He trains the warriors and fights the wars.
The trains are few and the speed on all these lines is moderate, but the gradients are often very heavy.
On one or more of the carriages of the trains were placed also insulated metallic sheets, which were in connexion through a telephone and the secondary circuit of an induction coil with the earth or rails.
From falling off trains, engines, &c., in motion io.
At the foot of the mountain there was a railroad, and the children watched the trains whiz by.
Allusion is made below to recent work on the production of undamped trains of electric waves.
Trains coming in contact with projections from other trains or vehicles on parallel lines 7.
France, with a greatly inferior population, now trains every man who is physically capable.
Large quantities of fruits - apples, pears, quinces, peaches, nectarines, apricots, grapes and melons - were exported by special trains to central Europe, where the Turkestan crop was received a short time before the south European supplies ripened.
Hence according as the trains of oscillations are long or short so is the sound heard in the telephone, and these sounds can be arranged on the Morse code into alphabetic audible signals.
Collisions between passenger trains or parts of passenger trains.
Trains running through gates at levelcrossings or into other obstacles 10.
From here the caravans start for Persia, and at certain periods of the year long trains of camels may be seen, and Persian merchants conspicuous by their high black caps and long robes.
In the Hughes instrument two trains of clockwork mechanism, one at each end of the line, are kept moving, at the same speed.
of Burnoi, but the line was 2 (h+D)2 not laid and no trains ran in 1921 beyond Burnoi.
Smith, worked out a system of communicating between railway stations and moving trains.
These trains are produced by pressing the key in the primary circuit of the induction coil for a longer or shorter time' and generating a long or short series of oscillatory electric sparks between the spark balls with a corresponding creation of trains of electric waves.
If, however, the antenna is inductively or directly coupled to a condenser circuit of large capacity then the amount of energy which can be stored up before discharge takes place is very much greater, and hence can be drawn upon to create prolonged or slightly damped trains of waves.
It was found that to achieve this result the transmitter must be so constructed as to send out prolonged trains of slightly damped waves.
When oscillations are excited in this last circuit they communicate them to the antenna provided this last circuit is tuned or syntonized to the closed circuit, and the radiating antenna has thus a large store of energy to draw upon and can therefore radiate prolonged trains of electric waves.
Lodge was, however, fully aware that it was necessary for syntonic telegraphy to provide a radiator capable of emitting sustained trains of waves.
wave trains; but, although other patentees have suggested the same plan, the author is not aware that any success has attended its use in practice.
Very briefly stated, his method consists in sending out a group of wave trains at certain irregular but assigned intervals of time to constitute the simplest signal equivalent to a dot in the Morse code, and a sequence of such trains, say three following one another, to constitute the dash on the Morse code.
In this way he was able to produce an apparatus which created continuous trains of oscillations suitable for the purposes of wireless telegraphy.
The fares (in slow trains, with the addition of 10 ~/ for expenses) are: 1st class, I ~85d.; 2nd, I3d.; 3rd, o725d.
(For the Sicilian and Sardinian lines, see SICILY and SARDINIA.) The speed of the trains is not high, nor are the runs without stoppage long as a rule.
At the Union Station more than 150 trains enter and depart daily, carrying more than 30,000 passengers.
The only outlet for the state has been by means of mule trains to the railway termini of Sao Paulo and Minas Geraes, pending the extension of railways from both of those states, one entering Goyaz by way of Catalao, near the southern boundary, and the other at some point further N.
In general, the British working unit supplied as public information has always been the goods-train-mile and the passengertrain-mile, these figures being the products of the number of trains into the number of miles they have travelled.
Independent carriers cannot run trains over the same line and underbid one another in offering transportation services.
The above-named acts enable the Board of Trade to take all the necessary steps to ensure that the safety of passenger trains is sufficiently guarded.
Such modifications of the hours of work have not only been beneficial to the men, but have improved the discipline of the staff and the punctuality and regularity of the train service, particularly in respect of the goods trains.
In cases where statutes did touch the question of regulation, they had to do with the operation of trains and with the provision of facilities for shippers and passengers, rather than with questions of rates.
D.*) Accident Statistics Statistics of railway accidents may be divided into three classes: casualties (a) to passengers, (b) to servants or employ& and (c) to other persons; and again into (t) train accidents, (2) accidents to persons doing work on or about trains and (3) other accidents.
Accidents to passengers other than those caused by collisions or derailments of trains are very largely due to causes which it is fair to class either as unavoidable or as due mainly to the fault or carelessness of the victim himself.
The duty of a railway with deficient plant or facilities would seem to be to make up for their absence by moderating the speeds of its trains, but public sentiment in America appears so far to have approved, at least tacitly, the combination of imperfect railways and high speeds.
Apart from collisions and derailments, a large proportion of all accidents is found to be due primarily to want of care on the part of the victims. Accidents to workmen in marshalling, shunting, distributing and running trains, engines and cars, may be taken as the most important class, after train accidents, because this work is necessary and important and yet involves considerable hazard.
In the year ending June 30, 1909, exclusive of casualties due to collisions, derailments and other accidents to trains, the number killed was 811 and of injured 28,156 (Accident Bulletin, No.
The use of automatic couplers for freight cars throughout the United States, introduced in 1893-1900, greatly reduced the number of deaths and injuries in coupling, and the use of air brakes on freight cars, now universal, has reduced the risk to the men by making it less necessary for them to ride on the roofs of high box-cars, while at the same time it has made it possible to run long trains with fewer men; but except in these two features the freight service in America continues to be a dangerous occupation.
Workmen are killed and injured in this way, both while on duty and when going to and from their work; passengers, with or without right, go in front of trains at stations and at highway crossings at grade level; and trespassers are killed and injured in large numbers on railways everywhere, at and near stations, at crossings, and out on the open road, where they have no shadow of right.
Other accidents in or around trains, &c. 102 2,242 102 2,132 3.
aggregate 6 killed and 454 injured; the six deaths were due to collisions, while of the cases of injury 372 occurred by collisions, 47 by derailments, and 35 by other accidents to trains.
21 53 (b) When alighting from trains.
From falling on to the platform, ballast, &c.: - (a) When entering trains.
From falling off platforms and being struck or run over by trains .
From falling out of carriages during the running of trains .
When getting on or off engines, vans, &c., during the running of trains.
23 95 17 From falling, or being caught between trains and platforms, walls, &c..
From falling between trains and platforms 5 43 5 53 52 100331908.1907.
From being struck by articles thrown from passing trains 12.
50 19,041 (A) Accidents to trains: I.
Collisions between passenger trains and goods or mineral trains or light-engines .
Collisions between goods trains or parts of goods trains and light-engines .
Collisions between trains and vehicles standing foul of the line .
Collisions between trains and buffer-stops or vehicles standing against bufferstops: (a) From trains running into stations or sidings at too high a speed.
Passenger trains or parts of passenger trains leaving the rails 8.
Goods trains or parts of goods trains, lightengines, &c., leaving the rails 9.
Fires in trains.
Struck by trains at highway cross ings..
5 86 3 5 265 836 4,018 5 2,899 94 7 686 I 5 1,981142,753 55 15,701 2 975 8 304 2 1,495 2 404 II I 1, 0 9 71 6 Table Xiii.-Nature Of Accidents To Trains, Vehicles And Permanent-Way 1908.1907.
the item " passengers killed " includes those on some electric railways, which presumably are not covered in the statement here given; also passengers in freight trains, &c. Under `' employees " this table includes men in shops, &c., not shown in Table XIV.
The number of passengers (36) killed in train accidents in 1907 was equal to o 0759 per million passengers carried and o o024 per million kilometres travelled by passengers, or 0.1503 per million kilometres travelled by trains.
If, however, cost within reasonable limits is a secondary consideration and the intention is to build a line adapted for express trains and for the carriage of the largest volume of traffic with speed and economy, he will lean towards the second.
As embankments have to support the weight of heavy trains, they must be uniformly firm and well drained, and before the line is fully opened for traffic they must be allowed time to consolidate, a process which is helped by running construction or mineral trains over them.
Sometimes, however, a sharp incline occurring on an otherwise easy line is not reckoned as the ruling gradient, trains heavier than could be drawn up it by a single engine being helped by an assistant or " bank " engine; sometimes also " momentum " or " velocity " grades, steeper than the ruling gradient, are permitted for short distances in cases where a train can approach at full speed and thus surmount them by the aid of its momentum.
It was not till more than half a century later that an American, Sylvester Marsh, employed the rack system for the purpose of enabling trains to surmount steep slopes on the Mount Washington railway, where the maximum gradient was nearly 1 in 22.
The gauge may be regarded as reduced to its narrowest possible dimensions in mono-rail lines, where the weight of the trains is carried on a single rail.
The ballast consists of such materials as broken stone, furnace slag, gravel, cinders or earth, the lower layers commonly consisting of coarser materials than the top ones, and its purpose is to provide a firm, well-drained foundation in which the sleepers or crossties may be embedded and held in place, and by which the weight of the track and the trains may be distributed over the road-bed.
To enable trains to be transferred from one pair of rails to another pair, as from the main line to a siding, " points " or " switches " are provided.
In Great Britain the Board of Trade requires facing points to be avoided as far as possible; but, of course, they are a necessity at junctions where running lines diverge and at the crossing places which must be provided to enable trains to pass each other on single-track lines.
At stations the points that give access to sidings are generally arranged as trailing points with respect to the direction of traffic on the main lines; that is, trains cannot pass direct into sidings, but have to stop and then run backwards into them.
At both types of crossing, check rails (c) must be provided to guide the wheel-flanges, and if these are not accurately placed the safety of the trains will be endangered.
At double-line junctions trains passing over the diamond crossings evidently block traffic going in the opposite direction to that in which they are travelling.
In order to keep down the expense of shunting the empty trains and engines to and from the platforms the carriage and locomotive depots should be as near the passenger station as possible; but often the price of land renders it impracticable to locate them in the immediate vicinity and they are to be found at a distance of several miles.
Occasionally on a double-track railway one platform placed between the tracks serves both of them; this " island " arrangement, as it is termed, has the advantage that more tracks can be readily added without disturbance of existing buildings, but when it is adopted the exit from the trains is at the opposite side to that which is usual, and accidents have happened through passengers alighting at the usual side without noticing the absence of a platform.
At stations on double-track railways which have a heavy traffic four tracks are sometimes provided, the two outside ones only having platforms, so that fast trains get a clear road and can pass slow ones that are standing in the station.
In Great Britain, it may be noted, trains almost invariably keep to the left, whereas in most other countries right-handed running is the rule.
At terminal stations, especially at such as are used by short-distance trains which arrive at and start from the same platform, a third track is often laid between a pair of platform tracks, so that the engine of a train which has arrived at the platform can pass out and place itself at the other end of the train, which remains undisturbed.
At the new Victoria station (London) of the London, Brighton & South Coast railway - which is so long that two trains can stand end to end at the platforms - this system is extended so as to permit a train to start out from the inner end of a platform even though another train is occupying the outer end.
One of the advantages of electric trains on the multiple control system is that they economize terminal accommodation, because they can be driven from either end indifferently, and therefore avoid the necessity for tracks by which engines can change from one end of the train to the other.
At busy stations separate tracks are sometimes appropriated to the use of light engines and empty trains, on which they may be run between the platforms and the locomotive and Loco- carriage depots.
ing and cleaning them, and sidings on which they are marshalled into trains.
Though a busy colliery may send off its product by the train-load to an important town, the wagons will usually be addressed to a number of different consignees at different depots in different parts of the town, and therefore the train will have to be broken up somewhere short of its destination and its trucks rearranged, together with those of other trains similarly constituted, into fresh trains for conveyance to the various depots.
A station of moderate size may collect goods destined for a great variety of places but not in sufficient quantities to compose a full train-load for any of them, and then it becomes impossible to avoid despatching trains which contain wagons intended for many diverse destinations.
At this point trains of wagons similarly destined for different places will be arriving from other lines, and hence the necessity will arise of collecting together from all the trains all the wagons which are travelling to the same place.
A train from a will contain some wagons for B,, some for C and some for D, as will also the trains from a, b, c and d.
Between A and B, A and C, and A and D, there may be a string of stations, p, q, r, s, &c., all receiving goods from a, b, c and d, and it would manifestly be inconvenient and wasteful of time and trouble if the trains serving those intermediate stations were made up with, say, six wagons from a to p next the engine, five from b to p at the middle, and four from c to p near the end.
Hence at A the trucks from a, b, c and d must not only be sorted according as they have to travel along A B, A C, or A D, but also must be marshalled into trains in the order of the stations along those lines.
Conversely, trains arriving at A from B, C and D must be broken up. and remade in order to distribute their wagons to the different, dock branches.
The same operation is repeated with fresh batches of wagons, until the sidings contain a number of trains, each intended, it may be supposed, for a particular town or district.
Push-and-pull shunting is simple, but it is also slow, and therefore efforts have been made at busy yards where great numbers of trains are dealt with to introduce more expeditious methods.
Alongside the tracks on which stand the trains that are to be broken up and from which the sidings diverge subsidiary tracks are provided for the use of the shunting engines.
16, which shows in a diagrammatic form a wheel and axle connected to the framework of a vehicle, in the way adopted for railway trains.
Aspinall on the Lancashire & Yorkshire railway to ascertain the resistance of trains of bogie passenger carriages of different lengths at varying speeds, and the results are recorded in a paper, " Train Resistance," Proc. Inst.
17, four values of L being taken for formula (12) corresponding to trains of 5, 10, 15 and 20 bogie carriages.
It is adapted for light, high-speed service, and noted for its simplicity, excellent riding qualities, low cost of maintenance, and high mechanical efficiency; but having limited adhesive weight it is unsuitable for starting and accelerating heavy trains.
Built in 1882, it had by the 12th of September 1891 performed the feat of running a million miles in 9 years 219 days, and it completed two million miles on the 5th of August 1902, having by that date run 5312 trips with express trains between London and Manchester.
In the United Kingdom, as in Europe generally, the vehicles used on passenger trains include firstclass carriages, second-class carriages, third-class carriages, composite carriages containing compartments for two or more classes of passengers, dining or restaurant carriages, sleeping carriages, mail carriages or travelling post offices, luggage brake vans, horse-boxes and carriage-trucks.
a mile had little consideration bestowed on their comfort, and were excluded from the fast trains till 1872, when the Midland railway admitted them to all its trains.
On the continent of Europe there are occasionally four classes, but though the local fares are often appreciably lower than in Great Britain, only first and second class, sometimes only first class, passengers are admitted to the fastest trains, for which in addition a considerable extra fare is often required.
But the extra charges levied for the use of parlour, sleeping and other special cars, of which some of the best trains are exclusively composed, in practice constitute a differentiation of class, besides making the real cost of travelling higher than the figures just given.
In America and other countries where distances are great and passengers have to spend several days continuously in a train sleeping and restaurant cars are almost a necessity, and accordingly are to be found on most important through trains.
The first dining car in England was run experimentally by the Great Northern railway between London and Leeds in 1879, and now such vehicles form a common feature on express trains, being available for all classes of passengers without extra charge beyond the amount payable for food.
The introduction of corridor carriages, enabling passengers to walk right through the trains, greatly increased their usefulness.
The first railway carriages in England had four wheels with two axles, and this construction is still largely employed, especially for short-distance trains.
To remedy these defects vestibules were introduced, to enclose the platform with a housing so arranged as to be continuous when the cars are made up into trains, and fitted with side doors for ingress and egress when the trains are standing.
The application of vestibules is practically limited to trains making long journeys, as it is an obstruction to the free ingress and egress of passengers on local trains that make frequent stops.
On electric railways the trains are heated by electric heaters.
In all countries passenger trains must vary in weight according to the different services they have to perform; suburban Weight trains, for example, meant to hold as many pas ah d sengers as possible, and travelling at low speeds, do not weigh so much as long-distance expresses, which include dining and sleeping cars, and on which, from considerations of comfort, more space must be allowed each occupant.
The speed at which the journey has to be completed is obviously another important factor, though the increased power of modern locomotives permits trains to be heavier and at the same time to run as fast, and often faster, than was formerly possible, and in consequence the general tendency is towards increased weight as well as increased speed.
an hour; while usually the fastest express trains maintaining inclusive speeds of say 45 m.
Over shorter distances still more rapid running is occasionally arranged, and in Great Britain, France and the United States there are instances of trains scheduled to maintain an average speed of 60 m.
an hour, are reached, and sustained for shorter or longer distances every day by express trains whose average speed between any two stoppingplaces is very much less.
But isolated examples of high speeds do not give the traveller much information as to the train service at his disposal, for on the whole he is better off with a large number of trains all maintaining a good average of speed than with a service mostly consisting of poor trains, but leavened with one or two exceptionally fast ones.
If both the number and the speed of the trains be taken into account, Great Britain is generally admitted still to remain well ahead of any other country.
On the other hand, where, as in America, the great volume of freight is raw material and crude food-stuffs, and the distances are great, a low charge per unit of transportation is more important than any consideration such as quickness of delivery; therefore full car-loads of freight are massed into enormous trains, which run unbroken for distances of perhaps 1000 m.
The weight and speed of goods trains vary enormously according to local conditions, but the following figures, which refer to traffic on the London & North-Western railway between London and Rugby, may be taken as representative of good English practice.
Coal trains, excluding the engine, weigh up to Boo or 900 tons, and travel at from 18 to 22 m.
an hour; ordinary goods or merchandise trains, weighing 430 tons, travel at from 25 to 30 m.
an hour; and quick merchandise trains with limited loads of 300 tons make 35 to 40 m.
In the United States mineral and grain trains, running at perhaps 12 m.
Merchandise trains run faster and carry less.
Such trains, therefore, range in weight from 600 to 1800 tons or even more, and the journey speeds from terminus to terminus, including stops, vary from 15 to 30 m.
For passenger trains and occasionally for fast goods trains screw couplings are substituted for the simple chains.
In the United States the Safety Appliance Act of 1893 also forbade the railways, after the 1st of January 1898, to run trains which did not contain a " sufficient number " of cars equipped with continuous brakes to enable the speed to be controlled from the engine.
This law, however, did not serve in practice to secure so general a use of power brakes on freight trains as was thought desirable, and another act was passed in 1903 to give the Interstate Commerce Commission authority to prescribe what should be the minimum number of power-braked cars in each train.
But goods and mineral trains so fitted are rare, and the same is the case on the continent of Europe, where, however, such brakes are generally employed on passenger trains.
The other, or central, pair of tracks is for trains making stops at longer distances.
On steam-worked lines the speed of trains is about i r to 15 m.
Sometimes, as on the Central London railway, the acceleration of gravity is also utilized; the different stations stand, as it were, on the top of a hill, so that outgoing trains are aided at the start by having a slope to run down, while incoming ones are checked by the rising gradient they encounter.
In regard to fencing and precautions at level-crossings, less rigid requirements may be enforced than with standard railways; and in some cases where trains are likely to be few, it has been provided that the normal position of the gates at crossings shall be across the line.
Again, if the speed is low and the trains infrequent, the signalling arrangements may be of a very simple and inexpensive kind, or even dispensed with altogether.
( 34d.) respectively, when the trains are run at grande vitesse, the fares including 30 kilogrammes weight of personal baggage.
Until the completion of the trans-continental railway in 1869, wagon trains were the only means of transporting the products of the mines across the desert.
The doctrine that "the starvation of a nation cannot be the lawful purpose of a combination" was announced, and Judge Taft said further that "if there is any power in the army of the United States to run those trains, the trains will be run."
The continental trains of the Great Eastern railway run to Parkeston Quay, r m.
There is an elevated road whose trains, like the surface cars, are accommodated in the centre of the city by the subway.
Further, a powerful ice-breaker is used to ferry trains across from Listvinichnoe to Misovaya.
About five years earlier the McKinley bridge was erected by the Illinois Traction Co., primarily to admit interurban electric trains.
The systems of guarantee above described are clearly faulty, since theoretically the railway company which ran no trains at all would, up to the limit of its guarantee, make the largest profits.
Exhaustive orders to organize the necessary trains were duly issued, but the emperor seems to have had no conception of the difficulties the tracks - there were no metalled roads - of Poland were about to present to him.
Napoleon entered the town hard on their heels, but the broken bridge caused a delay of four days, there being no pontoon trains with the army.
The through railway traffic of Hamburg is practically confined to that proceeding northwards - to Kiel and Jutland - and for the accommodation of such trains the central (terminus) station at Altona is the chief gathering point.
The North British station is Waverley, to which the trains of the Great Northern, North Eastern and the Midland systems run from England.
The Caledonian station is Princes Street, where the through trains from the London & North-Western system of England arrive.
Before the introduction of railways there were no permanent bridges across the Rhine below Basel; but now trains cross it at about a dozen different points in Germany and Holland.
The company possesses running powers over the lines of various other companies: thus its trains run as far north as Potter's Bar on the Great Northern line, while it serves Richmond on the west and Poplar on the east.
Metropolitan trains also connect at New Cross with the southeastern railway system.
Passenger steamers sail from the port of London to the principal ports of she British Isles and northern Europe, and to all parts of the world, but the most favoured passenger services to and from Europe and North America pass through other ports, to which the railways provide special services of trains from London.
The size, shape and design of the cars depend on the size of the mine passage and of the hoisting compartments of the shafts; on whether the cars are to be trammed by hand or hauled in trains; whether they are loaded by shovel or by gravity from a chute; and whether they are to be hoisted to the surface or used only for underground transport.
Animal haulage is employed chiefly in collieries and large metal mines; sometimes for main haulage lines, but oftener for distributing empty cars and making up trains for mechanical haulage.
Mine cars are sometimes run long distances, singly or in trains, over roads which are given sufficient grade to impart considerable speed by gravity, say from I to 21%.
Cars may thus be run through long adits or through branch gangways to some central point for making up into trains.
Locomotive haulage is applicable to large mines, where trains of cars are hauled long distances on flat or undulating roads of moderate gradients.
(For details see Hughes, Text-book of Coal Mining, pp. 236-272; Hildenbrand, Underground Haulage by Wire Rope.) Rope haulage is widely used in collieries, and sometimes in other mines having large lateral extent and heavy traffic. With the tail-rope system, cars are run in long trains at high speed, curves and branches are easily worked, and gradients may be steep, though undulating gradients are somewhat disadvantageous.
In the endless-rope systems cars run singly or in short trains, curves are disadvantageous, unless of long radius, speed is relatively slow, and branch roads not so easily operated as with tail-rope.
The Mandalay-Lashio railway has been completed, and trains run from Mandalay to Lashio, a distance of 178 m.
In the best days of the so-called Jamaica Trains in Demerara, three-quarters of a ton of coal in addition to the megass was burned per ton of sugar made, and with this for many years planters were content, because they pointed to the fact that in the central factories, then working in Martinique and Guadeloupe, with charcoal filters and triple-effect evaporation, 750 kilos of coal in addition to the megass were consumed to make woo kilos of sugar.
It trains young men for holy orders and is affiliated to the university of Durham.
The wide distribution of certain species is undoubtedly attributable to the agency of ships and trains; under natural conditions mosquitoes seldom travel far from their breeding grounds, although the powers of flight of some species are greater than has been supposed.
The latter was also used to escort pack trains of goods and supplies before the building of the railway.
The average speed of passenger trains in Japan is 18 m.
an hour, the corresponding figure over the metre-gauge roads in India being 16 m., and the figure for English parliamentary trains from 19 to 28 m.
The Uyeno station is the starting-point for trains to Aomori, a town 460 m.
The presbytery of Glasgow issued a pastoral letter on the subject of Sunday trains and other infringements of the Sabbath.
They were sufficiently occupied in collecting the wounded and clearing up the confusion resulting from an accumulation of trains and transport in the defiles of Gorze and about Noveaut.
In the main roads to the pit when the distance is not considerable horse traction may be used, a train of 6 to i 5 vehicles being drawn by one horse, but more generally the hauling or, as it is called in the north of England, the leading of the trains of tubs is effected by mechanical traction.
This method, which is the oldest, is best adapted for ways that are nearly level, or when many branches are intended to be worked from one engine, and can be carried round curves of small radius without deranging the trains; but as it is intermittent in action, considerable engine-power is required in order to get up the required speed, which is from 8 to ro m.
An arrangement of this kind for shifting the load from a large cage at one operation was introduced by Fowler at Hucknall, in Leicestershire, where the trains are received into a framework with a number of platforms corresponding to those of the cage, carried on the head of a plunger movable by hydraulic pressure in a vertical cylinder.
Webb to measure the tractive resistance of trains on the London & North-Western railway, a tractive pull or push compresses two spiral springs by a definite amount, which is recorded to scale by a pencil on a sheet of paper, drawn continuously from a storage drum at the rate of 3 in.
On the 6th of July 1894, despite Governor Altgeld's protest, he directed the military forces of the United States to clear the way for trains carrying the mails.
If the train of waves is reflected, the value of p at AB will be the sum of the values for the two trains, and will, on the average, be doubled.
The irregularities send back a scattered reflection of the different incident trains, and this scattered reflection becomes more copious the shorter the wavelength.
Then, as we shall prove later, the vibrations of the string may be represented by the travelling of two trains in opposite directions each with velocity /tension=mass per unit length each half the height of the train represented in fig.
For the superposition of these trains will give a stationary wave between A H A (16) Y which is an equation characteristic of simple harmonic motion.
Now we may resolve these trains by Fourier's theorem into harmonics of wave-lengths X, 2X, 3A, &c., where X=2AB and the conditions as to the values of y can be shown to require that the harmonics shall all have nodes, coinciding with the nodes of the fundamental curve.
Since the velocity is the same for all disturbances they all travel at the same speed, and the two trains will always remain of the same form.
These are not really waves in the ordinary sense, but the disturbance arising from the passage through the medium in opposite directions of two equal trains.
Let us suppose that two trains of sine waves of length A and amplitude a are travelling in opposite directions with velocity U.
We may represent the displacement due to one of the trains by y l =a sin 2 i (24) where x is measured as in equation (16) from an ascending node as A in fig.
If we measure t from an instant at which the two trains exactly coincide, then as U for the other train has the opposite sign, its displacement is represented by y2= a sin (x+Ut).
In order to justify the use of stationary waves we must show that two such trains can move in opposite directions over the same ground without modifying each other so long as the displacement in either is small.
The open end is therefore a loop. It is to be noted that the exciter of the vibrations is in general at the open end, and that the two trains forming the stationary system consist of the direct waves from the exciter travelling into the tube, and the waves reflected back from the closed end.
But the reflection is not complete, for some of the energy comes out as waves; hence the direct and reflected trains are quite equal, and cannot neutralize each other at the loop.
We shall then show that on certain limitations two trains of disturbance may be superposed so that stationary waves may be formed, and thence we shall deduce the modes of vibration as with pipes.
To form stationary waves two equal trains must be able to travel in opposite directions with equal velocities, and to be superposed.
Now if yi and y 2 are the displacements due to the two trains separately, and y=yl+y2, the two separate forces are Tdy/dx and Tdy 2 /dx, while that due to y is Tdy/dx.
Let two trains of equal waves moving in opposite directions along such a string of indefinite length form the stationary system of fig.
When two trains of sound waves travel through the same medium, each particle of the air, being simultaneously affected by the disturbances due to the different waves, moves in a different manner than it would if only acted on by each wave singly.
The formation of beats may be illustrated by considering the disturbance at any point due to two trains of waves of equal amplitude a and of nearly equal frequencies n, n2.
About 1850 it was perceived that a bridge stiff enough to carry railway trains could be constructed by combining supporting chains with stiffening girders suspended from them.
The girders weighing 2000 tons carry a double track for trains between the girders and on each side on cantilevers a trolley track, roadway and footway.
Trains of wagons did not weigh more than three-quarters of a ton per foot run when most heavily loaded.
Valuable measurements of the deformations of girders and tension members due to moving trains have been made by S.
Baker then described the results of experiments on repetition of stress, and added that " hundreds of existing bridges which carry twenty trains a day with perfect safety would break down quickly under twenty trains an hour.
Previous to this, however, in 1851, the first train ran over the Chicago Milwaukee & St Paul railway to Waukesha, and in 1857 through trains were run over the same road to the Mississippi at Prairie du Chien.
The active movement of his spirit spent itself, not in following out its own trains of thought, but in outward observation.
Trains of waves nearly but not quite homogeneous as regards wave-length will as usual be propagated as wave-groups travelling with the slightly different velocity d(VX-1)/dX-', the value of K occurring in V being a function of X determined by the law of optical dispersion of the medium.
A little later Denfert-Rochereau received a direct order from his own government to surrender the fortress, and the garrison, being granted free withdrawal, marched out with its arms and trains.
The news soon reached McClellan, who thereupon prepared to evacuate White House on June 25 and moved his trains southward to the James covered by his army.
Tacoma is served by the Northern Pacific, the Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound, and the Tacoma Eastern railways; the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy railway operates through trains to and from Missouri river points and Tacoma, over the Northern Pacific tracks, which are also used by the Great Northern and Oregon & Washington railways.
Thus local sheets or aprons of gravel and sand are spread more or less abundantly along the outer side of the morainic belts; and long trains of gravel and sands clog the valleys that lead southward from the glaciated to the non-glaciated area.
1797), the hydrographer; Malcolm Laing (1762-1818), author of the History of Scotland from the Union of the Crowns to the Union of the Kingdoms; Mary Brunton (1778-1818), author of Self-Control, Discipline and other novels; Samuel Laing (1780-1868), author of A Residence in Norway, and translator of the Heimskringla, the Icelandic chronicle of the kings of Norway; Thomas Stewart Traill (1781-1862), professor of medical jurisprudence in Edinburgh University and editor of the 8th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica; Samuel Laing (1812-1897), chairman of the London, Brighton & South Coast railway, and introducer of the system of "parliamentary" trains with fares of one penny a mile; Dr John Rae (1813-1893), the Arctic explorer; and William Balfour Baikie (1825-1864), the African traveller.
A series of subterranean ways extending many miles have been constructed to enable merchandise traffic to pass through without interfering with passenger trains on the surface railways.
The infantry of the Army of France, then the trains, followed, while Enghien with his own cavalry faced Freiburg and the Loretto position.
After the independence of Mexico Santa Fe became the centre of a growing commerce with the United States, conducted at first by pack animals, and later by wagon trains over the old Santa Fe Trail leading south-west from Independence, Kansas City, and, in earlier years, other places in Missouri, to Santa Fe.
basic form, made all of the world's rail steel; but even for this work it has now begun to be displaced by the basic open-hearth process, partly because of the fast-increasing scarcity of ores which yield pig iron low enough in phosphorus for the acid Bessemer process, and partly because the increase in the speed of trains and in the loads on the individual engineand car-wheels has made a demand for rails of a material better than Bessemer steel.
The steel is cast in lots, weighing in some cases as much as 75 tons, in enduring cast iron moulds into very large ingots, which with their initial heat are immediately rolled down by a series of powerful roll trains into their final shape with but slight wear and tear of the moulds and the machinery.
To the west of the citadel is the Ostbanegaard, or eastern railway station, from which start the local trains on the coast line to Klampenborg and Helsingor.
Conquering Pharaohs brought home trains of prisoners and spoil, embassies came thither of strange people in every variety of costume and of every hue of skin, from Ethiopia, Puoni (Punt), Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, Libya, and the islands of the Mediterranean, bringing precious stones, rare animals, beautiful slaves, costly garments and vessels of gold and silver, while the ground shook with the movement of colossal architraves, statues and obelisks.
For ordinary trains the rate for first class was fixed at 1 3/4d.
For express trains an extra charge is made of 2s.
Fourth class passengers are not conveyed by express trains.
This line also, however, was taken over by the Japanese military authorities, and the first trains ran through early in 1905, in which year Japan obtained control of the whole of the Korean internal communications.
Aristotle's analysis of the syllogism showed man how to advance by combining his thoughts in trains of deductive reasoning.
The fact is that our primary consciousness of all mental operations is hardly equal to our secondary consciousness of the processes of the one operation of inference from premises to conclusions permeating long trains and pervading whole sciences.
For the latter reason the National Congress on the 19th of May 1846 authorized the construction at intervals along the trail of military stations for the protection of the emigrant trains, and Fort Kearny was built (1848) and Fort Laramie was purchased (1849).
and to cease attacking trains, not to oppose railway construction, &c. The territory N.
Division 5.Motions of trains of pieces of mechanism.
From this principle arise problems of a kind which will be referred to in treating of Trains of Mechanism.
Converging and Diverging Trains of M~hanism.Two or more trains of mechanism may converge into oneas when the two pistons of a pair of steam-engines, each through its own connectingrod, act upon one crank-shaft.
ing trains are the same as in simple trains.
From Missouri caravans of pack animals, and later wagon trains, set out in May of each year on the Boo m.
The value of the products carried by these trains increased from $15,000 in 1822 to $450,000 in 1843.
There are steamship services between Holyhead and Dublin in connexion with the trains of the London & North-Western railway; and an important traffic for dairy produce, live-stock and passengers between Fishguard and Rosslare on the Irish coast was opened in 1906 in connexion with the Great Western railway.
She is a most affectionate and attached mother, and generally guards and trains her young with the most watchful solicitude.
The Forest School, which trains subordinate forest officials for all parts of India, is a fine building.
The central cattle market and slaughter-houseslfor the inspection and supply of the fresh meat consumed in the metropolis occupy an extensive area in the north-east of the city on the Ringbahn, upon which a station has been erected for the accommodation of meat trains and passengers attending the market.
In the field, armies lived as a rule in camp (q.v.), and when the provision of canvas shelter was impossible in bivouac. At the present time, however, it is unusual, in Europe at any rate, for troops on active service to hamper themselves with the enormous trains of tent wagons that would be required, and cantonments or bivouacs, or a combination of the two have therefore taken the place, in modern warfare, of the old long rectilinear lines of tents that marked the restingplace and generally, too, the order of battle of an 18th-century army.
This company has so extensive a system of running powers over other railways, and of lines held jointly with other companies, that few of its more important express trains from London complete their journeys entirely on the company's own lines.
Some through trains are provided between the North-Western and the London, Brighton & South Coast lines via Willesden Junction, Addison Road and Clapham Junction; and a through connexion by way of Ludgate Hill has been arranged between main line trains of the South-Western and the Great Northern railways, but otherwise passengers travelling through London have generally to make their own way from one terminus to another.
The chief ports for trans-Atlantic traffic are Liverpool and Southampton, and special trains are worked in connexion with the steamers to and from London.
The railway trains run out to its head, and an electric tramway also runs along it.
In summer express trains cover the whole distance in two days.
He was strongly opposed to the project of a Channel tunnel to France, and in 1872 he endeavoured to obtain the consent of parliament to a Channel ferry scheme, whereby trains were to be transported across the strait in large ferry steamers.
" He used to carry on," says his elder son, William Edwin Hamilton, " long trains of algebraical and arithmetical calculations in his mind, during which he was unconscious of the earthly necessity of eating; we used to bring in a ` snack ' and leave it in his study, but a brief nod of recognition of the intrusion of the chop or cutlet was often the only result, and his thoughts went on soaring upwards."
Fish trains are despatched to London daily.
Trains run from Mandalay to Rangoon, Myit-kyina, and up the Mandalay-Kunlong railway.
At that rate the cargo of 250,000 bushels will fill 360 American cars, or 9 trains of 40 cars each.
Large numbers of eastbound coal trains from the mountains and westbound "empties" returning to the mines stop here; and the cars of these trains are classified here and new trains made up. Locomotives and cars are sent to Altoona to be repaired from all over the Pennsylvania railway system E.
He supposed their tails to result from the action of solar rays, which, in traversing their mass, bore off with them some of their subtler particles to form trains directed away.
Queenstown is a port of call for American mail steamers, and the mails are transmitted overland by express trains; it is also a port of embarkation for colonial troops, and a government emigration station.
According to Fresnel's explanation the light in each of the interfering streams consists of two trains of waves that are circularly polarized in opposite direction and have a relative retardation of phase, introduced by the passage through the quartz: the central fringes are then due to the similarly polarized waves; the lateral systems are produced by the oppositely polarized streams, these on analysation being capable of interfering.
In the mountainous districts, where there are only narrow paths, frequently rather steep, it is still not uncommon to meet long trains of pack-mules, which, with ox-carts for heavier goods, constitute the sole means of transport in such regions.
The Gordon College at Khartum trains teachers and judges in the Mahommedan courts and has annexed to it a secondary school.
Trains are ferried across the river to Windsor, and steamboats make daily trips to Cleveland, Wyandotte, Mount Clemens, Port Huron, to less important places between, and to several Canadian ports.
adorned with steel murals facing the traffic below, depicting either canal boats or steam trains.
aestheticseither the victim's nor the murderer's perspective, CSI ' s camera trains viewers to appreciate the esthetics of wound creation.
They also demonstrate that bandpass filtered acoustic pulse trains provide a useful analog of electric hearing.
According to telecoms analysts BWCS, 625 million people worldwide will be traveling on wi-fi enabled trains within the next five years.
These trains of thought will of course be familiar to anyone who has studied anthroposophy.
The Royal School trains eight apprentices a year with two overseas students per intake.
backbreaking, frustrating job to keep them running, especially the night sleeping car trains.
Additionally, the quarry siding despatched two or three trains of railroad ballast daily.
The maneuver battalion task force field trains are not always located in the BSA.
Both bridges are adorned with steel murals facing the traffic below, depicting either canal boats or steam trains.
Using the rear brake at low speed soon trains you to ride properly - feet up - which improves your motorcycling handling no end.
When not on operations the Regiment trains in its role as an armored Regiment as part of 7 Armored brigade.
In the focus groups, train fares were a particular bugbear: Train prices are unbelievable Tubes are better than trains.
Large bogied caboose: often goods trains would have one of the small four wheeled cabooses in the consist.
Most people would rightly expect trains with such a deadly cargo to be guarded like a radioactive Fort Knox.
Longer trains and platforms are needed, especially for services in the south-eastern and south-western parts of the capital's catchment area.
The trains were tested in April on a custom built centrifuge, which John rode to test the G-Forces.
In 1927 it started producing clockwork lithographed tinplate O gage trains there as well.
Troop and squadron PLLs are often collocated in the field trains but are normally not consolidated.
CODAC recruits, trains and support community based volunteers to work in the community based volunteers to work in the community with disadvantaged groups and individuals.
The poster, which appeared on London Underground trains, asked: " immaculate contraception?
It was converted into a rudimentary studio by draping heavy black curtains on the walls to deaden the noise from the passing trains.
Train Local trains operate daily between Carlisle and Dumfries, stopping at Gretna Green and Annan.
March Multiple bombs were simultaneously detonated on packed commuter trains in Madrid killing nearly 200 people and injuring nearly 2000.
The westbound demolition trains in 1968/9 were hauled by class 24 diesel locomotives with diesel shunters being used on eastbound trains.
Peter Strachan, managing director of Arriva Trains Wales, said his company was learning lessons from Denmark.
He now trains twice a week in the state-of-the-art judo dojo at the University of Bath's Sports Training Village.
Mexican trains is played with double nine or double twelve dominoes.
double-decker trains into the station, which could not have passed under the lower Bishop's Bridge.
draughtyesult many of the trains have drafty windows, broken luggage racks and faulty or missing lighting.
This section was electrified in 1988, and now electric trains run through.
electrifyt, the section between Bournemouth and Weymouth was not electrified, so that a diesel locomotive took the trains on to Weymouth.
Once the trains arrived the emigrants made their way to their next destination.
emigrant trains has survived to the rear of this building.
There was no mass exodus of people with trains to catch.
Ten bombs exploded on trains in Madrid on 11 March 2004.
The HHT first sergeant supports HHT elements, such as the main and tactical command posts, combat trains, and field trains.
Friend knows, the east coast main line carries Britain's fastest passenger train service and also handles heavy bulk freight and mail trains.
freight trains than the Bradford On Avon line is.
See one of their classic demonstration freight or parcel trains.
gangway connections, suitable for use in corridor trains.
He was a Scottish professional golfer in the 19th century but he predicted bullet trains, driverless golf carts, televisions and digital watches.
And what about those extraordinary operations of armored trains and river gunboats far from the sea during the Russian Revolution?
The nearest thing to anything happening is two trains crossing on Charing Cross Railroad Bridge.
haul the trains back down to Cobham.
All trains on Young Members day carried a headboard like this.
head-on collision between two trains.
The CUI take account of signaling headways on the route, and the mixture of trains.
hearing dogs for Deaf People - trains dogs to alert deaf people to specific sounds.
Examples might be the wind, birds, trains, ships ' hooters, sheep, cows, market traders.
By rail: Cheltenham Spa railroad station is on the mainline network and is served by frequent intercity and local trains.
regular intercity 125 services, with up to four trains hourly.
The newer intercity (IC) trains are modern, have air conditioning and make only limited stops.
By Rail: High speed intercity trains provide frequent services between all major British cities.
By rail intercity trains from most major centers in the country call at Durham daily including 14 trains from London.
intermediate stations still get 4 trains an hour in the peak.
The Welsh Hawking Center In the play James Staniforth will play the part of Billy Casper who trains a kestrel.
Gentlemen bearing their trains, and each having eight Six Marquises, each having six lackeys.
lengthened to accommodate 12 car trains.
The potential application of magnetic levitation to transportation has been known since the 19th century and been implemented in numerous Magnetic levitation trains.
Sam Radion of Tenby Surf Life Saving - a registered charity - trains the fledgling lifeguards on the South Beach for around fifteen weeks.
locomotion capital is part of the Angel Trains Group, which has invested Ã¢¬4 billion in new trains since 1998.
louts pursued on streets and... Local food urged on supermarkets Nuclear trains go past back gardens... An answer to nuclear energy?
The insurance covers you from door to door against loss caused by missed or delayed trains, lost luggage or journey cancelation.
When mixed with other metals e.g. magnesium, to form an alloy it can be used in planes and trains.
mainline trains from London Luton.
manager Strachan, managing director of Arriva Trains Wales, said his company was learning lessons from Denmark.
maneuver battalion task force field trains are not always located in the BSA.
marc trains also run to a number of other destinations.
Diesel engines, particularly the larger ones in busses and trains, are responsible for significant emissions of particulate matter.
metro trains in Hong Kong.
monorail trains, whose braking systems have failed either by mechanical failure or by sabotage.
mused aloud about how spirit chooses people and trains them to become vessels or channels for its purposes on earth.
This kind of approach also trains the astrologer to stay open-minded.
The idea of hundreds of lorries and trains traveling the length of Scotland provoked strong opposition.
packhorse trains of up to 70 mules.
For vitamin A the NGO trains villagers to grow and eat papaya, pumpkins, carrots and other yellow vegetables.
pedestrian underpass and trains from Falmer run to Brighton, Hove and Lewes.
The new trains are smooth and quiet, easy to board and have giant picture windows.
A Northumbrian piper was at Morpeth station last week (Monday 12 December 2005) to greet a new service from Virgin Trains.
preheat trains are described.
presence of asbestos in withdrawn vehicles has been a major issue for Angel Trains.
Trains, automobiles, airplanes dreams of mobility came true and lured people into becoming frenetic proponents of progress.
punctual trains; a modernized efficient London Underground; cities not gummed up by congestion.
According to the plan, trains were to be made more punctual.
Late night busses would be retimed to connect with incoming trains at a suitable railhead.
railhead conditioning trains run every night - as a result the adhesion problems disappeared.
Even had the trains run on time (I'll never again regale Bruce with the glories of the New York City transit system!
Trains clatter overhead on the top tier, while on the lower level barely controlled chaos reigns.
We also repositioned the stop board to its new position for trains coming off of the mainline.
The side view shows a remarkable resemblance to the same builder's earlier Class 156 trains.
On the German Rail trains, you may travel without having a seat reservation.
self-serve rail ticket machine market in Britain, with customers ranging from GNER to Virgin Trains.
Virgin Trains said a signalman had made a mistake in routing the 9.40am service via Coventry, 110 miles from its intended destination.
Flying Fish trains and recruits yacht skippers and sail, dive, surf, windsurf, ski and snowboard instructors.
slam door trains or the new sliding door Thameslink trains are suitable for these routes.
southbound trains can be taken.
souvenir shop stocks the full range of ' Thomas ' models along with Hornby trains.
stagger off trains at 6am or 7am to get to cleaning jobs?
steam trains today where the crew had a single line train staff?
strafed trains and dropped incendiary devices and leaflets on Havana.
The site had a clay subgrade and demonstrated considerable problems on the heavily loaded up-line, which carried steel freight trains from South Wales.
subway graffiti, freights, trains, walls, tags & yards.
subway trains covered in graffiti.
Songs about trains featured heavily during the evening. Ghost train a real swinger with solid drumming!
tamping the track on the right-hand side, making it ready to receive trains.
The LDA system allows up to two trains to be cleaned at the same time on either side of the platform to maximize throughput.
Snowdon Mountain Railroad Trains Trains may be operated by either steam or diesel traction.
In addition to the naming, it is planned to run a few loco hauled trains on the Merthyr Tydfil line that day.
Q Where would you see steam trains today where the crew had a single line train staff?
Many happy days at City as well as countless Saturdays at Watford Junction enjoying the huge number of express passenger and lumbering freight trains.
A total of 25 companies will operate the passenger trains.
Tackling the problem of overcrowding on so many of our commuter trains.
intercity trains to Euston (53 minutes) and to Birmingham.
Marcus is a seller who trains not a trainer who teaches selling.
Early in 2001 BW were testing taking trains of boats through Standedge Tunnel using electric tugs.
underway in preparation for the new trains entering service.
Sunday trains attracted pedlars and other undesirables who lined the road between the station and Bolton Abbey.
The trains have improved a lot over the years, the journey used to be dreadful, now it is just mildly unpleasant.
unthinkng shorter trains but at increased regular frequency and aiming toward a clockface timetable hitherto unthought of for such long distance services.
vacuum brake ejector to enable her to be used on passenger trains.
The College not only trains veterinary surgeons but also veterinary scientists, nurses and physiotherapists.
This may be longer on busy weekends as the trains cannot wait for late passengers.
Ann is a member of the London nuclear Trains Working Group, opposing the transportation of nuclear waste through Bromley Boro.
westbound platform, still very visible from passing trains.
Electric trains with overhead wires came in the early 1920s.
workmanduring its days as a passenger station it was only served by a couple of workmen's trains each day.
wreckage of trains.
When the loads are heavy the above mechanisms are supplemented by systems of purchase blocks suspended from the jib or the traveller crab; and in barrel cranes trains of rotating gearing are interposed between the motor, or manual handle, and the barrel (fig.
Marconi's system of electric wave telegraphy consists therefore in setting up at the transmitting station the devices just described for sending out groups of damped electric waves of the above kind in long or short trains corresponding to the dash or dot signals of the Morse alphabet.
In addition to the above gaseous rectifiers of oscillations it has been found that several crystals, such as carborundum (carbide of silicon), hessite, anastase and many others possess a unilateral conductivity and enable us to rectify trains of oscillations into continuous currents which can affect a telephone.
employed for the production of the continuous trains of waves a high frequency alternator of his own invention (see The Electrician, 1907, 5 8, pp. 6 75, 701).
In 1889 a very important act was passed placing upon the Board of Trade the obligation to call upon railway companies throughout the United Kingdom (1) to adopt upon all passenger lines the " block " system of working; (2) to " interlock " their points and signals; (3) to fit all trains carrying passengers with some form of automatic continuous brake.
Rules drafted by the Board of Trade under this act came into force on the 8th of August 1902, the subjects referred to being (I) labelling of wagons; (2) movements of wagons by propping and tow-roping; (3) power-brakes on engines; (4) lighting of stations and sidings; (g) protection of points, rods, &c.; (6) construction and protection of gauge-glasses; (7) arrangement of tool-boxes, &c., on engines; (8) provision of brake-vans for trains upon running lines beyond the limits of stations; (9) protection to permanent-way men when relaying or repairing permanent way.
On the British railways the men who run the trains are safeguarded very efficiently, and the collisions and derailments which are serious enough to do injury to the trainmen or the enginemen are really rare.
In America the number of men killed and injured in handling freight trains has been very large.
The great differences between the records of the United States and the United Kingdom seem to afford justification for the view, which has often been expressed, that in America the spirit of hurry and recklessness manifest in many of the activities of the people prevails even among the men on whom rests the grave responsibility of running trains in safety.
Where heavy suburban traffic has to be dealt with, the expedient is occasionally adopted of taking some of the lines round the end in a continuous loop, so that incoming trains can deposit their passengers at an underground platform and immediately proceed on their outward journey.
The arrangement and appropriation of the tracks in a station materially affect the economical and efficient working of the traffic. There must be a sufficient provision of sidings, connected with the running tracks by points, for holding spare rolling stock and to enable carriages to be added to or taken off trains and engines to be changed with as little delay as possible.
Again, a: station of moderate size may collect goods destined for a great variety of places but not in sufficient quantities to compose a full train-load for any of them, and then it becomes impossible; except at the cost of uneconomical working, to avoid despatching trains which contain wagons intended for many diverse destinations.
The wagons from the upper reception lines are sorted into trains on the sorting sidings, and then, in the gridirons, are arranged in the appropriate order and marshalled ready to be sent off from the departure lines.
The problems arising out of the special consideration of the power required to propel a railway train against the resistances opposing its motion, the way the power is applied to trains, the agent by means of which the power is exerted, are conveniently grouped together under the general heading of Locomotive Power.
The design combines ample boiler capacity with large adhesive weight and moderate axle loads, but except on heavy gradients or for unusually large trains requiring engines of great adhesion, passenger traffic can be more efficiently and economically handled by four-coupled locomotives of the eight-wheel or Atlantic types.
Both load and speed have increased so much in connexion with passenger trains that it is necessary to divide the weight required for adhesion between three-coupled axles, and the type of engine gradually coming into use in England for heavy express traffic is a six-coupled engine with a leading bogie, with wheels which would have been considered small a few years ago for the speed at which the engine runs.
The means by which vehicles are joined together into trains are of two kinds - automatic and non-automatic, the difference between them being that with the former the impact of two vehicles one on the other is sufficient to couple them without any human intervention such as is required with the latter.
In the United Kingdom the Regulation of Railways Act 1889 empowered the Board of Trade to require all passenger trains, within a reasonable period, to be fitted with automatic continuous brakes, and now all the passenger stock, with a few trifling exceptions, is provided with either compressed-air or vacuum brakes (see Brake), and sometimes with both.
Wagner's orthodox contemporaries regarded such mixtures of key as sheer nonsense; and it would seem that the rank and file of his imitators agree with that view, since they either plagiarize Wagner's actual progressions or else produce such mixtures with no vividness of key-colour and little attempt to follow those melodic trains of thought by which Wagner makes sense of them.
Moreover, the Anatolian railway receives, under the original Bagdad railway convention (1) an annuity of £14,000 per annum for thirty years as compensation for strengthening its permanent way sufficiently to permit of the running of express trains, and (2) a second annuity of £14,000 in perpetuity to compensate it for running express trains - this to begin as soon as the main Bagdad line reaches Aleppo.
Hood's army, which he was ordered to hold in check in order to give Thomas time to prepare for battle (see American Civil War, § 32), was unable immediately to cross the Harpeth river and was compelled to entrench his forces south of the town until his wagon trains and artillery could be sent over the stream by means of two small bridges.
Trains of Wheelwork.Let A1, A2, A3, &c., A,,,_1, A,,, denote a series of axes, and aj, a1, a3, &c., a,,,1, a,,, their angular velocities.
So you may imagine that we look quite like peacocks, only we've no trains....
Alpatych kept meeting and overtaking baggage trains and troops on the road.
In Kudrino, from the Nikitski, Presnya, and Podnovinsk Streets came several other trains of vehicles similar to the Rostovs', and as they passed along the Sadovaya Street the carriages and carts formed two rows abreast.
It began to run away only when suddenly seized by a panic caused by the capture of transport trains on the Smolensk road, and by the battle of Tarutino.
Napoleon, too, carried away his own personal tresor, but on seeing the baggage trains that impeded the army, he was (Thiers says) horror-struck.
The French evacuation began on the night between the sixth and seventh of October: kitchens and sheds were dismantled, carts loaded, and troops and baggage trains started.
From the bridge they had a view of endless lines of moving baggage trains before and behind them.
It was not till nearly evening that the officer commanding the escort collected his men and with shouts and quarrels forced his way in among the baggage trains, and the prisoners, hemmed in on all sides, emerged onto the Kaluga road.
On the twenty-second of October that party was no longer with the same troops and baggage trains with which it had left Moscow.
That means fast, punctual trains; a modernized efficient London Underground; cities not gummed up by congestion.
Proposal: A two - year extension of the Central Trains passenger rail franchise was made on 8 July 2003.
Porta 's recommendations saw railhead conditioning trains run every night - as a result the adhesion problems disappeared.
In the forward areas of the battlefield, ADA protects combat trains, refueling, and rearming operations.
Even had the trains run on time (I'll never again regale Bruce with the glories of the New York City transit system !
The side view shows a remarkable resemblance to the same builder 's earlier Class 156 trains.
Rides are 60p each for trains, or buy a day rover ticket for £ 3 for unlimited travel.
In fact, the trains did n't have compartments at all, just rows of boring seats.
Shere now claims to control two-thirds of the self-serve rail ticket machine market in Britain, with customers ranging from GNER to Virgin Trains.
The trains on all the lines carried on the note with a wheezy shriek of delight.
In short, neither the old slam door trains or the new sliding door Thameslink trains are suitable for these routes.
From the steps leading down to the path, shots of southbound trains can be taken.
The souvenir shop stocks the full range of ' Thomas ' models along with Hornby trains.
But shall we ask people who stagger off trains at 6am or 7am to get to cleaning jobs?
Planes flown from the US bombed sugar mills, strafed trains and dropped incendiary devices and leaflets on Havana.
Also subway graffiti, freights, trains, walls, tags & yards.
There was a book at school with pictures of New York subway trains covered in graffiti.
BEWARE: Trains heading north on the fast lines do cause severe turbulence against the platform fence - causing it to sway quite violently.
Songs about trains featured heavily during the evening. Ghost train a real swinger with solid drumming !
A group of navvies appear to be tamping the track on the right-hand side, making it ready to receive trains.
Intercity trains to Euston (53 minutes) and to Birmingham.
Freight engines travel from the depot to pick up these trains which trundle around the continuous loops in between the passenger services.
Adjustments to infrastructure representing an investment of £ 2.5 million are underway in preparation for the new trains entering service.
Trains and finally instead of embarking cruise line you the universe explorer.
Running shorter trains but at increased regular frequency and aiming toward a clockface timetable hitherto unthought of for such long distance services.
One was a single engined job fitted with a vacuum brake ejector to enable her to be used on passenger trains.
Eurostar trains run from London Waterloo and Ashford to Brussels and are valid for onward travel to any Belgian Railroad station.
Ann is a member of the London Nuclear Trains Working Group, opposing the transportation of nuclear waste through Bromley Boro.
The sheltered part of the westbound platform, still very visible from passing trains.