajan's reign.
It is true also that he shares in the traditional idolatry of Brutus, that he strikes at Augustus in his mention of the "three disciples of Sulla," and that he has no word of recognition for what even Tacitus acknowledges as the beneficent rule of Trajan.
In the interval are the Zeus altar; the great hexastyle Doric temple of Athena flanked by the palace on the east, by the theatre and its long terrace on the west, and by a library on the north; and a large Corinthian temple of Trajan.
The revolt of the Jews under Trajan, and earthquakes in the time of Constantius and Constantine the Great helped in turn to destroy it.
In the 2nd century it was occupied by the Getae, a Thracian tribe, whom the Roman emperor Trajan conquered in 106; he then incorporated the region in the province of Dacia.
Trajan repaired the road, and Theodoric did the same some four hundred years later.
Among the mountains, gold was perhaps worked under Trajan, who first appointed a Procurator Metallorurn, or overseer of mines, for Dacia; certainly in the 14th century, when immigrant Saxon miners established a considerable trade with Ragusa, in Dalmatia.
Two ramparts, known as Trajan's wall, can be discerned, one on either side of the railway from Cernavoda to Constantza; and there were bridges over the Danube at Turnu Severin and Turnu Magurele.
Not only had Michael succeeded in rolling back for a time the tide of Turkish conquest, but for the first and last time in modern history he united what once had been Trajan's Dacia, in its widest extent, and with it the whole Ruman race north of the Danube, under a single sceptre.
In both the tendency is the same - to trace the modern Rumanians directly from the ancient Romans, and to prove their continuity in these countries from the time of Trajan to this day.
The strategic importance of this territory was recognized by the Romans, who defended it on the south by "Trajan's Wall," a double rampart, drawn from Constantza, on the Black Sea, to the Danube.
Trajan deposed the dynasty, but Hadrian restored it.
The most beautiful of all the buildings is an unfinished kiosque inscribed by Trajan, well known under the name of "Pharaoh's Bed."
Traces of Trajan's wall still exist between that point and Wiesbaden, while another line of forti fications bearing the same emperor's name are found in the Dobrudja between Cernavoda (on the lower Danube) and Constantza.
At intervening points are still found many notable Roman remains, such as Trajan's road, a marvellous work on the right bank of the river in the rocky Kazan defile (separating the Balkans on the south from the Carpathians on the north), where a contemporary commemorative tablet is still conspicuously visible.
Of statesmen the Peninsula was less prolific. The emperor Trajan, indeed, and his relative and successor Hadrian, were born in Spain, but they were both of Roman stock and Roman training.
Hunyadi, at the head of the vanguard, crossed the Balkans through the Gate of Trajan, captured Nish, defeated three Turkish pashas, and, after taking Sofia, united with the royal army and defeated Murad II.
In 150, under Trajan, Damascus became a Roman provincial city.
Hadrian, however, abandoning Trajan's forward policy in favour of a Euphrates boundary, restored it as a dependency of Rome.
After joining the army, he was appointed a military tribune in upper Eastern Europe where he stayed until Trajan became emperor.
And its use has been traced through the Egyptians to the Greeks and Romans, representations of Trajan (arch of Constantine) and Antoninus Pius (reverse of a medal) being found with it.
These hetairiae or clubs were forbidden (except in cities formally allied to Rome) by Trajan and other emperors, as being likely to be centres of disaffection; and on this ground Pliny forbade the agape of the Bithynian churches, Christianity not being a lawful religion licensed for such gatherings.
This criticism is based on a perverse misreading of the historian's observations on the age of Trajan, Hadrian and the Antonines.
In 97 he was sent to upper Germany to convey the congratulations of the army to Trajan on his adoption by Nerva; and, in January of the following year, he hastened to announce the death of Nerva to Trajan at Cologne.
Trajan's first care as emperor was to write to the senate an assurance like that which had been given by Nerva, that he would neither kill nor degrade any senator.
In his efforts to win the affections of Roman society Trajan was aided by his wife Plotina, who was as simple as her husband, benevolent, pure in character, and entirely unambitious.
Pliny's eulogy of Trajan and his denunciation of Domitian are alike couched in extravagant phrases, but the former perhaps rests more uniformly on a basis of truth and justice than the latter.
In 106, the Roman Emperor Trajan celebrated his defeat over the Dacians by ordering 123 consecutive days of gladiatorial games in the Roman Coliseum.
Perhaps the oldest remains are some of the piers -and buttresses of the bridge over the Moselle, which may date from about 28 B.C. The well-preserved amphitheatre just outside the modern town to the south-east was probably built in the reign of Trajan or Hadrian.
The rebellion spread to Cyprus; and when Trajan advanced from Mesopotamia into Parthia the Jews of Mesopotamia revolted.