It's a tradition around here.
Our family has a long tradition of self-sacrifice and charity.
Maybe we should start the tradition again.
Well... I don't mind breaking tradition and seeing you this morning, but...
For once, just follow tradition and look like a normal bride.
A letter of Bishop George of Arabia to Jeshu, a priest of the town Anab, dated 714 (edited by Dashian, Vienna, 1891), contains an independent tradition of Gregory, and styles him a Roman by birth.
The first known king of the former was Ida, who, according to tradition, acquired the throne in 547 and reigned twelve years.
"That's nice," said Fred O'Connor, who had zero tradition, at least as far has Dean had learned in the fifteen years he'd lived with the old man.
In Naples King Ferdinand retained some of the laws and institutions of Murats rgime, and many of the functionaries of the former government entered Naples his service; but he revived the Bourbon tradition, the odious police system and the censorship; and a degrading religious bigotry, to which the masses were all too much inclined, became the basis of government and social iife.
In the various ceramic arts Italy was once unrivalled, but the ancient tradition for a long time lost its primeval impulse.
Revelation is not Scripture alone, for Scripture taken by itself does not correspond exactly with his description; nor is it church tradition alone, for church tradition must so far rest on Scripture.
In 1503 a French navigator named Binot Paulmyer, sieur de Gonneville, was blown out of his course, and landed on a large island, which was claimed to be the great southern land of tradition, although Flinders and other authorities are inclined to think that it must have been Madagascar.
These are the instinctive, plain, and most legitimate questions humanity asks itself when it encounters the monuments and tradition of that period.
The tradition I was referring to was you not eating breakfast.
So how about breaking tradition and going out to breakfast with me?
How worn and dusty, then, must be the highways of the world, how deep the ruts of tradition and conformity!
The Talmudic tradition (Baba Batlara 14b) that the men of the Great Synagogue " wrote " Ezekiel, may refer to editorial work by later scholars.'
(The most precious ones, with which some family tradition was connected, were being taken with them.)
In later tradition, Sarpedon was the son of Zeus and Europa and the brother of Minos.
There is hardly one of Wagner's orchestral innovations which is not inseparably connected with his adaptation of music to the re q uirements of drama; and modern conductors, in treating Wagner's orchestration, as the normal standard by which all previous and contemporary music must be judged, are doing their best to found a tradition which in another fifty years will be exploded as thoroughly as the tradition of symphonic additional accompaniments is now exploded in the performances of Bach and Handel.
There is a tradition that under this tree King Philip, the heroic Indian chief, gazed his last on earth and sky.
By rigid precedence the Brahmans occupy the first rank; they are numerous and influential, and with them may be classed the peculiar and important caste of Bhats, the keepers of secular tradition and of the genealogies.
The church of All Saints is mentioned in Domesday, and tradition ascribes the building of its nave to King John, while the western side of the tower must be older still.
According to local tradition he was buried at Cefn-y-bedd ("the ridge of the grave") close by, but it is more likely that his headless trunk was taken to Abbey Cwmhir.
The older records utilized by the Deuteronomic and later compilers indicate some common tradition which has found expression in these varying forms. Different religious standpoints are represented in the biblical writings, and it is now important to observe that the prophecies of Hosea unmistakably show another attitude to the Israelite priesthood.
of England, on which a large southern land is shown, and the tradition of a Terra Australis appears to have been current for a long period before it enters into authentic history.
Even then he had begun to distrust the authority of tradition and his teachers.
The house of Bouillon was not alone in claiming the knight of the swan as an ancestor, and the tradition probably originally belonged to the house of Cleves.
Note the curious old tradition that Ezra wrote out the law which had been burnt (2 Esdr. xiv.
Revelation is a divine source of knowledge, of which Scripture and church tradition are the channels; and he who would rightly v.
The prestige of the empire~ based upon Roman law and feudal tradition, attracts imaginatiw patriots and systematic thinkers.
In the 14th century the district was first overrun by the Mahommedans, after which it was annexed to the newly established Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar, an official of which named Dhar Rao, according to local tradition, built the fort at Dharwar town in 1403.
For some suggestive remarks on the relation between nomadism and the Levites, and their influence upon Israelite religion and literary tradition, see E.
The tradition was steadily followed and was extended to some ladies of the imperial family and even to imperial favourites.
The Athenian tradition, which he follows in the main, would naturally seek to obscure their services.
Other evidence allows us to link together the Kenites, Calebites and Danites in a tradition of some movement into Palestine, evidently quite distinct from the great invasion of Israelite tribes which predominates in the existing records.
Tradition indicates Selby as the birth-place of Henry I., and thus accounts for the high privileges conferred upon the abbey.
There is probably no other branch of art in which orthodox tradition is so entirely divorced from the historical sense, and the history, when studied at all, so little illuminated by the permanent artistic significance of its subjects.
The king's attitude secured for him the good will and affection of a people, loyal by tradition to the house of Orange, and the revolutionary disturbances of 1848 found no echo in Holland.
Tradition derives the name from Aegina, the mother of Aeacus, who was born in and ruled the island.
The family tradition, however, is that he silenced the drums to enable Louis to speak to the people, and that General J.
Boston is a fascinating city, rich in history and tradition.
In the tradition of a steak house menu, dishes include steaks, ribs, seafood and daily specials.
It was therefore of the first importance that the chain of tradition should be continuous and trustworthy.
The name Masorah (Massorah) is usually derived from masar, to hand on, and explained as "tradition."
The later tradition and the Shahname of Firdousi makes him (in the modern form Kai Gushtasp) king of Iran.
Butler's tradition was more directly continued by J.
8, which is independent of the chronicler's artificial treatment of his material, apparently points to some tradition of Egyptian suzerainty.
2 Later tradition (Mish., Kil.
The tradition, recorded by Pliny (Nat.
It justifies the expansion of the second article of the developed Christian creed from the standpoint of the earliest Christian tradition.
The tradition which St Paul received included, so to speak, the germ of the central prayer in the Eucharist (r Cor.
The White Gods had a long tradition of finding and mating with Oracles.
Rather than cut her, he bound their arms with a long strip of leather as was tradition.
Professor Marr has lately published an Arabic text from a MS. in Sinai which seems to contain an older tradition.
The legislation on Mt Sinai (Horeb) which apparently occupies a very important place in tradition (Exod.
The fashion could hardly have taken root except in a land where the tradition had gone before it.
Christ resumes the Broken Tradition of Prophetism.
from Yemen, is especially valuable as representing an independent tradition.
The fashionable use of French for nearly two centuries longer was far more a French fashion than a Norman tradition.
When the tradition of speaking French had all but died out, the practice was revived by fashion.
Still the tradition had its effect.
Men are Colorados or Blancos largely by tradition and not from political conviction.
But there is no continuous tradition or steady trend of discussion.
The influence of the Deuteronomic tradition in redaction is seen in such passages as Genesis xxxiii.
in a special way connected by ancient tradition.
This last tradition, which was received as an undoubted fact both by Thucydides and Aristotle, has during the last few years received striking confirmation.
Tradition represents the dictatorship as having a life of three centuries in the history of the Roman state.
Tradition Introduc= made him a descendant of the ancient nobles of lion t0 Saul.
10-15, xxix., and on this and other grounds the simpler tradition in 2 Sam.
goddesses, and ancient tradition affirmed that the whole island was sacred to them.
This accords with the cherished tradition which made the Athenians children of the soil, and free from admixture with conquering tribes.
120, and, according to tradition, the body of the emperor Severus who died there in A.D.
The term primarily denotes " reception " and then " doctrines received by tradition."
Arab tradition regards it as the home of Job; and it is famous as being the centre of the Ghassanid dynasty.
There was a tradition of learning (Job viii.
How numerous they were when the Spaniards first came among them cannot be said; undoubtedly tradition has greatly exaggerated their number.
According to tradition, the first Passover ("The Passover of Egypt"), was preordained by Moses at the command of God.
10, is associated in Jewish tradition with the barley harvest (Mishna, Menachoth x.).
It is not surprising therefore that Hebrew tradition connects it with the Exodus, the beginning of the theocratic life of the nation.
Tradition associates his name with the mountains of Wicklow, and we are told that he retired to the land of the Picts in North Britain, where he died.
According to the story, he immediately proceeded northward to the kingdom of Ulidia (east Ulster), though a certain tradition represents him as going to Meath.
Even then it allowed those rites to survive which could prove a tradition of 200 years.
In the Protestant Churches 2 the custom as to vestments differs widely, corresponding to a similar divergence in tradition and teaching.
In Hindu (the Puranas), Parsi and Arab tradition, Mer y is looked upon as the ancient Paradise, the cradle of the Aryan families of mankind, and so of the human race.
All claims to the possession of a secret tradition were denied (Irenaeus ii.
The Jarejas have a tradition that when they entered Cutch they were Mahommedans, but that they afterward adopted the customs and religion of the Hindus.
The earliest inhabitants of Laconia, according to tradition, were the autochthonous Leleges.
For like reasons the tradition of the instruments, i.e.
But, according to older Jewish tradition attested by Origen, 4 Ps.
was Ezra does not seem to rest on Jewish tradition.
It may fairly be contended therefore that the tradition that David is the author of the psalms which are assigned to him in books I.
In a word, the ascription of these two collections to_David has none of the characters of a genuine historical tradition.
These have oriental analogies, and lend support to the tradition that the Etruscans came from Asia.
The drug has naturally always been liable to great adulteration in spite of penalties, the severity of which suggests the surviving tradition of its sacred character.
According to tradition he flourished during the first half of the 8th century B.C. He was a vigorous and energetic ruler and greatly increased the power of Argos.
Chronos begat fire, air and water, and from these three sprang numerous other gods; Smoke and darkness appear in a later tradition.
Another Vatican MS. of the 10th century contains illustrations based on an old tradition.
During a war with the Apalachee Indians in 1638 the Spaniards, according to tradition, fortified a hill W.
The long tradition of French friendship for Turkey had been broken, in 1830, by the conquest of Algiers.
Tradition, which early regards him as one of the seventy (Clem.
But the evidence for his having visited Rome (later tradition says also Milan) is stronger because more varied (Clem.
But, in any case, the Barnabas of history was a greater man than the Barnabas of modern tradition.
Of the Christian Abyssinian kings in Arabia tradition tells of four, one only of whom is mentioned in inscriptions.
Cheikho, Paris, 1906), which are very important because he gives the Christian tradition; Suli (d.
History and tradition were preserved by the bards, and dramas were enacted before the sovereign and his court.
The Kenites also, with whom another tradition connects Moses, seem to have been worshippers of Yahweh.
These monuments were originally natural grottoes, which tradition assigned as habitations to the local nymphs.
The place was laid out as a town in 1828, and according to tradition was named in honour of the Roman emperor Hadrian.
He is notable for his association with St Thomas in early Christian tradition.
What tradition brought was the results; what Comte brought was the organization of these results.
Tradition says that he " foamed at the mouth."
The last member of it, Simon the Just (either Simon I., who died about 300 B.C., or Simon II., who died about 200 B.C.), was the first of the next series, called Elders, represented in the tradition by pairs of teachers, ending with Hillel and Shammai about the beginning of the Christian era.
By this time the collection of halakhic material had become very large and various, and after several attempts had been made to reduce it to uniformity, a code of oral tradition was finally drawn up in the and century by Judah ha-Nasi, called Rabbi par excellence.
998) was the author of the famous "Letter" (in the form of a Responsum to a question addressed to him by residents in Kairawan), an historical document of the highest value and the foundation of our knowledge of the history of tradition.
about 1180), in philosophy an Aristotelian (through Avicenna) and the precursor of Maimonides, is chiefly known for his Sepher haqabbalah, written as a polemic against Karaism, but valuable for the history of tradition.
The religion and language have both died out, being only preserved by a few priests of the old cult; but even among them the tradition of the pronunciation of the language has been lost.
The meanings of the monosyllables were differentiated, as in the other Tai languages and in Chinese, by a system of tones, but these were rarely indicated in writing, and the tradition regarding them is lost.
Dholahtaf, but is now known as the Cherra-Saadeh, and is in the popular tradition said to have been excavated by a man from Basra at the behest of a woman of Hit whom he desired to make his wife.
Israelite tradition had ascribed the conquest of Jerusalem, Hebron and other cities of Judah to the Ephraimite Joshua; Judaean tradition, on the other hand, relates the capture of the sacred city from a strange and hostile people (2 Sam.
There were other traces in the Hellenistic courts of the old Macedonian tradition besides in dress.
The same tradition attaches to Tong Castle in Shropshire.
Kuchum fled to the steppes, abandoning his domains to Yermak, who, according to tradition, purchased by the present of Siberia to Ivan IV.
When the view had once obtained currency, it would naturally become a tradition.
According to tradition the male and female gods lived in mountains whence they descended to hear the prayers of the people.
Wisdom Tree, under which the Buddha had attained wisdom) to Ceylon in the 3rd century s.c. The Bodhi Vamsa quotes verses from the Mahavamsa, but draws a great deal of its material from other sources; and it has occasionally preserved details of the older tradition not found in any other sources known to us.
At the same time he reproduces their scandalous anecdotes in a quite uncritical spirit, and accepts unquestioningly the 4th-century tradition.
27 seq.).5 Some tradition of a widespread movement appears to be ascribed to the age of Jehu, whose accession, promoted by the prophet Elisha, marks the end of the conflict between Yahweh and Baal.
E.S.E., there is a 13th-century church, dedicated to St Aril, who, according to tradition, was martyred in the 9th century by unconverted Serbs.
the rites based on the sruti or revelation - requiring at least three sacrificial fires and a number of priests, as distinguished from the grihya (domestic) or smarta (traditional) rites, supposed to be based on the smriti or tradition, which are performed on the house-fire and dealt with in the Grihya-sutras.
The contrast between the new regime and the ancient tradition of the city was curiously illustrated in 1818 by a scene described in Metternich's Memoirs, when, before the opening of the congress, Francis I., emperor of Austria, regarded by all Germany as the successor of the Holy Roman emperors, knelt at the tomb of Charlemagne amid a worshipping crowd, while the Protestant Frederick William III.
The fathers of the first six or seven centuries, so far as they agree, may be fairly taken to represent the main stream of Christian tradition and belief during the period when the apostolic teaching took shape in the great creeds and dogmatic decisions of Christendom.
i) Moses received on Mount Sinai not only the written Law as set down in the Pentateuch, but also the Oral Law, which he communicated personally to the 70 elders and through them by a "chain of tradition" to succeeding ages.
Although the rise of the Hebrew state, at an age when the great powers were quiescent and when such a people as the Philistines is known to have appeared upon the scene, is entirely intelligible, it is not improbable that legends of Saul and David, the heroic founders of the two kingdoms, have been put in a historical setting with the help of later historical tradition.
5 sqq.); or in the late insertion of local tradition encircling Jerusalem; or in the perplexing attitude of the histories towards the district of Benjamin and its famous sanctuary of Bethel (only about 10 m.
In this, as in so many other respects, the old Cretan tradition receives striking confirmation.
According to tradition he was buried at Samaria (Theodoret, H.E.
ST GREGORY (c. 213-c. 270), surnamed in later ecclesiastical tradition Thaumaturgus (the miracle-worker), was born of noble and wealthy pagan parents at Neocaesarea in Pontus, about A.D.
At his court he installed Benvenuto Cellini, Francesco Primaticcio and Rosso del Rosso, but in the buildings at Chambord, St Germain, Villers-Cotterets and Fontainebleau the French tradition triumphed over the Italian.
The fall of many of the monuments, according to Bent, was caused by the washing away of the foundations by the stream called Mai Shum, and indeed the native tradition states that " Gudert, queen of the Amhara," when she visited Axum, destroyed the chief obelisk in this way by digging a trench from the river to its foundation.
Whatever the origin of the Bassarabs may be, the foundation of the Walachian principality is undoubtedly connected with a member of that family, who, according to tradition, came from Transylvania and settled first in Campulung and Tirgovishtea.
Another tradition assigns them as ancestor Menelek, Solomon's alleged son by the queen of Sheba.
But as the claims of the church to be the guardian through its episcopate of the apostolic tradition, of the Christian faith itself, were magnified, and unity in practice as well as in doctrine came to be regarded as essential, this distinction became a theoretical rather than a practical one.
the Sunnites, who held by the Koran and tradition) maintained that this should be determined by the choice of the community.
We must, however, study this element in the most important Babylonian tradition, even if only for its relation to non-Semitic myths and especially to some striking passages in the Bible (Isa.
To-day their descendants are not more subject to goitre and cretinism than those dwelling around them, and are recognized by tradition and not by features or physical degeneracy.
Tradition ascribes to Theseus, whom it also regards as the author of the union (synoecism) of Attica round Athens as a political centre, the division of the Attic population into three classes, Eupatridae, Geomori and Demiurgi.
He ruled ten years, quarrelled almost continuously with the Jews - whom Sejanus, diverging from the Caesar tradition, is said to have disliked - and in A.D.
No other name associated with any form of literature belonging to the pre-literary age has been preserved by tradition.
This isolation from the familiar ways of his contemporaries, while it was, according to tradition and the internal evidence of his poem, destructive to his spirit's health, resulted in a work of genius, unique in character, which still stands forth as the greatest philosophical poem in any language.
And, though he cannot unroll before us the page of heroic action with the power and majesty of Homer, yet by the sympathy with which he realizes the idea of Rome, and by the power with which he has used the details of tradition, of local scenes, of religious usage, to embody it, he has built up in the form of an epic poem the most enduring and the most artistically constructed monument of national grandeur.
The tradition was continued in the 4th century by Nonius Marcellus and C. Marius Victorinus, both Africans; Aelius Donatus, the grammarian and commentator on Terence and Virgil, Flavius Sosipater Charisius and Diomedes, and Servius, the author of a valuable commentary on Virgil.
The conquest of Laconia at least is represented in 5th-century tradition as immediate and complete, though one legend admits the previous death of the Heracleid leader Aristodemus, and another describes a protracted struggle in the case of Corinth.
The 5th-century tradition that the Heracleid kings of Macedon were Temenid exiles from Argos may belong to the same cycle.
The following are the problems: - (1) Was there a Dorian invasion as described in the legends; and, if not, how did the tradition arise?
Arcadia, on the other hand, in the heart of Peloponnese, retained till a late date a quite different dialect, akin to the ancient dialect of Cyprus, and more remotely to Aeolic. This distribution makes it clear (r) that the Doric dialects of Peloponnese represent a superstratum, more recent than the speech of Arcadia; (2) that Laconia and its colonies preserve features alike, -n and -w which are common to southern Doric and Aeolic; (3) that those parts of " Dorian " Greece in which tradition makes the pre-Dorian population " Ionic," and in which the political structure shows that the conquered were less completely subjugated, exhibit the Ionic -a and -ov; (4) that as we go north, similar though more barbaric dialects extend far up the western side of central-northern Greece, and survive also locally in the highlands of south Thessaly; (5) that east of the watershed Aeolic has prevailed over the area which has legends of a Boeotian and Thessalian migration, and replaces Doric in the northern Doris.
The permanent gain to the service due to his exertions was far more than formal, for it is to him that the general staff owes its tradition of thorough and patient individual effort.
The oracle at Delphi was asserted by tradition to have existed before the introduction of the Apolline worship and to have belonged to the goddess Earth (Ge or Gaia).
Nisus was the eponymous hero of the harbour of Nisaea, and local tradition makes no mention of his betrayal by his daughter.
An attempt to intervene in the war of Russia and Austria against Turkey failed of its object; Prussia did not succeed in obtaining any concessions of territory from the alarms of the Allies, and the dismissal of Hertzberg in 17 9 1 marked the final abandonment of the anti-Austrian tradition of Frederick the Great.
Local tradition asserts that Frome was a medieval borough, and the reeve of Frome is, occasionally mentioned in documents after the reign of Edward I., but there is no direct evidence that Frome was a borough and no trace of any charter granted to it.
The national kingdoms founded by the Northern races, after the fall of the Roman Empire, under the influence of the classical tradition, are the beginnings of the modern European system; Philip of Macedon foreshadows Theodoric, Charlemagne and William the Conqueror.
The prophecy must, therefore, be regarded as anonymous; the title was added by the compiler 1 A Hebrew tradition given in the Targum of Jonathan, and approved by Jerome, identifies Malachi with Ezra the priest and scribe.
The church of Preshute, largely rebuilt, but preserving its Norman pillars, has a curious piscina, and a black basalt font of great size dating from 1100-1150, in which according to a very old tradition King John was baptized.
But here Joab had taken the side of Adonijah against Solomon, and was put to death by Benaiah at Solomon's command, and it is possible that the charges are the fruit of a later tradition to remove all possible blame from Solomon (q.v.).
Herein lies the importance of the priesthood: the priest is not, as in other religions, the mediator between god and man, but on the one hand for the purpose of state-worship the chosen representative of the whole people, on the other the repository of tradition and ritual lore.
(a) Tradition always assigned to the last three kings of Rome a connexion with the mysterious people of Etruria, and their influence at this period though not very definite was certainly extensive.
Morris, in The Defence of Guinevere, speaks of "gloomy Gawain"; perhaps the most absurdly misleading epithet which could possibly have been applied to the "gay, gratious, and gude" knight of early English tradition.
Gaston Paris, belongs to the very earliest stage of Arthurian tradition, long antedating the crystallization of such tradition into literary form.
Gawain, however, belonged to the pre-Christian stage of Grail tradition, and it is not surprising that writers, bent on spiritual edification, found him somewhat of a stumbling-block.
The early church condemned specularii (mirror-gazers), and Aubrey and the Memoirs of Saint-Simon contain "scrying" anecdotes of the 17th and 18th centuries, while Sir Walter Scott's story, My Aunt Margaret's Mirror, is based on a tradition of about 1750 in a noble Scottish family.
Meanwhile, in America the Puritan tradition, adapted to the new conditions, is represented by Cotton Mather, and later by Jonathan Edwards, the greatest preacher of his time and country.
By the Jews 2 the introduction of Targums is ascribed to Ezra; but this tradition, which probably owes its origin to the Talmudic explanation of Neh.
The Talmudic tradition, however, is, doubtless, correct in connecting the origin of Targums with the custom of reading sections from the Law at the weekly services in the synagogues, since the need for a translation into the vernacular must first have arisen on such occasions.
and xiii.), which might be either read and translated, or only read and not translated, or (according to a different tradition) neither read nor translated.
They belonged to the class of traditional literature which it was forbidden to write down, and, so long at least as the Targum tradition remained active, there would be little temptation to commit it to writing.
Hence there is no need to reject the tradition as to the existence of a written Targum on Job in the time of Gamaliel I.
9 But, as Dalman has pointed out,' 0 it was not these manuscripts, but the living tradition of the learned which was recognized as authoritative throughout the period which closes with the compilation of the Talmud..
Yet it is impossible to hold that the Targum of Onkelos was the only representative of Targum tradition that existed among the Jews down to the 7th century A.D., the period to which the internal evidence compels us to assign the Targum Jerushalmi as used by the Fragmentary Targum and the pseudo-Jonathan.
We must rather assume that a tolerably fixed Targum tradition existed in Palestine from quite early times.
This old Targum tradition, however, never received official recognition in Palestine, and was unable, therefore, to hold its own when the new Babylonian version was introduced.
Throughout his long professorial career, and in all his numerous publications he remained, in spite of occasional deviations on particular points, loyal to the Hegelian tradition as a whole.
According to tradition, a nunnery to which the manor belonged existed here before the Conquest, and Earl Godwin, by bringing about its dissolution, obtained the manor.
In the Homeric poems Corinth is a mere dependency of Mycenae; nor does it figure prominently in the tradition of the Dorian migrations.
Under the new dynasty of Aletes, which reigned according to tradition from 10 74 to 747, Corinthian history continues obscure.
He went to the schools of philosophy, and heard lectures on Plato, Diogenes, Clitomachus and Carneades; the conjunction of names show how philosophy had become a dead tradition.
Another tradition places the expulsion of Hagar after the birth of Isaac. It was thirteen years after the birth of Ishmael, according to the latest narratives, that God appeared unto Abram with a renewed promise that his posterity should inhabit the land.
Late tradition supposed that the migration was to escape Babylonian idolatry (Judith v., Jubilees xii.; cf.
The route along the banks of the Euphrates from south to north was so frequently taken by migrating tribes that the tradition has nothing improbable in itself, but the prominence given in the older narratives to the view that Haran was the home gives this the preference.
19 the " ancient tradition " attributing the denunciation of these to " some of the heretics " is perhaps not from Hegesippus; but in iv.
Papias, his ETaZpos (Irenaeus), turns in fact from " the vain talk of the many, and from the " alien commandments " to such as were " delivered by the Lord to the faith," offering to the Christian world his Interpretation of the Lord's Oracles based upon personal inquiry from those who " came his way," who could testify as to apostolic tradition.
All these writers in one form or other revert to the historic tradition against the licence of innovators.
Its life is the measure of the period of oral tradition, whose requiem is sung by Papias.
According to tradition and to St Chrysostom (Horn.
The Articles of Marburg, which thus came into being, contain the doctrine of the Trinity, of the personality of Christ, of faith and justification, of the Scriptures, of baptism, of good works, of confession, of government, of tradition, and of infant baptism.
Tegea was one of the most ancient cities of Peloponnesus; tradition ascribed its concentration (synoecism) out of eight or nine primitive cantons to a mythical king Aleus.
In contrast to the great French actress she avoided all "make-up"; her art depended on intense naturalness rather than stage effect, sympathetic force and poignant intellectuality rather than the theatrical emotionalism of the French tradition.
The invention of the art of writing afforded the means of substituting precise and permanent records for vague and evanescent tradition; but in the infancy of the world, mankind had learned neither to estimate accurately the duration of time, nor to refer passing events to any fixed epoch.
On the contrary, the champions of the tradition that the earth was less than six thousand years old held their ground most tenaciously, and the earlier years of the Victorian era were years of bitter controversy.
Early in the 'forties the Frenchman Botta, quickly followed by Sir Henry Layard, began making excavations on the site of ancient Nineveh, the name and fame of which were a tradition having scarcely more than mythical status.
It was ably argued by Sir George Cornewall Lewis, in connexion with his inquiries into early Roman history, that a verbal tradition is not transmitted from one generation to another in anything like an authentic form for a longer period than about a century.
According to a tradition, possibly more authentic, they were re-established by Iphitus, king of Elis, in concert with the Spartan Lycurgus and Cleosthenes of Pisa.
SALII, the "dancers," an old Italian priesthood, said to have been instituted by Numa for the service of Mars, although later tradition derived them from Greece.
Local tradition connects the name with that of Wallis or Wallace, a Scottish buccaneer, who, in 1638, settled, with a party of logwood cutters, on St George's Cay, a small island off the town.
The Mahommedan writer Alberuni states that in former times the kings of the Hindus (among whom he mentions Kanik or Kanishka) were Turks by race, and this may represent a native tradition as to the affinities of the Yue-Chi.
According to tradition, Kormoczbanya was founded in the 8th century by Saxons.
Ernesti wished to subject the Scripture to the same laws of exposition as are applied to other ancient books; Crusius held firmly to orthodox ecclesiastical tradition.
The general tendency of his mind ran counter to tradition, and he is remarkable as resuming in his individual history all the phases of Protestant theology from Luther to Socinus.
It was according to Roman tradition one of the oldest cities of Etruria and indeed of all Italy, and, if Camars (the original name of the town, according to Livy) is rightly connected with the Camertes Umbri, its foundation would go back to pre-Etruscan times.
According to a later tradition, not known to Homer, the Moerae appeared to Althaea when Meleager was seven days old, and announced that the child would only live as long as the log blazing on the hearth remained unconsumed.
It was useless to attempt to avenge this disaster, which occurred on the 15th of August 778, for the enemy disappeared as quickly as he came; the incident has passed from the domain of history into that of legend and romance, being associated by tradition with the pass of Roncesvalles.
Historical tradition was already dim when the hypothetical and much discussed cantilenae, which may be taken to have formed the repository of the national legends from the 8th to the 10th century, were succeeded in the 11th and the early 12th centuries by the chansons de geste.
According to tradition in Hesse, he awaits resurrection, probably symbolic of the triumph of the sun over winter, within the Gudensberg (Hill of Odin).
tradition asserts that he is seated in the Untersberg in a chair, as in his tomb at Aix-la-Chapelle.
Starting from the different dates assigned by tradition to the exile to Patmos and the different chronological relations implied in the book itself, he conjectured that the Apocalypse was composed of several works of St John, written in different places and at different times, some before, some after A.D.
His investigation tends to show that in the course of tradition cosmological myths are transformed into eschatological dogmas.
463-76) holds mainly to the contemporary-historical method in his earlier works, though recognizing signs of a double historical background; but in his last work the importance of tradition as a source of the writer's materials is fully acknowledged.
The prophecy of the two witnesses and their martyrdom belongs to this tradition.
The insertion of the alien matter 7-12 between 1-5 and 13-17 may be due to our author's wish to show that the expulsion of Satan from heaven after Christ's birth and ascension to heaven was owing in some measure to Christ, although he has allowed Michael's name to remain in the borrowed passage, 7-12 - a fact which shows how dependent the writer was on tradition.
12-16 is a revised form of an older tradition.
These inconsistencies are best explained by the hypothesis that our author was drawing upon a literary fixed tradition.
(e) Primitive tradition and its confirmation through the discovery of references in the text to certain edicts of Domitian.
Though a few later authorities, such as Epiphanius and Theophylact, assign the book to earlier or later periods, the main body of early Christian tradition attests the date of its composition in the closing years of Domitian.
When, however, we combine the preceding arguments with that of the early church tradition, the evidence for the Domitian date outweighs that for any other.
Shortly before his death, which one tradition ascribes to poison, another to natural causes, he indicated Omar as his successor, after the manner Mahomet had observed in his own case.
He had drunk deeply of the spirit of the Renaissance, the determination to see for himself the noble universe, unclouded by the mists of authoritative philosophy and church tradition.
There is a tradition that here or in England he embraced the Protestant faith; nothing in his writings would lead one to suppose so.
Apparently no real tradition existed among the Eastern Christians of such a personage; the myth had taken shape from the clouds of rumour as they rolled westward from Asia.
To these things used to y listen at the time, through the mercy of God vouchsafed to me, noting them down, not on paper but in my heart, and constantly by the grace of God brood over my accurate recollections."These are priceless words, for they establish a chain of tradition (John-Polycarp-Irenaeus) which is without a parallel in early church history.
The tradition of St John's residence at Ephesus is too strong to be easily set aside.
The Apostolic tradition might have been perverted and corrupted.
Diogenes Laertius preserves a tradition that it was he, not Crito, who offered to help Socrates to escape from prison.
A tradition similar to that of the tower of Babel is found in Central America.
Tradition reports that this pamphlet had considerable weight in determining the ministry to retain Canada.
His " Debby," or his " dear child," as Franklin usually addressed her in his letters, received into the family, soon after her marriage, Franklin's illegitimate son, William Franklin (1729-1813), 2 with whom she afterwards quarrelled, and whose mother, tradition says, was Barbara, a servant in the Franklin household.
"Forty" is probably a round number without historical value, but the circumstance recorded by this tradition and confirmed by the evangelist's account of the trial of Jesus is historical, and is to be regarded as one of several restrictions imposed on the Jewish courts in the time of the Roman procurators.
The chronicler's tradition (2 Chron.
Thus the Hellenistic doctrine of personal revelation could be combined with the Jewish tradition of a complete theology revealed to a special people.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus quotes a tradition that the name arose from the alleged fact that the people were the!
TYRTAEUS, Greek elegiac poet, lived at Sparta about the middle of the 7th century B.C. According to the older tradition he was a native of the Attic deme of Aphidnae, and was invited to Sparta at the suggestion of the Delphic oracle to assist the Spartans in the second Messenian war.
In some cases they introduced new systems of ecclesiastical organization, and in all they sought to justify their innovations by an appeal from the Church's tradition to the Scriptures.
A vague tradition connects the house with the Colonna family of Rome, or the Colalto family of Lombardy; but one more definite unites the Hohenzollerns with the Burkhardingers, who were counts in Raetia during the early part of the 10th century, and two of whom became dukes of Swabia.
- Biblical tradition, too, has recognized the Philistines as immigrants from Caphtor (Amos ix.
The Philistines naturally had a prominent place in popular tradition, and the story of Isaac and the Philistine Abimelech (Gen.
The principal theological writings of Basil are his De Spiritu Sancto, a lucid and edifying appeal to Scripture and early Christian tradition, and his three books against Eunomius, the chief exponent of Anomoian Arianism.
The tendency of modern historical scholarship justifies the maintenance of the tradition that St Augustine and his forty companions were the first great Benedictine apostles and missioners.
The organization of the Benedictine houses into provinces or chapters under this legislation interfered in the least possible degree with the Benedictine tradition of mutual independence of the houses; the provinces were loose federations of autonomous houses, the legislative power of the chapter and the canonical visitations being the only forms of external interference.
It is often supposed that the name of the king of Edom,4 Bela, son of Beor, is a corruption of Balaam, and that, therefore, one form of the tradition made him a king of Edom.
If we might accept the various theories mentioned above, Balaam would appear in one source of J as an Edomite, in another as an Ammonite; in E as a native of the south of Judah or' possibly as an Aramaean; in the tradition followed by the Priestly Code probably as a Midianite.
Probably the original tradition goes back to a time when Yahweh was recognized as a deity of a circle of connected tribes of which the Israelite tribes formed a part.
Three counties - Sobrarbe, situated near the headwaters of the Cinca, Aragon, to the west, and Ribagorza or Ribagorca, to the east - are indicated by tradition and the earliest chronicles as the cradle of the Aragonese monarchy.
7 a (c. 350) but omitted in a later Egyptian prayer; the form as we have it in The Didache may have passed into Egypt with the authority of tradition which was afterwards weakened.
While the New Testament knows only the political usage of 56yµa, the Greek Fathers follow one which is more in keeping, with philosophical tradition.
Faith was not belief in authoritative teachings; it was trust in the promises of God and in Jesus was apt to seem intangible, and the influence of the learned tradition was strong - for a time, indeed, doctrine was more cultivated among Protestants than in the Church of Rome.
But not any and every tradition; only such as the church stamps with her approval.
Dogmas or articles of faith (taken as synonymous) depend upon revelation in Scripture or tradition, as confirmed by the church whether acting in general councils or through the pope (in some undefined way; Holden) - in general councils or by universal consent (Chrismann; of bishops ?
The same council defines not indeed dogma but faith - inseparable from dogma - as4 (1) revealed, (a) in Scripture or (b) in unwritten tradition, and (2) taught by the church, (a) in formulated decrees, or (b) in her ordinary magisterium.
xx.), must rest ultimately upon a tradition which is presupposed in the earlier source (i Kings xxii.
12) has been identified by tradition (as old as Eusebius) with the valley between Jerusalem and the mount of Olives.
As, in this matter, the behaviour of the authorities of the French Academy in Rome had been dictated by the tradition of subservience to authority, he used his influence to get it suppressed.
Wecklein, Uber die Tradition der Perserkriege (Munich, 1876); A.
The forget-me-not, a favourite with poets, and the symbol of constancy, is a frequent ornament of brooks, rivers and ditches, and, according to an old German tradition, received its name from the last words of a knight who was drowned in the attempt to procure the flower for his lady.
the midst of the political disturbances which preceded the outbreak of the War of American Independence, offered a good opportunity for a public career, and Morris had the aristocratic connexions which tradition required.'
Thus Berengar of Tours (999-1088) upheld the symbolic character of the Eucharist and the superiority of the Bible over tradition.
Einhard married Emma, or Imma, a sister of Bernharius, bishop of Worms, and a tradition of the 12th century represented this lady as a daughter of Charlemagne, and invented a romantic story with regard to the courtship which deserves to be noticed as it frequently appears in literature.
The necropolis, too, has been discovered, but not systematically excavated; but objects of the first Iron age, including a sword of Aegean type (thus confirming the tradition), have been found; also remains of a building with Doric columns of an archaistic type, remains of later buildings in brick, and inscriptions, some of them of considerable interest.
" Secondly, to have the Sacraments ministered purely, only and altogether according to the institution and good worde of the Lord Jesus, without any tradition or invention of man.
The syrinx or pan pipes owes its double name to ancient Greek tradition, ascribing its invention to Pan in connection with a well-known legend of the Arcadian water-nymph "Syrinx."
In 1631 Rothenburg was stormed by Tilly, and the cup of wine presented by the burgomaster, which, according to tradition, saved the town from destruction, is annually commemorated in the play mentioned above.
Later Jewish tradition held that the Law was given by angels22.
For, in contrast to the earliest Synoptic tradition, where the full Christian truth and its first form remain undistinguished, and where its earthly future appears restricted to that generation, in John the Eternal Life conception largely absorbs the attention away from all successiveness; Jesus' earthly life does not limit the religion's assimilation of further truth and experience: " I have many things to tell you, but you cannot bear them now," " the Father will give you another Helper, the spirit of truth, who will abide with you for ever " (xvi.
" What the author was, his book, in spite of himself, tells us to some extent: a Christian of Judeo-Alexandrine formation; a believer without, apparently, any personal reminiscence of what had actually been the life, preaching and death of Jesus; a theologian far removed from every historical preoccupation, though he retains certain principal facts of tradition without which Christianity would evaporate into pure ideas; and a seer who has lived the Gospel which he propounds."
As to the Gospel's date, critics have returned from 160-170 (Baur), i 50 (Zeller), 130 (Keim), to 110-115 (Renan) and 80-110 (Harnack): since Irenaeus says its author lived into the times of Trajan (90-117), a date somewhere about 105 would satisfy tradition.
The real situation that confronts us is not an unbroken tradition of apostolic eye-witnesses, incapable of re-statement with any hope of ecclesiastical acceptance, except by another apostolic eye-witness.
With the exception of what the South-Arabian Hamdani relates of his own observation or from authentic tradition, the Mahommedan Arabic accounts of South Arabia and Sabaea are of little worth.
Three gods of the inscriptions are named in the Koran - Wadd, Yaghuth and Nasr. In the god name Ta'lab there may be an indication of tree-worship. The many minor deities may be passed over; but we must mention the sanctuary of Riyam, with its images of the sun and moon, and, according to tradition, an oracle.
The tradition in regard to this work must have been continuous between his time and that of Irenaeus, who (c. A.D.
35-44) closely in all respects except that of the numbers given, about which differences might easily arise in tradition, and it looks therefore as if it might be a "doublet," i.e.
He therefore allied himself with the Republican party, to which by tradition, by family association, and by political principles he was naturally drawn.
According to tradition, his wife was taken for a time into the harem of Abdallah, brother of Kotaiba the conqueror of Balkh, and became the mother of Khalid b.
A closer examination of those parts of Ezra and Nehemiah which are not extracted from earlier documents or original memoirs leads to the conclusion that Chronicles-Ezra-Nehemiah was originally one work, displaying throughout the peculiarities of language and thought of a single editor, who, however, cannot be Ezra himself as tradition would have it.
The characteristic feature of the post-exilic age was the re-shaping of older tradition in the interest of parenetic and practical purposes, and for this object a certain freedom of literary form was always allowed to ancient historians.
15, examples of the kind of tradition, national and private, upon which writers could draw.
For convenience, we shall take "Adam" as a symbol for "the first man," and inquire first, what does tradition say of his creation?
And though the priestly writer, to whom the first Creation-story in its present form is due, says nothing about a sacred mountain as the dwelling-place of the first-created man, yet this mountain belongs to the type of tradition which the passage, Gen.
"With the council of the confederacy," it has been said, "and, more generally, in the confederacy, sovereignty arises and the true political tradition is evolved" (F.
Tradition credits the foundation of Chelsea Hospital to her influence over the king.
The many floating and fragmentary notes of various dates that have found a place in the account of his reign in the book of Kings (q.v.) show how much Hebrew tradition was occupied with the monarch under whom the throne of Israel reached its highest glory; and that time only magnified in popular imagination the proportions of so striking a figure appears from the opinions entertained of him in subsequent writings.
The tradition that he was only twelve (1 Kings ii.
Kings xii.; see the divergent tradition in 2 Chron.
it was placed in the Lateran Museum, a record in stone of a lost tradition.
But the convenience of the category "Apostolic Fathers" to express not only those who might possibly have had some sort of direct contact with apostles - such as "Barnabas," Clement, Ignatius, Papias, Polycarp - but also those who seemed specially to preserve the pure tradition of apostolic doctrine during the sub-apostolic age, has led to its general use in a wide and vague sense.
They are after all personal expressions of Christianity, in which are discernible also specific types of local tradition.
It expresses the feeling common to the Apostolic Fathers and general in the sub-apostolic age, at any rate in regions where apostles had once laboured, that local tradition, as held by the recognized church leaders, did but continue apostolic doctrine and practice.
Byron's fervid panegyric enlisted on his side all who admired Byron - that is to say, the majority of the younger men and women of Europe between 1820 and 1850 - and thus different sides of his tradition were continued for a full century after the publication of his chief books.
On the whole, the biblical tradition that the Molech-cult was Canaanite and indigenous (Deut.
Privately he professed himself the representative of the Napoleonic tradition in its democratic aspect, and associated mainly with men of advanced political opinions.
Dr Schliemann identified them with the graves of Agamemnon, Cassandra, and their companions, which were shown to Pausanias within the walls; and there can be little doubt that they are the graves that gave rise to the tradition, '15 ' xo Based on a plan in Schuchhardt's Schliemann's Excavations.
Tradition ascribes their invention to Tajao, minister of the emperor Hwang-ti, who reigned c. 2697 B.e., and it can scarcely be placed later than the 7th century B.e.4 The Chinese circle of the " animals " obtained early a wide diffusion.
The Hare (or Rabbit), Monkey, Dog and Serpent reappeared without change; for the Tiger, Crocodile and Hen, unknown in America, the Ocelot, Lizard and Eagle were substituted as analogous.6 The Aztec calendar dated from the 7th century; but the zodiacal tradition embodied by it was doubtless much more ancient.
The notion of a twenty-seven-fold division of the zodiac was deeply rooted in Hindu tradition.
This was in 1511, after the conquest of Malacca by D'Albuquerque, and the intimacy lasted over a century, the tradition of their greatness having hardly yet died out.
The word Niti is from the Bali, and means "old saying," "tradition," "good counsel."
He is also identified with the devil; thus, in accordance with old German tradition, he is dressed as a nobleman (ein edler Junker), all in red, with a little cape of stiff silk, a cock's feather in his hat, and a long pointed sword; at the witches' Sabbath on the Brocken he is hailed as "the knight with the horse's hoof," and Sybel in Auerbach's Keller is not too drunk not to notice that he limps.
No tradition of the mine having been formerly worked remained in the neighbourhood.
Voltaire, though he did not originate, yet adopted a moral and religious scheme which he sought to substitute for the church tradition.
It is possible that there may be some ground for the local tradition that Christianity was introduced into this region by Dionysius and Paracodus, who successively occupied the see of Vienne, but another tradition that the first bishop was named St Nazarius rests on a confusion, as that saint belongs to Genoa and not to Geneva.
Hebrew tradition (in the J narrative, Genesis x.
Modern Arabic tradition likewise ascribes the ruins, like those of Birs Nimrud, near Babylon, to Nimrod, because they are the most prominent ruins of that region.
p. 136, 15) points out with great truth how, from this point of view, the name "Protestantism" has survived as embodying for many the conception of liberty, of the right of private judgment, of toleration for every progressive idea in religion, as opposed to the Roman Catholic principles of authority and tradition; so that many even of those who do not "profess and call themselves Christians" yet glory in the name of "Protestant."
According to a later tradition, he was the son of Hera (Juno) alone, who became pregnant by touching a certain flower (Ovid, Fasti, v.
Abelard, too, started from tradition; but he discovered that the statements of the various authorities are very often in the relation of sic et non, yes and no.
Upon this fact he based his pronouncement as to the function of theology: it must employ the dialectic method to reconcile the contradictions of tradition, and thus to shape the doctrines of the faith in accordance with reason.
It was not only significant that in the Concordia discordantium canonum ecclesiastical laws, whether from authentic or forged sources, were gathered together without regard to the existing civil law; of even greater eventual importance was the fact that Gratian taught that the contradictions of the canon law were to be reconciled by the same method as that used by theology to reconcile the discrepancies of doctrinal tradition.
The Renaissance meant the emancipation of the secular world from the domination of the Church, and it contributed in no small measure to the rupture of the educated class with ecclesiastical tradition.
The Latin Church, which, by combining the tradition of the Roman centralized organization with a great elasticity in practice and in the interpretation of doctrine, had hitherto been the moulding force of civilization in the West, is henceforth more or less in antagonism to that civilization, which advances in all its branches - in science, in literature, in art - to a greater or less degree outside of and in spite of her, until in its ultimate and most characteristic developments it falls under the formal condemnation of the pope, formulated in the famous Syllabus of 1864.
Considered from the standpoint of the world outside, the Roman Church is, no less than the Protestant communities, merely one of the sects into which Western Christendom has been divided - the most important and widespread, it is true, but playing in the general life and thought of the world a part immeasurably less important than that filled by the Church before the Reformation, and one in no sense justifying her claim to be considered as the sole inheritor of the tradition of the pre-Reformation Church.
Of these the Anglican Church held most closely to the tradition of Catholic organization; but she has never made any higher claim than to be one of " the three branches of the Catholic Church," a claim repudiated by Rome and never formally admitted by the Church of the East.
Zoroastrianism is not a nature religion, but the result of a reform which never, under the old empire, thoroughly penetrated the masses; and the priesthood, as it was not based on family tradition, did not form a strict hereditary caste.
The latter, on the contrary, must have grown in importance with the unification and progress of the nation, and in all probability the consolidation of the priesthood into one class went hand in hand with a consolidation of legal tradition.
In point of fact the one rested on old Hebrew tradition, the other had taken shape mainly under Canaanite influence, and in most of its features was little more than the crassest nature-worship. In this respect there was no distinction between the Temple of Zion and other shrines, or rather it was just in the greatest sanctuary with the most stately ritual that foreign influences had most play, as we see alike in the original institutions of Solomon and in the innovations of Ahaz (2 Kings xvi.
The present Gothic building of St Martin (in Wyk) was erected in 1859; the original church is said by tradition to have occupied the site of an old heathen temple.
"The natives added that, in times long past, they received the tradition 'that very large birds had existed, but the scarcity of food, as well as the easy method of entrapping them, had caused their extermination."
Even the rudiments of Roman law were not then included in the ordinary training of English lawyers; it was assumed at the universities that any good Latin scholar could qualify himself at short notice for keeping up such tradition of civilian studies as survived.
Tradition regarded it as the punishment of his transference of the cult of Hercules from the Potitii.
Following the tradition of all preceding congresses, it was mainly a scramble for territory and power.
The church of St Andrew the Apostle occupies the spot where, according to Russian tradition, that apostle stood when as yet Kiev was not, and declared that the hill would become the site of a great city.
Professor Zimmer, in his examination of the story, sees reason to believe that the main incidents may repose on a genuine historic tradition, dating back to the 9th or 10th century, the period of Viking rule in Ireland.
The name of Iseult's father, Gormond, is distinctly Scandinavian; she, herself, is always noted for her golden hair, and it is quite a misrendering of the tradition to speak of her as a dark-haired Irish princess.
In the German tradition she is die lichte, Iseult of Britanny die schwarze Isolt; it is this latter who is the Celtic princess.
Here the tradition is more in accordance with Beroul.
Of his chancellorship he himself wrote a history, and the Laudian tradition long remained the great standard of order and good government in the university.
This was instituted in 1300 by Boniface VIII., who pleaded a popular tradition for its celebration every hundredth year, though no written evidence could be found.
According to general tradition the natives, from whatever quarter derived, were a strange and savage people till they received some tincture of civilization from the Carthaginians, who early took possession of the islands and built themselves cities on their coasts.
According to tradition, reinforced by the similarity of names, it was founded by colonists from the Thessalian tribe of the Magnetes, with whom were associated, according to Strabo, some Cretan settlers (Magnesia retained a connexion with Crete, as inscriptions found there attest).
Notwithstanding their sacred service, the Nethinim were regarded by later Jewish tradition as especially degraded, being placed in tables of precedence below bastards (Talm.
The square type may be due to basilican influence, the circular is a mere adaptation of the native hut: in both, the arrangements are obviously based on Jewish tradition.
At Kirklees, in the parish, are remains of a Cistercian convent of the 12th century, in an extensive park, where tradition relates that Robin Hood died and was buried.
The scholars of the Byzantine age cannot be compared with the great Alexandrians, but they served to maintain the continuity of tradition by which the Greek classics selected by the critics of Alexandria were transmitted to modern Europe.
John of Salisbury attended Abelard's lectures in 1136, and, after spending two years in the study of logic in Paris, passed three more in the scholarly study of Latin literature at Chartres, where a sound and healthy tradition, originally due to Bernard of Chartres (fl.
These, which are described in separate articles, helped to maintain the tradition of an earthly paradise which had become associated with the myth of Atlantis; and all except Avalon were marked in maps of the 14th and 15th centuries, and formed the object of voyages of discovery, in one case (St Brendan's island) until the 18th century.
The tradition is that the daughters of Minyas, king of Orchomenus, having despised the rites of the god, were seized with frenzy and ate the flesh of one of their children.
As Enos is a Hebrew word for man, it is probably derived from a tradition in which Enos was the first man.
The two have been compared in that Adapa was demiurge and Logos; and Seth figures as the Messiah in later Jewish tradition.'
A mass of Christian and Jewish tradition has gathered round the name of Seth.
One of the principal MS. sources used is the great Kitdb al-Aghani (Book of Songs) of Abu Faraj, which has since been published (20 vols., Boulak, 1868) in Egypt; but no publication of texts can deprive the Essai, which is now very rare, of its value as a trustworthy guide through a tangled mass of tradition.
The tripartite division of the Hebrew canon thus recognized by Jewish tradition can, however, be traced back far beyond the Talmud.
I-9); afterwards in a series of vivid pictures he gives the story, as tradition told it, of the patriarchs, of Moses and the Exodus, of the journey through the wilderness, and the conquest of Canaan.
There was probably some tradition of a farewell address delivered by Moses, and the writer of Deuteronomy gave this tradition form and substance.
The outline of Job's story was no doubt supplied by tradition; and a later poet has developed this outline, and made it a vehicle for expressing his new thoughts respecting a great moral problem which perplexed his contemporaries.
the Massoretic. 'This text was the work of a special gild of trained scholars called Massoretes (main 'Sys) or " masters of tradition " (n p 7 or less correctly n-m), 1 whose aim was not only to preserve and transmit the consonantal text which had been handed down to them, but also to ensure its proper pronunciation.
Thus, according to Jewish tradition, there are eighteen7 passages in which the older scribes deliberately altered the text on the ground that the language employed was either irreverent or liable to misconception.
These intentional alterations, however, only affect a very limited portion of the text, and, though it is possible that other changes were introduced at different times, it is very This represents the Western tradition as opposed to the Eastern text of ben Naphtali.
According to tradition the law was translated into Greek during the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus (284-247 B.C.), and, though the form (viz.
the Letter of Aristeas) in which this tradition 1 Text of the Books of Samuel, pp. xxxix.
Moreover, this theory affords the simplest explanation of its disappearance from Jewish tradition.
Beneath the ancient Greek version, the Septuagint, there certainly underlay an earlier form of the Hebrew text than that perpetuated by Jewish tradition, and if Christian scholars could have worked through the version to the underlying Hebrew text, they would often have come nearer to the original meaning than their Jewish contemporaries.
to the various unreal interpretations, and when the literal sense conflicted with the dogmas or tradition of the Church its validity was wholly denied.
Yet, as often happens, the influence of tradition lingered long after it had been proved to be false; thus the R.V., instead of being an independent translation of the Hebrew text, is intended (with rare exceptions, as e.g.
The most remarkable of these was made outside the Church - a significant indication of the adverse effect of the conditions within; the Neo-platonist philosopher Porphyry 2 in the 3rd century A.D., untrammelled by church tradition and methods, anticipated one of the clearest and most important conclusions of modern criticism: he detected the incorrectness of the traditional ascription of Daniel to the Jewish captivity in Babylon and discerned that the real period of its composition was that of Antiochus Epiphanes, four centuries later.
Even after the Renaissance and the Reformation tradition continued influential.
For though the Reformers were critical of the authority of ecclesiastical tradition in the matter of 2 His arguments are stated briefly (and in order to be refuted) by Jerome in his commentary on Daniel.
His Pentateuchal criticism is limited by the tradition of Mosaic authorship: but even within these limits he achieves much.
The next stage brings us to the critical theories or conclusions which at first gradually and then rapidly, in spite of the keenest criticisms directed against them both by those who clung more or less completely to tradition and by the representatives of the earlier critical school, gained increasing acceptance, until to-day they dominate Old Testament study.
with " extreme self-suppression " and " willingness to concede to tradition all that could with any plausibility be conceded " (Cheyne, Origin of the Psalter, p. 15); more especially is his influence observable after 1890, when he published his Bampton Lectures, the Origin of the Psalter, a work of vast learning and keen penetration, without restraint on the freedom of his judgment - always stimulating to students and fellow-workers, though by no means always carrying large numbers with him.
thus merely indicate the manner in which the author of the Priestly Narrative - and probably to some extent tradition before him - pictured the course of these early ages of the world's history.
In these chronological notices the lengths of the reigns were derived, there is every reason to suppose, either from tradition or from the state annals-the " book of the chronicles of Israel " (or " Judah "), so constantly referred to by the compiler as his authority (e.g.
Here, in Judah, from the accession of Athaliah to the accession of Ahaz, tradition gives 143 years, whereas, in fact, there were but 196 years (842-736); and in Israel, from the death of Menahem to the fall of Samaria, it gives 31 years, whereas from 738 (assuming that Menahem died in that year) to 722 there are actually only 16 years.
The years assigned by tradition to the reigns in both kingdoms in the middle part of the 8th century B.C. have thus to be materially reduced.
These are in most cases the writings of leading persons in the Church who took up and continued the tradition of the apostles.
253), whose principal service was, through the vast range of his knowledge, his travels and his respect for tradition wherever he found it, to keep open the wider limits of the Canon.
About the same time another line of tradition is represented by Lucian and the school of Antioch.
Meantime, in the West, an important Synod was held by Damasus at Rome in 382 which, under the dominant influence of Jerome and the Athanasian tradition,drew up a list corresponding to the present Canon.
Harnack of Berlin, accept dates that are not far removed from the ancient Christian literary tradition.
in The Common Tradition of the Synoptic Gospels by E.
37; (ii.) do€i Etwv Tptarcovra does not mean " on attaining the full age of thirty, before which he could not have publicly taught," for if there was by Jewish custom or tradition any minimum age for a teacher, it was not thirty, but forty (Bab.
(a) Evidence of the Synoptic Tradition and of St Mark's Gospel (ii.
- The order of events in the primitive synoptic tradition appears to be faithfully reproduced in St Mark; and if this order is chronological, Christ's ministry lasted at least two years, since the plucking of the ears of corn (April - June) marks a first spring; the feeding of the five thousand when the grass was fresh green (xXcwpos: about March), a second; and the Passover of the Crucifixion a third: and these three points are so far removed from one another in the narrative that the conclusion would hold, even if the general arrangement in St Mark were only roughly, and not minutely, chronological.
4: Cyril of Alexandria, in so far as his evidence is adverse to the words, appears to be incorporating a passage from the Commentary of Origen, not extant in loc.; and the only writer who perhaps really did omit the words - with the view, no doubt, of reconciling the witness of the fourth Gospel with the then widely spread tradition of the single-year ministry - is Origen himself.
1-4]), in favour of a ministry of not less than ten years, appeals (i.) to the tradition of Asia Minor; (ii.) to the record in St John that Christ, who was thirty years old at the time of his baptism, was addressed by the Jews as " not yet [i.e.
Moreover, the wide currency in early times of the tradition of the single-year ministry (Ptolemaeus, ap. Iren, loc. cit.; Clementine Homilies, xvii.
Early Christian tradition is unanimous on this side; either the 14th is mentioned, or the Crucifixion is made the antitype of the slaughter of the Paschal Lamb (and the Resurrection of the first fruits), in the following authorities anterior to A.D.
(e) The Civil Year (consuls, or regnal years of Tiberius) in early Christian tradition.
29, the consulate of the two Gemini (15th or 16th year of Tiberius), a body of tradition independent of the Gospels and ancient, if not primitive, in origin.
The only date, in fact, which has any real claim to represent Christian tradition independent of the Gospels, is the year 29.
1 - the consulship must have been taken from tradition without regard to consistency; (ii.) the names of the Gemini are divergently given in our oldest authorities; in [Tert.] adv.
But if the tradition of the consulship was thus, it would seem, already an old one about the year 200, there is at least some reason to conclude that trustworthy information in early Christian circles pointed, independently of the Gospels, to the year 29 as that of the Crucifixion.
( =18th March); and if this was the primitive form of the tradition, it is easy to see how 25th March could have grown out of it, since the 18th would from comparatively early times, in the East at any rate, have been thought impossible as falling before the equinox, and no substitution would be so natural as that of the day week, Friday, 25th March.
29 is the year, the 18th of March is the day, to which Christian tradition (whatever value, whether much or little, be ascribed to it) appears to point.
25, of the burial-places of the two apostles); and tradition clearly distinguished the fierce outbreak at Rome that followed on the fire of the city in July 64 from any permanent disabilities of the Christians in the eye of the law which the persecution may have initiated.
In other areas, however, there is still volcanic activity, and in many cases volcanoes to which only tradition attributes eruptions can hardly be classified as extinct.
Accordingly, when there are narratives which cannot be tested in this manner, should they show all the internal marks of didactic expansion and date from an age much later than the times with which they deal, their immediate value will not necessarily lie in the details which appear to be of historical interest, but in their contribution to later forms of tradition and phases of thought.
Unless we suppose that the latter was suddenly expanded into the stories which thenceforth persisted, it may be inferred that an old extra-canonical tradition (for which a case can be made) continued to survive the compilation of Genesis (q.v.) and ultimately assumed the various exaggerated forms now extant.
Naturally the probability of such a tradition - the merest hint of which happens to be preserved in Gen.
xxix 22 seems to indicate that older tradition was fuller than the present records in Genesis, and supplies another example of the link connecting the Old Testament with Rabbinical thought.
According to a tradition falsely ascribed to Mahomet, there can be but one caliph at a time; should a second be set up, he must be killed, for he "is a rebel."
Excavations have gone on since the 16th century, the last having been carried on by the Italian government to which the greater part of the site now belongs: but little has been done since 1884.1 The ancient Tibur was founded, according to tradition, by Tiburtus, Corax and Catillus, grandsons of Amphiaraus.
A late and dubious tradition asserts that the family name became so discredited owing to the pusillanimous conduct of John and Edward Baliol that it was abandoned by its owners in favour of the form Baillie.
No doubt there were many conscious hypocrites and impostors among the professional prophets, as there always will be among the professional representatives of a religious standpoint which is intrinsically untenable, and yet has on its side the prestige of tradition and popular acceptance.
So too all the old national heroes and heroines ultimately became prophets; in the case of Deborah there is even a fusion in local tradition between an old heroine and an historical seer.
It is obvious that the tradition has passed through several stages, and has varied in the process.
This would make the Round Table analogous to the turning castles which we frequently meet with in romances; and while explaining the peculiarities of Layamon's text, would make it additionally probable that he was dealing with an earlier tradition of folklore character, a tradition which was probably also familiar to Wace, whose version, though much more condensed than Layamon's, is yet in substantial harmony with this latter.
Recent grail researches have made it most probable that that mysterious talisman was originally the vessel of the ritual feast held in honour of a deity of vegetation, - Adonis, or another; if the Round Table also, as Dr Mott suggests, derives from a similar source, we have a link between these two notable features of Arthurian tradition, and an additional piece of evidence in support of the view that behind the Arthur of romance there lie not only memories of an historic British chieftain, but distinct traces of a mythological and beneficent hero.
In Attic tradition and on the Athenian stage Minos is a cruel tyrant, the heartless exactor of the tribute of Athenian youths to feed the Minotaur.
It was founded by William of Orange in 1575 as a reward for the heroic defence of the previous year, the tradition being that the citizens were offered the choice between a university and a certain exemption from taxes.
1680), of whom a curious tradition states that he desired burial beside his war-horse, the body of which was denied interment in consecrated ground.
This is found in the authority of a sound tradition.
The older any religious tradition or mode of worship is, the more venerable is it, the richer in divine ideas.
The school of Athens returned to a stricter philosophical method and the cultivation of scholarship. Still holding by a religious philosophy, it undertook to reduce the whole Greek tradition, as seen in the light of Plotinus, to a comprehensive and closely knit system.
Origen was quite as independent a thinker as Plotinus; only, they both drew on the same tradition.
In the main they are expositions of the Creed, the Lord's Prayer and the Decalogue, and thus follow a tradition that has come down from the days when Cyril of Jerusalem delivered his catechetical Lectures.
At one time (according to Mustoxidi, Delle cose corciresi) the tradition prevailed that the traitor's house and country villa existed in the island, and that his descendants were to be found among the local Jews.
In his public acts he lost no opportunity of upholding the democratic tradition.
His statue was set up beside those of the seven kings of Rome, and he adopted the throne of gold, the sceptre of ivory and the embroidered robe which tradition ascribed to them.
Thus, in a French pseudo-historic romance, Les Faits des Romains (c. 1223), he receives the honour of a bishopric. His name was not usually associated with the marvellous, and the trouvere of Huon de Bordeaux outstepped the usual sober tradition when he made Oberon the son of Julius Caesar and Morgan la Fay.
From Livy it would appear that tradition recognized two sons of Aeneas called by this name, the one the son of his Trojan, the other of his Latin wife.
Not only so, but, when greater strictness of rule and of enclosure seemed the most needful reforms in communities that had become too secular in tone, the proposal of Ignatius, to make it a first principle that the members of his institute should mix freely in the world and be as little marked off as possible externally from secular clerical life and usages, ran counter to all tradition and prejudice, save that Cara.ffa's then recent order of Theatines, which had some analogy with the proposed Society, had taken some steps in the same direction.
It was derived directly from the times of primitive Christianity; from the Saviour himself and his disciples and friends, with whom they claimed to be connected by a secret tradition, or else from later prophets, of whom many sects boasted.
65), and this conception is closely related to the other, though in this tradition the number (seven) of the archontes is lost.
This freely-growing Gnostic religiosity aroused in the Church an increasingly strong movement towards unity and a firm and inelastic organization, towards authority and tradition.
But the mightiest forces, to which in the end this theology too had absolutely to give way, were outward organization and tradition.
Most scholars, it is true, following an old tradition, reckon Bardesanes among the Valentinians.
After this comes the creation of the four men and their wives who are the ancestors of the Quiches, and the tradition records the migrations of the nation to Tulan, otherwise called the Seven Caves, and thence across the sea, whose waters were divided for their passage.
It is worth while to mention these few early incidents of the Rational legend of Guatemala, because their Biblical incidents show how native tradition incorporated matter learnt from the white men.
With the Toltecs is associated the tradition of Quetzalcoatl, a name which presentsitself in Mexican religion as that of a great deity, god of the air,.
Legend tells stories of his teaching men picture-writing and the calendar, and also the artistic work of the silversmith, for which Cholula was long famed; but at last he departed, some say towards the unknown land of Tlapallan, but others to Coatzacoalcos on the Atlantic coast on the confines of Central America, where native tradition still keeps up the divine names of Gucumatz among the Quiches and Cukulcan among the Mayas, these names have the same meaning as Quetzalcoati.
Native tradition held that.
Its fame was due to the tradition that it was the starting-place of the Greek fleet before the Trojan War, the scene of the sacrifice of Iphigenia.