In town doing traffic control, I guess.
The traffic was the pits.
The traffic to get there is not bad.
It would be nice getting away from the smog and traffic for a while.
She didn't ask where they were going but took the subtle beast onto the highway and let it loose, weaving in and out of traffic to test its handling.
Owing to the rapid increase in the traffic, a new harbour at the mouth of the Neckar was opened in 1898.
The neighbors couldn't see into any of their windows, and they were far enough off the main road that the only traffic would be people coming to see them.
Zimbabwe was probably the distributing centre for the gold traffic carried on in the middle ages between subjects of the Monomotapa and the Mahommedans of the coast.
Why are there fewer traffic jams in one certain city than in any other of its size?
Dean planned to spend his free time biking, but changed his mind when he saw the crowds in town and remembered the traffic that would clog the narrow roads.
Traffic was light and Molly kept us entertained with her chatter.
Stavanger commands a considerable tourist traffic. It is the starting-point of a favourite tour, embracing the fine valley of the Sand River, the great Lake Suldal and the Bratlandsdal.
Even on this holiday, one of the busiest days of the year, traffic remained modest by urban standards.
The car, the traffic, the wind, all went motionless.
Traffic was light—nonexistent by eastern standards—made up mostly of Jeeps or pickup trucks, the latter with a dog pacing the back bed in perfect balance.
Any luck with traffic cams?
She wasn't the only one who stopped traffic and conversations.
The sidewalks were jammed with people and smells, the traffic thick and loud.
Sighing deeply, he told Rita he was finished for the day, jogged down the stairs to his car, and fought the late afternoon crosstown traffic to Ethel Rosewater's office.
I had opted to skip the short flight to Santa Barbara as Betsy, the seasoned traveler, had no difficulty renting a car and maneuvering the traffic to pick me up at LAX.
Dean paused at the County's sole traffic light, a recent addition and, in some minds, a reluctant bow to progress.
The maritime traffic is largely conducted by the steamers of the subsidized Austrian-Lloyd company, Trieste being the principal commercial centre; the coasting trade is carried on by small Greek and Turkish sailing vessels.
By the time Dean had finished his meal, the traffic had thinned out, making the balance of the trip northward much more pleasant.
In the rural areas, there was less concern with traffic, although an occasional farm dog forced him to practice his sprints.
He had requested a table in a corner of the room, away from wait staff traffic to and from the kitchen.
Water traffic on the Euphrates and canals was early very considerable.
Exiting traffic from the fireworks delayed his progress, but as he turned in front of Bird Song both Fred and Cynthia were on the porch to greet him.
There was in addition a considerable inter-colonial traffic between Australia, New Zealand and the Fijis.
Would you contribute your anonymous location to a traffic speed optimization engine?
"You're pretty good at interviewing," Winston noted, as they joined the sparse midday traffic northward.
Paris is served by the Vandalia, and the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (New York Central system) railways; the main line and the Cairo division of the latter intersect here, and the city is the transfer point for traffic from the E.
Ariminum became a place of considerable traffic owing to the construction of the Via Aemilia (187 B.C.) and the Via Popilia (132 B.C.), and is frequently mentioned by ancient authors.
These Chaco rivers are obstructed by sand bars and snags, which could be removed only by an expenditure of money unwarranted by the present population and traffic. In the southern pampa.
Water traffic, which is chiefly in heavy merchandise, as coal, building materials, and agriculture and food produce, more than doubled in volume between 1881 and 1905.
The group specially described as indirect taxes includes those on alcohol, wine, beer, cider and other alcoholic drinks, on passenger and goods traffic by railway, on licences to distillers, spirit-sellers, &c., on salt and on sugar of home manufacture.
open for traffic, upon which nearly £135,000,000 had been expended.
Excluding coal lines and other lines not open to general traffic, the length of railways in private hands is only 382 m.
Overland routes had now been found possible, though scarcely convenient for traffic, between all the widely separated Australian provinces.
This attitude of the reformers towards the festival, however, intensified by their abhorrence of the traffic in indulgences with which it had become closely associated, only tended to establish it more firmly among the adherents of the "old religion."
In some cases the exchanges are connected together directly; but when the volume of traffic is not sufficient to warrant the adoption of such a course connexions between two exchanges are made through junction centres to which both are connected.
Say, for instance, you believe redheads cause more traffic accidents than those with other colors of hair.
It seems possible that the road at first led to Tusculum, that it was then prolonged to Labici, and later still became a road for through traffic; it may even have superseded the Via Latina as a route to the S.E., for, while the distance from Rome to their main junction at Ad Bivium (or to another junction at Compitum Anagninum) is practically identical, the summit level of the former is 725 ft.
The canal and river system attains its greatest utility in the north, northeast and north-centre of the country; traffic is thickest along the Seine below Paris; along the rivers and small canals of the rich departments of Nord and Pas-de-Calais and along the Oise and the canal of St Quentin whereby they communicate with Paris; along the canal from the Marne to the Rhine and the succession of waterways which unite it with the Oise; along the Canal de lEst (departments of Meuse and Ardennes); and along the waterways uniting Paris with the Sane at Chalon (Seine, Canal du Loing, Canal de Briare, Lateral canal of the Loire and Canal du Centre) and along the Sane between Chalon and Lyons.
in the traffic; and similar statistics pointing to increase of business consequent on reduction of rates were produced in regard to France, Switzerland and Prussia.
Dean had hoped to make it as soon as possible so he could beat the worst of the late afternoon traffic when he returned from his chores in Philadelphia.
The traffic crawled to a near standstill as Dean's blood pressure mounted, sure the 8:00 direct flight to Norfolk would leave without him.
The steamships under the national flag are almost wholly engaged in the traffic between Buenos Aires and Montevideo, the river traffic, and port services.
The contract for building the railway was put in the hands of Thomas Brassey; English navvies were largely employed on the work, and a number of English engine-drivers were employed when traffic was begun in 1843.
These railways provide outlets for through freight and passenger traffic southward to Boston and New York, and to the north to St Johns and Montreal.
It is often very desirable to have the quay space as little obstructed by the cranes as possible, so as not to interfere with railway traffic; this has led to the introduction of cranes mounted on high trucks or gantries, sometimes also called " portal " cranes.
The Code also regulated the liquor traffic, fixing a fair price for beer and forbidding the connivance of the tavern-keeper (a female!) at disorderly conduct or treasonable assembly, under pain of death.
c, where the traffic is small it is usual to make one wire serve several stations.
The channels can be worked in either direction according to the traffic require ments.
The Murray automatic system was designed specially for dealing with heavy traffic on long lines.
The Murray automatic system is not regarded as suitable for short telegraph lines or moderate traffic, printing telegraphs on the multiplex principle being considered preferable in such circumstances.
In that year the Swiss government reduced the rate for inland telegrams by one-half, and the traffic immediately doubled, but the cost of carrying on the service increased in a larger ratio.
At that date the superintending and managing staffs of the Post Office comprised 590 persons, the staff of the old companies with only about one-third of the traffic having been 534 persons.
Is it actually that blue-eyed redheads have the same number of accidents as non-redheads, but brown-eyed redheads are even more clumsy, accident prone, and traffic hazards?
The only river with traffic of commercial importance is Otter Creek, flowing northwards into the southern part of Lake Champlain and having a navigable length of 8 m.
This involved a large extension of wires to cope with increased traffic. The reduced rate took effect as from the 1st of October 1886.
This university was founded in 1621 and the university of Buenos Aires in 1821, but although Bonpland and some other European scientists were members of the faculty of Buenos Aires in its early years, neither there nor at Cordoba was any marked attention given to the natural sciences until President Sarmiento (official term, 1868-1874) initiated scientific instruction at the university of Cordoba under the eminent German naturalist, Dr Hermann Burmeister (1807-1892), and founded the National Observatory at Cordoba and placed it under the direction of ' There are two distinct statistical offices compiling immigration returns and their totals do not agree, owing in part to the traffic between Buenos Aires and Montevideo.
The car started up, and they merged into traffic.
When the Dogger Bank incident occurred, the possibility of operations of war being carried on within a few miles of British home ports, and amid the busy traffic of the North Sea, was brought vividly home to British minds.
Shipping has been fostered by paying bounties for vessels constructed in France and sailing under the French flag, and by reserving the coasting trade, traffic between France and Algeria, &c., to French vessels.
The revenue from stamps includes as its chief items the returns from stamped paper, stamps on goods traffic, securities and share certificates and receipts and cheques..
At small country towns or villages, where the message traffic is light, the Wheatstone " A B C " instrument is used.
All that tourist traffic has made the restaurant industry thrive, providing residents and guests with a variety of meal options.
Right now we have to do something about this traffic.
Peabody was two hundred and thirty miles and we arrived at our destination a little after eleven on Friday night, after nearly six hours of steady traffic.
Driving was out of the question as the mid-morning parade, scheduled to begin in a few minutes, was forming on Main Street, which was now closed to traffic.
He called in to confirm but then lost the vehicle in traffic.
The return trip from Grand Junction had taken Dean twice the usual two hours, a slalom of ditched autos, snow plows, ice and stopped traffic.
It climbed gently along the escarpment above the river and was devoid of traffic.
A scattering of cars dotted the parking lot but due to the late hour the avenue beyond was nearly devoid of traffic.
First I get to third-degree a woman who just lost her husband and then I get to fight Philadelphia traffic.
His route to Philly looked like a drunkard's path, zigzagging a series of country roads that were at times crowded with local traffic.
At least you skip the Philly traffic.
He covered one ear to mute the passing traffic.
The junction circuits connecting two exchanges are invariably divided into two groups, one for traffic from exchange A to exchange B, the other for traffic from B to A.
As the cost of the service varies in proportion to the amount of use, the toll rate is more scientific, and it has the further advantage of discouraging the unnecessary use of the instrument, which causes congestion of traffic at busy hours and also results in lines being " engaged " when serious business calls are made.
There are now four circuits between London and Paris, one between London and Lille, and two between Londofi and Brussels, the last carrying an increasing amount of traffic. Experiments have been made in telephonic communication between London and Rome by way of Paris.
A capital expenditure of 1/24,000,000 annually was decided on to bring the lines up to the necessary state of efficiency to be able to cope with the rapidly increasing traffic. It was estimated in 1906 that this would have to be maintained for a period of ten years, with a further total expenditure of 1/21 4,000,000 on new lines.
Comparing the state of things in 1901 with that of 1881, for the whole country, we find the passenger and goods traffic almost doubled (except the cattle traffic), the capital expenditure almost doubled, the working expenses per mile almost imperceptibly increased, and tI~ gross receipts per mile slightly lower.
The insufficiency of rolling stock, and especially of goods wagons, is mainly caused by delays in handling traffic consequent on this or other causes, among which may be mentioned the great length ofthe single lines south of Rome.
In the south they are rare, on account partly of the mountainous character of the country, and partly of the scarcity of traffic. All the important towns of Italy are provided with internal electric tramways, mostly with overhead wires.
The substitution of steamships for sailing vessels has brought about a diminution in the number of vessels belonging to the Italian mercantile marine, whether employed in the coasting trade, the fisheries or in traffic on the high seas.
The great extension of Italian coast-line is thought by some to be not really a source of strength to the Italian mercantile marine, as few of the ports have a large enough hinterland to provide them with traffic, and in this hinterland (except in the basin of the Po) there are no canals or navigable rivers.
Gradually the increase of traffic consequent upon the industrial development of Italy decreased the annual losses of the state, but the position of the government in regard to the railways still remained so unsatisfactory as to render the resumption of the whole system by the state on the expiration of the first period of twenty years in 1905 inevitable.
They initiated a system of obstruction which hampered and delayed the traffic without alto gether suspending it.
On the 17th of April a general railway strike was ordered by the union, but owing to the action of the authorities, who for once showed energy, the traffic was carried on, Other disturbances of a serious character occurred among the steelworkers of Terni, at Grammichele in Sicily and at Alessandria.
In October 1907 there was again a general strike at Milan, which was rendered more serious on account of the action of the railway servants, and extended to other cities; traffic was disorganized over a large part of northern Italy, until the government, being now owner of the railways, dismissed the ringleaders from the service.
In order to provide employment for his soldiers, Corbulo made them cut a canal from the Mosa (Meuse) to the northern branch of the Rhine, which still forms one of the chief drains between Leiden and Sluys, and before the introduction of railways was the ordinary traffic road between Leiden and Rotterdam.
The harbour of Port Blair is well supplied with buoys and harbour lights, and is crossed by ferries at fixed intervals, while there are several launches for hauling local traffic. On Ross Island there is a lighthouse visible for 19 m.
A shorter route, brit more fitted for mule traffic, though Horace drove along part of it,2 ran by Aequum Tuticum, Aecae, Herdoniae, Canusium, Barium, and Gnatia (Strabo vi.
The registry of the citizens, the suppression of litigation, the elevation of public morals, the care of minors, the retrenchment of public expenses, the limitation of gladiatorial games and shows, the care of roads, the restoration of senatorial privileges, the appointment of none but worthy magistrates, even the regulation of street traffic, these and numberless other duties so completely absorbed his attention that, in spite of indifferent health, they often kept him at severe labour from early morning till long after midnight.
They traded also on the Red sea, and opened up regular traffic with India as well as with the ports of the south and west, so that it was natural for Solomon to employ the merchant navies of Tyre in his oversea trade.
This fortress has been abandoned, and the town, which is the centre of a group of villages, is now fairly prosperous, with a bazaar of about Boo shops and a busy traffic with Seistan.
With France there is a large traffic in wines, spirits, silk, fruit, vegetables and general provisions.
Almost all the traffic is conveyed through Hu-nan by water-ways, which lead northward to Han-kow on the Yangtsze Kiang, and Fan-cheng on the Han River, eastward to Fu-kien, southward to Kwang-tung and Kwang-si and westward to Sze-ch'uen.
Boats could be conveyed over flat and easy portages from one river-basin to another, and these portages were subsequently transformed with a relatively small amount of labour into navigable canals, and even at the present day the canals have more importance for the traffic of the country than have most of the railways.
Lake Peipus, or Chudskoye, receives the Velikaya, a channel of traffic with S.
In the middle navigable part of its course, from Dorogobuzh to Ekaterinoslav, it is an active channel for traffic. It receives.
This traffic is in the hands of a great number of middlemen,-in the W.
Russian craft play, however, a much more important part on the internal waterways, the traffic on which increases rapidly, e.g.
were open for traffic over 40,500 m.
But as it was laid in cast-iron chairs the lower table was exposed to damage under the hammering of the traffic, and thus was liable to be rendered useless as a running surface.
The intervening distance, through country exceedingly unhealthy for white men, and therefore promising no traffic except raw materials, does not seem a likely field for rapid railway extension.
But as traffic becomes more dense, year by year, the rebuilding process is constant, and American railway lines are gradually becoming safer.
So marked are these evils that such partial competition is avoided by agreements between the competing lines with regard to rates, and by divisions of traffic, or pools, which shall take away the temptation to violate such rate agreements.
So much of the expense of the handling, both of freight and of passengers, was independent of the length of the journey that a mileage rate sufficiently large for short distances was unnecessarily burdensome for long ones, and was bound to destroy long-distance traffic, if the theory were consistently applied.
A system of charges which compels each piece of traffic to pay its share of the charges for track and for stations overlooks the fundamental fact that a very large part of the expenses of a railway - more than half - is not connected either with the cost of moving traffic or of handling traffic at stations, but with the cost of maintaining the property as a whole.
Whatever the ostensible form of a railway tariff, the contribution of the different shipments of freight to these general expenses is determined on the principle of charging what the traffic will bear.
Most of the improvements in operation and in traffic management have had their origin in one of these two countries.
In the former the Railway and Canal Traffic Act of 1854 specially prohibited preferences, either in facilities or in rates.
The first act which has reference to the safety of passengers is the Regulation of Railways Act of 1842, which obliges every railway company to give notice to the Board of Trade of its intention to open the railway for passenger traffic, and places upon that public department the duty of inspecting the line before the opening of it takes place..
Although the administration of the above-mentioned acts of parliament has had a beneficial effect upon the safety of the public, and has enabled an enormous volume of traffic Safety to be handled with celerity, punctuality and absence Y?
As railway building increased in response to traffic needs, and as the consolidation of short lines into continuous systems proceeded, legislation applicable to railways became somewhat broader in scope and more intelligent.
Such bodies, established to appraise land for railway purposes, to apportion receipts and expenditures of interstate traffic, and in a general way to supervise railway transportation, had been in existence in New England before 1860, one of the earliest being that of Rhode Island in 1839.
Of trespassers the number killed per mile of line is about as large in England as in America, the density of population and of traffic in Great Britain apparently counterbalancing the laxity of the laws against trespassing in America.
The Federal government, having authority in railway matters only when interstate traffic is affected, gathers statistics and publishes them; but in the airing of causes-the field in which the British Board of Trade has been so useful-nothing so far has been done except to require written reports monthly from the railways.
This is mainly due to a great falling off in traffic, because of a general business depression; from 1907 to 1909 the reduction in the accident record is still greater.
In any comparison between British and American records the first point to be borne in mind is the difference in mileage and traffic. The American railways aggregate approximately ten times the length of the British lines; but in train miles the difference is far less.
The growth of railways has been accompanied by a world-wide tendency toward the consolidation of small independent ventures into large groups of lines able to aid one another in the exchange of traffic and to effect economies in administration and in tl-_e purchase of supplies.
revenue it must be laid out with due consideration of the traffic.
If, however, cost within reasonable limits is a secondary consideration and the intention is to build a line adapted for express trains and for the carriage of the largest volume of traffic with speed and economy, he will lean towards the second.
Other things being equal, that route is best which will serve the district most conveniently and secure the highest revenue; and the most favourable combination of curves and gradients is that by which the annual cost of conveying the traffic which the line will be called on to carry, added to the annual interest on the capital expended in construction, will be made a minimum.
As embankments have to support the weight of heavy trains, they must be uniformly firm and well drained, and before the line is fully opened for traffic they must be allowed time to consolidate, a process which is helped by running construction or mineral trains over them.
In many instances old level crossings have been replaced by over-bridges with long sloping approaches; in this way considerable expenditure has been involved, justified, however, by the removal of a danger to the public and of interruptions to the traffic on both the roads and the railways.
In cases where the route of a line runs across a river or other piece of water so wide that the construction of a bridge is either impossible or would be more costly than is warranted by the volume of traffic, the expedient is sometimes adopted of carrying the wagons and carriages across bodily with their loads on train ferries, so as to avoid the inconvenience and delay of transshipment.
With increase of speeds this matter has become important as an element of comfort in passenger traffic. As a first approximation, the centre-line of a railway may be plotted out as a number of portions of circles, with intervening straight tangents connecting them, when the abruptness of the changes of direction will depend on the radii of the circular portions.
In North America, except for small industrial railways and some short lines for local traffic, chiefly in mountainous country, it has become almost universal; the long lines of 3 ft.
gauge and vice versa, this does not constitute a break of gauge for traffic purposes.
The commercial importance of such free interchange of traffic is the controlling factor in determining the gauge of any new railway that is not isolated by its geographical position.
Its depth varies, according to the traffic which the line has to bear, from about 6 in.
The chairs on the British system weigh about 45 or 50 lb each on important lines, though they may be less where the traffic is light, and are fixed to the sleepers each by two, three or four fastenings, either screw spikes, or round drift bolts entered in holes previously bored, or fang bolts or wooden trenails.
The rails, which for heavy main line traffic may weigh as much as too lb per yard, or even more, are rolled in lengths of from 30 to 60 ft., and sleepers are placed under them at intervals of between 2 and 3 ft.
On all the accepted forms there are two or more flanges at the bottom, running lengthwise of the plate and crosswise of the rail; these are requisite to give proper stiffness, and further, as they are forced into the tie by the weight of passing traffic, they help to fix the plate securely in place.
At stations the points that give access to sidings are generally arranged as trailing points with respect to the direction of traffic on the main lines; that is, trains cannot pass direct into sidings, but have to stop and then run backwards into them.
At double-line junctions trains passing over the diamond crossings evidently block traffic going in the opposite direction to that in which they are travelling.
At many intermediate stations the same arrangements, on a smaller scale, are made; in all of them there is at least accommodation for the passenger and the goods traffic. The stations for F - FIG.
passengers and goods are generally in different and sometimes in distant positions, the place selected for each being that which is most convenient for the traffic. The passenger station abuts on the main line, or, at termini, forms the natural terminus, at a place as near as can conveniently be obtained to the centre of the population which constitutes the passenger traffic; and preferably its platforms should be at or near the ground level, for convenience of access.
naturally constructed as side stations, and whether offices are provided on both sides or whether they are mainly concentrated on one will depend on local circumstances, the amount of the traffic, and the direction in which it preponderates.
At stations on double-track railways which have a heavy traffic four tracks are sometimes provided, the two outside ones only having platforms, so that fast trains get a clear road and can pass slow ones that are standing in the station.
At a small roadside station, where the traffic is of a purely local character, there will be some sidings to which horses and carts have access for handling bulk goods like coal, gravel,.
In a large station the arrangements become much more complicated, the precise design being governed by the nature of the traffic that has to be served and by the physical configuration of the site.
It is generally convenient to keep the inwards and the outwards traffic distinct and to deal with the two classes separately; at junction stations it may also be necessary to provide for the transfer of freight from one wagon to another, though the bulk of goods traffic is conveyed through to its destination in the wagons into which it was originally loaded.
It may happen that from a large station sufficient traffic may be consigned to certain other large stations to enable full train-loads to be made up daily, or several times a day, and despatched direct to their destinations.
For suburban traffic with a service at a few minutes' interval and short distances between the stations electric traction has proved itself to be superior in many respects to the steam locomotive, but for main line traffic and long distance runs it has not yet been demonstrated that it is commercially feasible, though it is known to be practically possible.
For many years this was practically the only one used in America for all traffic, and it is often spoken of as the " American " type.
In America it is still the standard engine for passenger traffic, but for goods service it is now employed only on branch lines.
It has been extensively introduced, both in Great Britain and the continent of Europe, for passenger traffic, and is now the most numerous and popular class.
Used to some extent in France and Germany and considerably in England for passenger traffic of moderate weight.
Used on several English lines for fast passenger traffic, and also on many European railways.
It is used largely in America for goods traffic. In Europe it is in considerable favour for goods andpassenger traffic on heavy gradients.
The type is, however, less in favour than either the ten-wheel or the eight-coupled " Consolidation " for freight traffic.
(9) " Eight-coupled " total-adhesion type, o-8-o; now found on a good many English railways, and common on the continent of Europe for heavy slow goods traffic. In America it is comparatively infrequent, as total-adhesion types are not in favour.
It is used to a limited extent for mountain-grade goods traffic, and has the advantage over the " Consolidation " or eight-coupled type of lighter axle loads for a given tractive capacity.
Holden developed the use of liquid fuel on the Great Eastern railway to a point beyond the experimental stage, and used it instead of coal with the engines running the heavy express traffic of the line, its continued use depending merely upon the relative market price of coal and oil.
It may be divided into two classes, according as it is intended for passenger or for goods traffic.
a mile or less, and the money obtained from third-class travellers forms by far the most important item in the revenue from passenger traffic. Since the Midland railway's action in 1875 several other English companies have abandoned second-class carriages either completely or in part, and in Scotland they are entirely unknown.
The weight and speed of goods trains vary enormously according to local conditions, but the following figures, which refer to traffic on the London & North-Western railway between London and Rugby, may be taken as representative of good English practice.
but the great majority of couplings remain non-automatic. It may be pointed out that the general employment of side buffers in Europe greatly complicates the problem of designing a satisfactory automatic coupling, while to do away with them and substitute the combined buffer-coupling, such as is used in the United States, would entail enormous difficulties in carrying on the traffic during the transition stage.
Intra-urban railways, as compared with ordinary railways, are characterized by shortness of length, great cost per mile, and by a traffic almost exclusively passenger, the burden of which is enormously heavy.
It was found that there was not sufficient traffic to support them as purely intra-urban lines, and they have since been extended into the outskirts of London to reach the suburban traffic.
Except at the shafts, which were sunk on proposed station sites, there was no interference with the surface of the streets or with street traffic during construction.
The elevated is used where the traffic is so light as not to warrant the expensive underground construction, or where the construction of an elevated line is of no serious detriment to the adjoining property.
This type has the advantage of economy in first construction, there being the minimum amount of material to be excavated, and no interference during construction with street traffic or subsurface structures; it has, however, the disadvantage of the cost of o p eration of lifts at the stations.
The distance between stations on intra-urban railways is governed by the density of local traffic and the speed desired to be maintained.
As a general classification the commissioners have divided the schemes that have come before them into three classes: (A) those which like ordinary railways take their own line across country; (B) those in connexion with which it is proposed to use the public roads conjointly with the ordinary road traffic; and (Neutral) which includes inclined railways worked with a rope, and lines which possess the conditions of A and B in about equal porportions.
had been opened for traffic, and the mileage of lines opened was much less in proportion to the mileage sanctioned in the cases of lines constructed on their own land than in the case of lines more of the nature of tramways.
This was only .effected after great opposition from the ultra-Conservatives, but once accomplished the facilities were gladly accepted by all classes, and the traffic both in goods and passengers is already enormous.
The San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake railway, also an important factor in east and west transcontinental traffic, opened in May 1905, has been of special value in the development of the southern part of the state.
Phelan to tie up traffic in and around Cincinnati.
Harwich is one of the principal English ports for continental passenger traffic, steamers regularly serving the Hook of Holland, Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Antwerp, Esbjerg, Copenhagen and Hamburg.
But the passenger traffic appears to have been as important at Harwich in the 14th century as it is now.
There is, however, considerable traffic with the oasis of Kharga, which lies almost due west of the town.
In addition to being the principal emporium for the Austrian traffic on the Elbe, Tetschen has a considerable industry, its products comprising chemicals, oil, soap, cotton stuffs, plaster of Paris, glazed and coloured paper, cellulose, beer, flour and preserved fish.
He established the freedom of the instrumentalities of the national government from adverse legislation by the states; freedom of commerce between the different states; the right of Congress to regulate the entire passenger traffic through and from the United States, and the sacredness of public franchises from legislative assault.
There are two large fish-docks, and, for general traffic, the Royal dock, communicating with the Humber through a tidal basin, the small Union dock, and the extensive Alexandra dock, together with graving docks, timber yards, a patent slip, &c. These docks have an area of about 104 acres, but were found insufficient for the growing traffic of the port, and in 1906 the construction of a large new dock, of about 40 acres' area and 30 to 35 ft.
The bridge, which is used for vehicular traffic, dates from 1790-1794.
[[Table Xiv]].-Numbers of Cattle, Sheep and Pigs imported into the United Kingdom, 1891-1905 The animals come mainly from the United States of America, Canada and Argentina, and the traffic in cattle is more uniform than that in sheep, whilst that in pigs seems practically to have reached extinction.
Greville, nephew of Sir William Hamilton, who in 1790 laid out a town on this spot, the advantages of which as a convenient port for the Irish traffic he clearly recognized.
There are large engineering works and railway fitting shops at Penrith, which is also the junction for all the western goods traffic. The inhabitants of both towns are mainly railway employes.
Exhausting as the Turkish wars were to the Venetian treasury, her trade was still so flourishing that she might have survived the strain had not the discovery of the Cape route to the Indies cut the tap-root of her commercial prosperity by diverting the stream of traffic from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic. When Diaz rounded the Cape in 1486 a fatal blow was struck at Venetian commercial supremacy.
Venice lost her monopoly of oriental traffic.
After the great fire of 1872 it became possible, in the reconstruction of the business district, to widen and straighten its streets and create squares, and so provide for the traffic that had long outgrown the narrow, crooked ways of the older city.
The narrow streets and the traffic congestion of the business district presented difficult problems of urban transit, but the system is of exceptional efficiency.
The district is traversed by a line of the Eastern Bengal railway, but most of the traffic is still conducted by water.
Unhappily Frederick preferred to put his Sicilian house in order, and the legate preferred to listen to the Italians, who had their own 3 A canon of the third Lateran council (1179) forbade traffic with the Saracens in munitions of war; and this canon had been renewed by Innocent in the beginning of his pontificate.
The traffic with Arabia has ceased to be important, being limited to the time of the going and returning of the great pilgrimage to Mecca, which continues to have its musteringplace at Damascus, but leaves mainly by rail.
The Dipylon consists of an outer and an inner gate separated by an oblong courtyard and flanked on either side by towers; the gates were themselves double, being each composed of two apertures intended for the incoming and outgoing traffic. An opening in the city wall a little to the south-west, supposed to have been the Sacred Gate (iep t riAn), was in all probability an outlet for the waters of the Eridanus.
The Takau-Tainan section (26 m.) was opened to traffic on the 3rd of November 1 9 00, and by 1 9 05 the whole line of 259 in.
As Helston has the nearest railway station to the Lizard, with its magnificent coast-scenery, there is a considerable tourist traffic in summer.
Between Yemen and India the traffic till Roman times was mainly in the hands of Arabians or Indians; between Alexandria and Yemen it was carried by Greeks (Strabo ii.
It was Alexandria into which this stream of traffic poured and made it the commercial metropolis of the world.
In the Old and New Testaments the dog is spoken of almost with abhorrence; it ranked amongst the unclean beasts: traffic in it was considered as an abomination, and it was forbidden to he offered in the sanctuary in the discharge of any vow.
The first Englishman who engaged in the traffic was Sir John Hawkins.
As correct a notion as can be obtained of the numbers annually exported from the continent about the year 1790 by traders cf the several European countries engaged in the traffic is supplied by the following statement: - " By the British, 38,000; by the French, 20,000; by the Dutch, 4000; by the Danes, 2000; by the Portuguese, 10,000; total 74,000."
The Pennsylvanian Quakers advised their members against the trade in 1696; in 1754 they issued to their brethren a strong dissuasive against encouraging it in any manner; in 1774 all persons concerned in the traffic, and in 1776 all slave holders who would not emancipate their slaves, were excluded from membership. The Quakers in the other American provinces followed the lead of their brethren in Pennsylvania.
Accordingly, in 1811, Brougham carried through parliament a bill declaring the traffic to be a felony punishable with transportation.
In January 1815 Portuguese subjects were prohibited from prosecuting the trade north of the equator, and the term after which the traffic should be everywhere unlawful was fixed to end on the 21st of January 1823, but was afterwards extended to February 1830; England paid £300,000 as a compensation to the Portuguese.
By the peace of Ghent, December 1814, the United States and England mutually bound themselves to do all in their power to extinguish the traffic. It was at once prohibited in several of the South American states when they acquired independence, as in La Plata, Venezuela and Chile.
When the English slave trade had Anti" been closed, it was found that the evils of the traffic, slavery > as still continued by several other nations, were greatly aggravated.
In 1830 the traffic was declared piracy by the emperor of Brazil.
The closing of the traffic made the labour of the slaves more severe, and led to the employment on the plantations of many who before had been engaged in domestic work; but the slavery of Brazil had always been lighter than that of the United States.
The traffic in slaves has been repeatedly declared by the Ottoman Porte to be illegal throughout its dominions, and a law for its suppression was published in 1889, but it cannot be said to be extinct, owing to the laxity and too often the complicity of the government officials.
The centre of the traffic in Morocco was Sidi Hamed ibn Musa, seven days' journey south of Mogador, where a great yearly fair was held.
The number of small bays that can be utilized for coast trade traffic is extraordinary.
and has an important traffic), and the Damuji; in Matanzas the Canimar; and in Pinar del Rio the Cuyaguateje, are important streams. The water-parting in the four central provinces is very indefinite.
There he was joined by the Austrian advance guard, and together they decided to accept battle - indeed they had no alternative, as the roads in rear were so choked with traffic that retreat was out of the question.
Only two of these, however, maintain a weekly connexion with Basra, and they are quite inadequate to the freight traffic between the two cities.
The through railway traffic of Hamburg is practically confined to that proceeding northwards - to Kiel and Jutland - and for the accommodation of such trains the central (terminus) station at Altona is the chief gathering point.
The bed of the great river maintains a fairly constant position between its extreme banks, but the channels within that bed are so constantly shifting as to require close supervision on the part of the navigation authorities; so much detritus is carried down as to form a perpetually changing series of obstructions to steamer traffic.
The city was considered to be the key of Hungary, and its possession was believed to secure possession of Servia, besides giving command of the traffic between the Upper and the Lower Danube.
18 a wrecked vessels, cut if off from direct access to the sea; but through Manzanillo it continued a great clandestine traffic with Curacao, Jamaica, and other foreign islands all through the 17th and 18th centuries.
A wealthy man, addicted to his pleasures and his profits, finds religion to be a traffic so entangled, and of so many piddling accounts, that of all mysteries he cannot skill to keep a stock going upon that trade.
A state railway on the metre gauge from Wadhwan to the town of Dhrangadra, a distance of 21 m., was opened for traffic in 1898.
Deir itself is a thrifty and rising town, having considerable traffic; it is singularly European in appearance, with macadamized streets and a public garden.
But the traffic in this direction hardly became extensive till a later date.
The new caravan road to Isfahan, opened for traffic in 1900, promised, if successful, to give Ahvaz greater commercial importance.
long, and its first section was opened to traffic on April 30, 1854, and its second December 16, 1856.
The total mileage under traffic at the beginning of 1905 was 10,600 m., divided into 94 separate lines.
Of the 94 lines under traffic, 45 were operating by virtue of national and 49 by provincial and state concessions.
The first two sections of this great railway, which carry it across the coast range, were opened to traffic in 1858 and 1864.
The use of tramways for the transportation of passengers in cities dates from 1868, when the first section of the Botanical Garden line of Rio de Janeiro was opened to traffic. The line was completed with its surplus earnings and continued under the control of the American company which built it until 1882, when it was sold to a Brazilian company.
Mules are universally employed for animal traction, and narrow gauge lines with single-mule trams are generally used where the traffic is light.
Parts of this coastwise traffic are covered by other companies, two of which receive subsidies.
Besides these there are other companies engaged in the coasting and river traffic, either with subsidies from the state governments, as feeders for railway lines, or as private unsubsidized undertakings.
Public opinion declared against the traffic; severe laws were passed against it, and were so firmly enforced that in 1853 not a single disembarkation took place.
The latter drawback has been minimized by the continued success of the Aleppo administration in inducing the Anazeh Bedouins to become fellahin; but river traffic has not been resumed.
The control of the traffic is in the hands of the police, who, with the wharves and the tramways, are directed by the state government.
It was opened for traffic in 1860 and in 1874 was extended some 4 m.
Natal colonists were not merely the first in the field with the transport traffic to the new goldfields; they became some of the earliest proprietors of mines, and for several years many of the largest mining companies had their chief offices at Pietermaritzburg or Durban.
Previously Natal had only 221% of the traffic, and this agreement led to a revival in trade.
The passengers carried in 1907 numbered 107,171,000, the goods traffic was 61,483,000 tons; the traffic receipts for the year were £16,420,000.
The corresponding figures for 1880 were as follows: passengers carried, 9,34 6, 00 0; goods carried, 11,225,000 tons; traffic receipts, £4,300,000.
The zone tariff has given a great impetus both to passenger and goods traffic in Hungary, and has been adopted on some of the Austrian railways.
There is no doubt that there was a constant traffic between Greece and India, and it is more than probable that an exchange of produce would be accompanied by a transference of ideas.
Before the erection of the Tay Bridge the town was the scene of much traffic, as the railway ferry from Tayport was then the customary access to Dundee from the south.
Folkestone inner harbour is dry at low water, but there is a deep water pier for use at low tide by the Channel steamers, by which not only the passenger traffic, but also a large general trade are carried on.
The Delagoa Bay railway being at length completed to Pretoria and Johannesburg, Kruger determined to take steps to bring the Rand traffic over The Netherlands railway Drifts began by putting a prohibitive tariff on goods from the Vaal river.
After many years of labour and at a great expenditure of money the Great Western railway has constructed a fine breakwater and railway pier at Goodwick across the lower end of the bay, and an important passenger and goods traffic with Rosslare on the opposite Irish coast was inaugurated in 1906.
The Puerto Cabello and Valencia line (34 m.) is another British undertaking and carries a good traffic. A part of this line is built with a central cog-rail.
and the traffic is carried by foreign-owned steamers.
Under the administration of President Cipriano Castro this traffic was suspended for a long time, and trans-shipments were made at La Guaira.
The growth of traffic up and down the Elbe has of late years become very considerable.
A vast amount of traffic is directed to Berlin, by means of the Havel-Spree system of canals, to the Thuringian states and the Prussian province of Saxony, to the kingdom of Saxony and Bohemia, and to the various riverine states and provinces of the lower and middle Elbe.
The passenger traffic, which is in the hands of the Sachsisch-Bohmische Dampfschifffahrtsgesellschaft is limited to Bohemia and Saxony, steamers plying up and down the stream from Dresden to Melnik, occasionally continuing the journey up the Moldau to Prague, and down the river as far as Riesa, near the northern frontier of Saxony, and on the average 12 million passengers are conveyed.
Magdeburg is one of the most important railway centres in northern Germany; and the Elbe, besides being bridged - it divides there into three arms - several times for vehicular traffic, ' See Der Bau des Elbe-Trave Canals and seine Vorgeschichte (Lubeck, 1900).
At both Hamburg and Harburg, again, there are handsome railway bridges, the one (1868-1873 and 1894) crossing the northern Elbe, and the other (1900) the southern Elbe; and the former arm is also crossed by a fine triple-arched bridge (1888) for vehicular traffic.
The fishery is also carried on along the coast of Norfolk and Suffolk, where great quantities of the fish are caught with hook and line, and conveyed to market alive in "well-boats" specially built for this traffic. Such boats have been in use since the beginning of the '8th century.
The steamboat traffic has especially encouraged the ihflux of tourists, and the number of passing travellers may now be reckoned as between one and two millions annually.
London, Hamburg, Bremen and the chief Baltic ports as far as Riga and St Petersburg participate in the traffic on the Rhine.
The traffic at the chief German ports of the river aggregated 4,489,000 tons in 1870, but by 1900 this had grown to a total of 17,000,000 tons, thus distributed: Ruhrort, 6,512,000 tons; Duisburg, 3,000,000 tons; Cologne, 1,422,000 tons; and Mannheim, 6,021,000 tons.
The amount of traffic which passed the town of Emmerich near the Dutch frontier, both ways, increased from an annual average of about 6 million tons in 1881-85 to over 214 million tons in 1899.
It is, however, a very different thing to open a road for traffic, and so to construct it that it takes its name from that construction in perpetuity.
They sometimes cause a serious dislocation of railway and other traffic. Their principal cause is the smoke from the general domestic use of coal.
The County Council maintains a free ferry at Woolwich for passengers and vehicular traffic. The capital expenditure on this undertaking was £185,337 and the expense of maintenance in1907-1908£20,881.
It no longer forms an entrance to the park, as in 1908 a corner of the park was cut off and a roadway was formed to give additional accommodation for the heavy traffic between Oxford Street, Edgware Road and Park Lane.
These lines, especially the southern lines, the Great Eastern, Great Northern and South-Western carry a very heavy suburban traffic. Systems of joint lines and running powers are maintained to afford communication between the main lines.
Thus the West London Extension line carries local traffic between the North Western and Great Western and the Brighton and South-Western systems, while the Metropolitan Extension through the City connects the Midland and Great Northern with the South-Eastern & Chatham lines.
One of the most serious administrative problems met with in London is that of locomotion, especially as regards the regulation of traffic in the principal thoroughfares and at the busiest crossings.
But this control does not meet the problem of actually lessening the number of vehicles in the main arteries of traffic. At such crossings as that of the Strand and Wellington Street, Ludgate Circus and south of the Thames, the Elephant and Castle, as also in the narrow streets of the City, congestion is often exceedingly severe, and is aggravated when any main street is under repair, and diversion of traffic through narrow side streets becomes necessary.
The magnitude of the traffic problem as a whole may be best appreciated by examples of the vast schemes of improvement which from time to time have been put forward by responsible individuals.
The mere control of existing traffic, local street improvements and provision of new means of communication between casual points, were felt to miss the root of the problem, and in 1903 a Royal Commission was appointed to consider the whole question of locomotion and transport in London, expert evidence being taken from engineers, representatives of the various railway and other companies, of the County Council, borough councils and police, and others.
Finally, the commission made the important recommendation that a traffic board should be established for London, to exercise a general supervision of traffic, and to act as a tribunal to which all schemes of railway and tramway construction should be referred.
High pier dues, moreover, contributed to the decline of the traffic, and attempts to overcome the disinclination of passengers to use the river (at any rate in winter) show a record of failure.
A large pleasure traffic is maintained by the steamers of the New Palace Company and others in summer between London Bridge and Southend, Clacton and Harwich, Ramsgate, Margate and other resorts of the Kent coast, and Calais and Boulogne.
The principal railways have wharves and through connexions for goods traffic, and huge warehouses are attached to the docks.
There is a large passenger traffic, including pleasure trips, principally radiating from Toronto.
The Murray canal, opened for traffic on the 14th of April 1890, extends from Presqu'ile bay, on the north of the lake, to the head of the bay of Quinte, and enables vessels to avoid 70 m.
Wooden rails, protected by iron straps, are sometimes used on underground roads for temporary traffic; but steel rails, similar to, though lighter than, those employed for railways are the rule.
(For details see Hughes, Text-book of Coal Mining, pp. 236-272; Hildenbrand, Underground Haulage by Wire Rope.) Rope haulage is widely used in collieries, and sometimes in other mines having large lateral extent and heavy traffic. With the tail-rope system, cars are run in long trains at high speed, curves and branches are easily worked, and gradients may be steep, though undulating gradients are somewhat disadvantageous.
There is considerable traffic in grain and cattle brought from the surrounding districts; and twice a year there are large horse fairs.
The chief industries of the place are straw-plaiting, boatbuilding, and the manufacture of pottery; and a considerable traffic is carried on by means of the river.
The Khawak, at the head of the Panjshir tributary of the Kabul river, leading straight from Badakshan to Charikar and the city of Kabul, is now an excellent kafila route, the road having been engineered under the amir Abdur Rahman's direction, and it is said to be available for traffic throughout the year.
high and at present unnavigable owing to serious rapids in Lower Burma and at one or two places in the Shan States, but quite open to traffic for considerable reaches in its middle course.
The Sagaing-Monywa-Alon branch and the Meiktila-Myingyan branch were opened to traffic during 1900.
Five of the eight commissionerships and Lashio,the capital of the northern Shan States, have communication with each other by railway, but Taung-gyi and the southern Shan States can still only be reached by a hill-road through difficult country for cart traffic, and the headquarters of three commissionerships, Moulmein, Akyab and Minbu, have no railway communication with Rangoon.
A broad stream or canal crosses the city from south to north, and forms the principal highway for boat traffic. The main trade of the place is in raw silk, but some silk fabrics, such as flowered crape (chousha), are also manufactured.
The only ports of importance are Yambu and Jidda, which serve respectively Medina and Mecca; they depend entirely on the pilgrim traffic to the holy cities, without which they could not exist.
The pilgrim traffic increased largely in 1904 as compared with previous years; 74,600 persons landed at Jidda, 18,000 of whom were from British India, 13,000 from Java and the Straits Settlements, and the remainder from Turkish territory, Egypt and other countries: 235 out of a total of 334 steamships engaged in this traffic were British.
The famous well Zemzem at Mecca is said to belong to the early times, when the eastern traffic passed from the south to the north-west of Arabia through the Hejaz, and to have been rediscovered shortly before the time of Mahomet.
In the time of the crusades Vienna increased so rapidly, in consequence of the traffic that flowed through it, that in the days of Ottacar II.
The agricultural Sla y s of the Dnieper and the Oka were reduced to tribute, and before the end of the 7th century the Khazars had annexed the Crimea, had won complete command of the Sea of Azov, and, seizing upon the narrow neck which separates the Volga from the Don, had organized the portage which has continued since an important link in the traffic between Asia and Europe.
So important was this traffic held at Constantinople that, when the portage to the Don was endangered by the irruption of a fresh horde of Turks (the Petchenegs), the emperor Theophilus himself despatched the materials and the workmen to build for the Khazars a fortress impregnable to their forays (834).
The first Chinese coolies were introduced in 1849 to supply labourers on the sugar estates, which had begun to feel the effects of the suppression of the African slave traffic. At first the coolies were treated with cruelty.
There were 12 foreign steamship lines trading at Peruvian ports in 1908, some of them making regular trips up and down the coast at frequent intervals and carrying much of its coastwise traffic. Foreign sailing vessels since 1886 have not been permitted to engage in this traffic, but permission is given to steamships on application and under certain conditions.
Four miles below Ross the important ford of Goodrich probably carried traffic in British and Roman times, and a magnificent castle, on a precipice rising sheer above the right bank of the river, commands it.
This was due in the first place to the lack of adequate railway communication with the interior of Austria, to the loss of part of the Levant trade through the development of the Oriental railway system, to the diversion of traffic towards the Italian and German ports, and finally to the growing rivalry of the neighbouring port of Fiume, whose interests were vigorously promoted by the Hungarian government.
The Karawanken railway, a direct connexion with Bohemia and the northern industrial provinces of Austria, is calculated to counteract the gravitation of traffic towards the German ports; while the Tauern railway constitutes the shortest route to the interior of Austria and to the south of Germany.
A good carriage road constructed and worked by a Russian company and opened to traffic in 1899 connects Resht with Teheran via Kazvin.
It is now, however, the chief emporium of the Rhenish wine traffic, and also carries on an extensive transit trade in grain, timber, flour, petroleum, paper and vegetables.
Horses do not live, and all wheeled traffic is done by manual labour - hammocks and sedan-chairs are the customary means of locomotion.
The state has a natural water outlet in the Providence river and Narragansett Bay, but there is lack of adequate dockage in Providence harbour, and insufficient depth of water for ocean traffic. The ports of entry are Providence (by far the largest, with imports valued at $ 1, 8 93,55 1, and exports valued at $12,517 in 1909), Newport and Bristol.
Other bridges are the Obermainbriicke of five iron arches, opened in 1878; an iron foot (suspension) bridge, the Untermainbriicke; the Wilhelmsbriicke, a fine structure, which from 1849 to 1890 served as a railway bridge and was then opened as a road bridge; and two new iron bridges at Gutleuthof and Niederrad (below the city), which carry the railway traffic from the south to the north bank of the Main, where all lines converge in a central station of the Prussian state railways.
Yet the exigencies of traffic demand further extensions, and another large station was in 1909 in process of construction at the east end of the city, devised to receive the local traffic of lines running eastward, while a through station for the north to south traffic was projected on a site farther west of the central terminus.
The river Main has been dredged so as to afford heavy barge traffic with the towns of the upper Main and with the Rhine, and cargo boats load and unload alongside its busy quays.
The total length of lines open for traffic at the end of March 1906 was 4746 m., 1470 m.
open to traffic and 77 m.
Mannheim is the great emporium for the export of goods down the Rhine and has a large river traffic. It is also the chief manu facturing town of the duchy and the seat of administrative government for the northern portion of the country.
Long jetties spring out on either side of the entrance, curving round about midway in order to run parallel to the river, thus forming a huge funnelshaped entrance; the eastern jetty forms a landing-stage for passenger traffic and the western is designed for the shipment of bunker and cargo coal.
Calais is the principal port for the continental passenger traffic with England carried on by the South-Eastern & Chatham and the Northern of France railways.
Beyond this city the navigation is conducted by native craft, - the modern facilities for traffic by rail and the increasing shoals in the river having put an end to the previous steamer communication, which plied until about 1860 as high up as Allahabad.
The dock is provided with railways and machinery for facilitating traffic, including a large grain elevator.
The shipping traffic is chiefly in the coasting and Irish trade.
Como is a considerable tourist resort, and the steamboat traffic on the lake is largely for travellers.
At the present day, with the exception of the Chahar-sick, where there is always a certain amount of traffic, and where the great diversity of race and costume imparts much liveliness to the scene, Herat presents a very melancholy and desolate appearance.
The manufacture of biscuits and gingerbread, and of leather and farm implements is carried on, and there is considerable traffic in wood, wine, and the live-stock and agricultural produce of the surrounding country.
The rails used are of flat bottomed or bridge section varying in weight from 15 to 25 lb to the yd.; they are laid upon cross sleepers in a temporary manner, so that they can be easily shifted along the working faces, but are carefully secured along main roads intended to carry traffic continuously for some time.
Good roads for foot traffic have been made from the seaports to the trading stations on Lakes Nyasa, Tanganyika and Victoria.
The port has a practical monopoly of the passenger traffic between the Cape and England.
Mainly unnavigable and of little use for irrigation, the Orontes derives its historical importance solely from the convenience of its valley for traffic from N.
and N.E., converging at Antioch, follow the course of the stream up to Homs, where they fork to Damascus and to Coele-Syria and the S.; and along its valley have passed the armies and traffic bound to and from Egypt in all ages.
There was probably no direct intercourse with Egypt by way of the Nile, owing to the lake-like marshes between Bor and Fashoda, but instead an overland traffic with Ethiopia (the Land of Punt) via Mt Elgon and the Rudolf regions.
Between F and A A Virtual Virtual, erect, diminished Erect, same size CO Between oc and A A a superficial account of the traffic in indulgences, and a rough and ready assumption, which even Kostlin makes, that the darkness was greatest just before the dawn.
Y P Here he began to denounce the abuses in the Church, as well as the traffic in mercenaries which had so long been a blot upon his country's honour.
In competition with the railways, traffic on the existing canals suffered a marked decline.
Revenues for state purposes are derived from special taxes collected from the liquor traffic, corporations, transfers of decedents' estates, transfers of shares of stock, recording tax on mortgages, sales of products of state institutions, fees of public officers including fines and penalties, interest on deposits of state funds, refunds from department examinations and revenue from investments of trust funds, the most important of which are the common school fund and the United States deposit fund.
In 1610 a vessel was despatched with merchandise suitable for traffic with the Indians, the voyage resulted in profit, and a lucrative trade in peltry sprang up. Early in 1614 Adriaen Block explored Long Island Sound and discovered Block Island.
barcaniare, to traffic, possibly derived from barca, a barge..
Gray's Harbour, on the western coast, is of importance in lumber traffic.
When the inland trade fell away and the traffic of the coast towns took the sea route, the ancient metropolis and the numerous inland emporia came to ruin, while the many colonies in the north were broken up and their population dispersed.
A noise such as the roar due to traffic in a town may correspond physically in that it could probably be resolved into a nearly continuous series of wave-lengths, but psychically it is of no interest.
Keller, "in an age when iron and bronze had been long known, but had not come into our districts in such plenty as to be used for the common purposes of household life, at a time when amber had already taken its place as an ornament and had become an object of traffic."
Since 1867 it had been recognized that London Bridge was inadequate to carry the traffic passing over it, and a scheme for widening it was adopted in 1900.
It was not strong enough to deal with the increasing weight of railway traffic. In 1836 I.
12), begun in 1897 and opened for traffic in 1903, has a span of 1600 ft., a versed sine of 176 ft., and a width of 118 ft.
This bridge has now been replaced by a stronger bridge to carry the greater loads imposed by modern traffic. Fig.
The car receives the traffic and conveys it across the river, being caused to travel by electric machinery on the high level bridge.
Hence many of the earlier bridges have had to be strengthened to carry modern traffic. The following examples of some of the heaviest locomotives on English railways is given by W.
Waddell (De Pontibus, New York, 1898) proposes to arrange railways in seven classes, according to the live loads which may be expected from the character of their traffic, and to construct bridges in accordance with this classification.
Ban Jellacic, though loyal to the Emperor, had given expression to their aspirations towards unity as early as 1848; but Francis Joseph handed over the Croats and Serbs to Magyar domination (1867), and Dalmatia, the territory of the Austrian Croats, had been neglected by Vienna for years past; thus it was not till the years immediately preceding the war that it was rapidly developed by the construction of ports and railways and the encouragement of tourist traffic. The Slovenes, who inhabited Carinthia and Carniola, had less grounds for discontent, for the barren Karst had been afforested at the expense of the state; but though they were at the very gate of Serbia, they suffered from a shortage of meat, for Hungary obstructed the traffic in livestock in the interests of her great territorial magnates, and Austria bore the brunt of this.
Early in 1915 an institution was established for regulating the traffic in grain during the war (Kriegsgetreide-Verhehrs-Anstalt); it had been preceded by a central maize board, established to control the distribution of the maize contributed by Hungary.
These rivers are navigable for lake traffic into the heart of the city.
This is mainly due to the construction of the railway which runs from a point on the mainland opposite to Penang, through the Federated Malay States of Perak, Selangor and the Negri Sembilan to Malacca, and has diverted to other ports and eventually to Singapore much of the coastal traffic which formerly visited Penang.
Market-gardening is also extensively carried on, and there is a large river traffic in grain and agricultural produce.
In 1883 an electric railway, the first in the United Kingdom, was opened for traffic, connecting the Causeway with Portrush and Bushmills.
In central Siam, after Bangkok and Ayuthia, places of importance on the Menam Chao Phaya are Pak-Nam at the river mouth, the seat of a governor, terminus of a railway and site of modern fortifications; Paklat, the seat of a governor, a town of Mohns, descendants of refugees from Pegu; Nontaburi, a few miles above Bangkok, the seat of a governor and possessing a large market; Pratoomtani, Angtong, Prom, Inburi, Chainat and Saraburi, all administrative centres; and Lopburi, the last capital before Ayuthia and the residence of kings during the Ayuthia period, a city of ruins now gradually reawakening as a centre of railway traffic. To the west of the Menam Chao Phaya lie Suphanburi and Ratburi, ancient cities, now government headquarters; Pechaburi (the Piply of early travellers), the terminus of the western railway; and Phrapatoom, with its huge pagoda on the site of the capital of Sri Wichaiya, a kingdom of 2000 years ago, and now a place of military, agricultural and other schools.
The boat traffic on them is so great that the collection of a small toll more than suffices to pay for all maintenance expenses.
To the east of Bangkok the Bangkok-Petriew line (40 m.) was completed and open for traffic.
The city's foreign trade is light (the value of its imports was $859,442 in 1907; of its exports $664,525), but its river traffic is heavy, amounting to about 3,000,000 tons annually, and being chiefly in general merchandise (including food-stuffs, machinery and manufactured products), ores and metals, chemicals and colours, stone and sand and brick.
In 1514 a second Portuguese fleet arrived at Ternate, which during the next five years became the centre of Portuguese enterprise in the archipelago; regular traffic with Malacca and Cochin was established, and the native raja became a vassal of Portugal.
The district is served by numerous branches of the Great Western, London & North Western, and Midland railways, and is intersected by canals, which carry a heavy traffic, and in some places are made to surmount physical obstacles with remarkable engineering skill, as in the case of the Castle Hill tunnels at Dudley.
There was also the boundless abuse and arbitrary exercise of the right of ecclesiastical patronage (provisions, reservations); and further the ever-increasing traffic in dispensations, the abuse of spiritual punishments for worldly ends, and so forth.
In former times Agades was a place of great traffic, and had a population of about 50,000.
Before the war the Czechoslovak traffic on the Elbe totalled some 4 million tons annually.
Before doing this, however, it was necessary to define the limits of tribal properties already existing - a work of great difficulty - with a view to their ultimate division, and at the same time to guard against any premature traffic in the rights of Arabs in the lands about to be divided.
Meanwhile the labour traffic, which had been initiated, so far as the, Pacific islands were concerned, by an unsuccessful attempt in 1847 to employ New Hebridean labourers on a settlement near the present township of Eden in New South Wales, had attained considerable proportions, had been improperly exploited and, as already indicated, had led the natives to retaliation, sometimes without discernment, a notorious example of this (as was generally considered) being the murder of Bishop Patteson in 1871.
In 1872 an act was passed by the British government to regulate the labour traffic; Fiji was annexed in 1874, and in 1875 another act established the post of the British high commissioner.
A considerable traffic is carried on by barges on the Ouse.
The public interest in the ex-Speaker's later life centred entirely in his somewhat controversial connexion with the drink traffic. A royal commission was appointed in April 1896 to inquire into the operation and administration of the licensing laws, and Viscount Peel was appointed chairman.
It is an important steamboat station for both passenger and cargo traffic, and besides manufactures of cement, dyes and soap, has a considerable trade in the wines of the district.
The tramway was converted into a railway, and in 1865 opened for passenger traffic. In 1866 a dock (71 acres) and tidal basin (21 acres) were constructed, but since about 1902 they have fallen into disuse and the coal is diverged to other ports, chiefly Port Talbot.
In 1909 the ports were ready to receive large ocean steamships, and regular traffic was begun, including cargoes of Hawaiian sugar for New York.
The European wars of the French revolutionary period interfered with the traffic with Spain, and so relaxed the bonds of a commercial system which hampered the manufactures of Mexico and drained away its wealth.
Portsmouth, the only port of entry, has a very small foreign trade, but there is a considerable traffic in coal and building materials here and on the Cocheco, which is navigable to Dover.
From 1855 to 1903 the liquor law was essentially prohibitory, but in the latter year an act licensing the traffic was passed.
For local traffic there are several lines; one from Iztapa, near San J ose, to Naranjo, and another from Ocos to the western coffee plantations.
The signaculum manus prohibits all traffic with things generally, in so far as they carry in them elements of darkness.
The decline of tonnage engaged in ocean traffic was from 2,546,237 net tons in 1860 to 1,352,810 in 1880; and this decline continued in later years.
The traffic on these, measured in units moved one mile, was 28,797,781,231 passenger-miles, and 214,340,129,523 freight miles.
Rivers and canals are relatively much less important to-day than in the middle decades of the I 9th century, before the growth of the railway traffic made small by comparison the movement on the interior watercourses.
It was estimated by the Bureau of the Census that in 1906 the tonnage of freight moved by American vessels within American waters, excluding harbour traffic, was 177,519,758 short tons (as compared with 1,514,906,985 long tons handled by the railways of the country).
Compared with this volume of traffic the 1~Iovement through the Suez Canal is small.
Administrative law, including the regulation of urban and rural local government, state and local taxation and finance, education, public works, the liquor traffic, vaccination, adulteration, charities, asylums, prisons, the inspection of mines and factories, general laws relating to corporations, railways, labor questions.
What Ontario lacks in salt water navigation is, however, made up by the busy traffic of the Great Lakes.
Unfortunately, like other northward-flowing rivers, it does not lead down to a frequented sea, and so bears little traffic except for the northern fur-trading posts.
are continuously navigable for suitable steamers, so that most of the traffic connected with the rich Klondike gold-fields passes over its waters.
Her splendid lakes and rivers, the development of her canal system, and the growth of railways have made the interprovincial traffic of Canada far greater than her foreign, and the portfolio of railways and canals is one of the most important in the cabinet.
There is a considerable traffic on the river within the borders of Arkansas in miscellaneous freights, and a slight passenger movement.
So greatly was this dreaded by sailors that the principal line of traffic from the north of the Aegean to Athens used to pass by Chalcis and the Euboic Sea.
A series of subterranean ways extending many miles have been constructed to enable merchandise traffic to pass through without interfering with passenger trains on the surface railways.
The station is fitted with an extensive suite of offices for the interchange of postal traffic, the chief mails to and from Ireland and Scotland being stopped here and arranged for various distributing centres.
For many years after its foundation it depended entirely upon the traffic of the canal, being the chief coaling station of all ships passing through and becoming the largest coaling station in the world.
The river is crossed by a bridge for ordinary traffic, and by a fine railway viaduct.
With the rise of the Medici came a rapid increase of prosperity; Cosmo, Francis and Ferdinand erected fortifications and harbour works, warehouses and churches, with equal liberality, and the last especially gave a stimulus to trade by inviting "men of the East and the West, Spanish and Portuguese, Greeks, Germans, Italians, Hebrews, Turks, Moors, Armenians, Persians and others," to settle and traffic in the city, as it became in 1606.
The opening of the St Gothard tunnel exercised a prejudicial influence upon the traffic of the network of railways of which Turin is the centre, and Milan, owing to its nearness both to this and to the Simplon, has become the most important railway centre of Italy.
It was undertaken in 1903, during the administration of President Rodrigues Alves, as part of a vast scheme to improve the sanitary and traffic conditions of the city, including the construction of a new shore-line and filling in the shallow parts of the shore, which had long been considered one of the prime causes of the unhealthy state of the city.
All these old streets, excepting the last, are narrow and paved with squared granite blocks, and have their vehicle traffic regulated to go in one direction only.
The natural port is BremenGeestemunde and to it is directed the river traffic down the Weser, which practically forms the chief commercial artery of the province.
The Georgentor has been widened, and through it, and beneath the royal apartments, vehicular traffic from the centre of the town is directed to the Augustusbriicke.
The navigation on the Elbe has of recent years largely developed, and, in addition to trade by river with Bohemia and Magdeburg-Hamburg, there is a considerable pleasure-boat traffic during the summer months.
This in its ultimate form contained lectures on "Work," "Traffic," "War," and the "Future of England."
In 1873 the "foreignlabour" traffic in plantation hands for Queensland and Fiji extended its baneful influence from the New Hebrides to these islands.
The system it inaugurated has now extended its scope to telegraphs, copyright, industrial property, railway, traffic, the publication of customs tariffs, metric measures,) monetary systems and agriculture.
The railway traffic union was formed by a convention of 1890.
In 1908 five steamship companies were engaged in traffic between island ports and the mainland (including Mexico).
It is a stoppingpoint for the incipient steamer traffic of the valley, which is principally confined to the Apure and lower Orinoco.
The Gurkhas, after becoming masters of Nepal, were anxious to renew the profitable traffic in coin, and in this view sent a deputation to Lhasa with a quantity of coin to be put in circulation.
Homer represents the Phoenicians as present in Greek waters for purposes of traffic, but not as settlers (Il.
Situated on the main road from Trebizond into north-west Persia, the town has always a large caravan traffic, principally of camels, but since the improvement of communications in Russia this has declined.
Traces existing within the exterior porticos on north, west and east indicate much carriage traffic.
The town was burned in 1810 by the Russians; but after 1820 it began to revive, and the introduction of steam traffic on the lower Danube (1835) restored its prosperity.
After the construction of a road through Jebel Ansarieh to Hamah, Latakia drew a good deal of traffic from upper Syria; but the Hamah-Homs railway has now diverted much of this again.
Barcelona is well supplied with inland communication by rail, and the traffic of its streets is largely facilitated by tramway lines running from the port as far as Gracia and the other chief suburbs.
Leading east-north-east from the Piazza del Duomo, the centre of Milanese traffic, especially of electric trams, is the Corso Vittorio Emanuele.
Besides its maritime trade Rotterdam has an extensive river traffic, not only with Holland, but also with Belgium and Germany.
The total length of navigable channels is about 1150 m., but sand banks and shallows not infrequently impede the shipping traffic at low water during the summer.
In Friesland, finally, besides the ship canal from Harlingen to the Lauwers Zee there are canals from Leeuwarden to the Lemmer, whence there is a busy traffic with Amsterdam; and the Caspar Robles or Kolonels Diep, and the Hoendiep connect it with Groningen.
The value of the goods traffic is not so high, owing, principally, to the want of intercommunication between the various lines on account of differences in the width of the gauge.
To obtain a correct idea of the trade of Holland, greater attention than would be requisite in the case of other countries must be paid to the inland traffic. It is impossible to state the value of this in definite figures, but an estimate may be formed of its extent from the number of ships which it employs in the rivers and canals, and from the quantity of produce brought to the public market.
In connexion with this traffic there is a large fleet of tug boats; but steamor petroleum-propelled barges are becoming more common.
His edict prohibiting all commercial intercourse with the enemy at once aroused against him the bitter hostility of the merchants of Holland and Zeeland, who thrived by such traffic. His attempts to pack the council of State, on which already two Englishmen had seats, with personal adherents and to override the opposition of the provincial states of Holland to his arbitrary acts, at last made his position impossible.
The commune also tried to restrict the power of the barons, who, in the 13th century especially, though we find them feudatories of the holy see from the 10th century onwards, threatened to become masters of the whole territory, which is still dotted over with the baronial castles and lofty solitary towers of the rival families of Rome - Orsini, Colonna, Savelli, Conti, Caetani - who ruthlessly destroyed the remains of earlier edifices to obtain materials for their own, and whose castles, often placed upon the high roads, thus following a strategic line to a stronghold in the country, did not contribute to the undisturbed security of traffic upon them, but rather led to their abandonment.
The Pontine Marshes (q.v.) included in the latter division, were drained, according to the plan of Bolognini, by Pius VI., who restored the ancient Via Appia to traffic; but though they have returned to pasture and cultivation, their insalubrity is still notorious.
With them the providing of this necessary covering became the first purpose of their toil; subsequently it grew into an object of barter and traffic, at first among themselves, and afterwards with their neighbours of more temperate climes; and with the latter it naturally became an article of fashion, of ornament and of luxury.
Since the opening of the new port the traffic has considerably increased, and it exports oil, pig-lead, silver, flour, wine, marble and sandstone for paving purposes, while it imports quantities of coal, iron, cereals, phosphates, timber, pitch, petroleum, and mineral oils.
The revenue and expenditure were in the years stated as follows: - The revenue is made up from taxes, including customs, tolls, including returns from railway traffic, &c., and the balance comes The difference is made up of "special expenditure."
Though navigable for a few months only, the rivers of Poland have always been of considerable importance for the traffic of the country, and their importance is further increased by several canals connecting them with the Russian and German rivers.
Bergen is an important centre of the extensive tourist traffic of Norway.
This market became so much frequented that in 1319 a toll was levied upon all goods coming into the town, in order to defray the cost of the repair to the roads necessitated by the constant traffic, and in 1332 a similar toll was levied on all goods passing over the bridge called Feldenbrigge near Atherstone.
Several are navigable, and the facilities for inland water traffic are increased by canals.
were open to traffic and 400 m.
In 1903, the traffic of the port amounted to over one million tons.
in length from Andeer to Gallivaggio, it was calculated that the Spliigen line would become the shortest route from southern Germany to Milan, while at Chiavenna it would receive the traffic from the upper Engadine.
The development of the petroleum industry in the Apeshron peninsula (Baku) and the opening (1886) of the Transcaspian railway have greatly increased the traffic across the Caspian Sea.
They are also in all cases bordered by raised footways on both sides, paved in a similar manner; and for the convenience of foot-passengers, which was evidently a more important consideration than the obstacle which the arrangement presented to the passage of vehicles, which indeed were probably only allowed for goods traffic, these are connected from place to place by stepping-stones raised above the level of the carriage-way.
It is the centre of tourist traffic for western Argyllshire and the islands.
The extensive Russian trade is now largely conducted over the Siberian railroad, and this, next to the transit to London, represents the largest volume of tea traffic passing in one channel.
Apart from these docks Ostend has a very considerable passenger and provision traffic with England, and is the headquarters of the Belgian fishing fleet, estimated to employ 400 boats and 1600 men and boys.
The Tirgului supplies water-power for several paper-mills; annual fairs are held on the 10th of July and the 24th of October; and there is a considerable traffic with Transylvania,over the Torzburg Pass, 15 m.
While moderate in personal expenditure, Julius resorted to objectionable means of replenishing the papal treasury, which had been exhausted by Alexander VI., and of providing funds for his numerous enterprises; simony and traffic in indulgences were increasingly prevalent.
national traffic, like that through the Mlhausen Gate in Alsace.
of railway completed and open for ______ traffic in 1906, only 2579 m.
The Bavarian system embraces 4642 m., and is controlled and managed, apart from the general direction in Munich, by ten traffic boards, in Augsburg, Bamberg, Ingolstadt, Kempten, Munich, Nuremberg, Regensburg, Rosenheim, Weiden and Wurzburg.