I have something you want and will trade her for it.
Carigara is open to coast trade, exports large quantities of hemp, raises much rice, and manufactures cotton and abaca fabrics.
Would god take Destiny from them - a trade for the twins?
I would not trade a child for pride.
My memory is a big part of who I am and I have no desire to trade any of it away.
Joplin is the trade centre of a rich agricultural and fruit-growing district, but its growth has been chiefly due to its situation in one of the must productive zinc and lead regions in the country, for which it is the commercial centre.
He'd trade all the powers Damian granted him after the Schism for his sister's life.
He'd trade them for Bianca.
He gathered the tools of the trade, weapons for killing quickly this time, and stepped through the portal to the shadow world.
Both of these are hugely important parts of life, and I know of no one who would trade them away for a pill they swallow in the morning that gives them all their nutrition for the day.
I will trade you her for the vial.
They coin money in honest and accurate measures and allow this money to trade freely on open markets.
All that Dean could picture in his mind's eye was Annie Quincy, plying her despised trade in a darkened room.
"I was explaining why we can't trade your crystal," Jule started in the tense silence.
How can it be said that trade actually generates wealth?
Would you trade it for pride?
One form of trade is to exchange your labor for money.
It would take hours to fill a single bladder to trade to the northerners for their support.
I'd trade everything for you.
It is the only trade I have learned.
If you want something different, why don't you trade them in on something else?
Would you consider a trade, Darkyn?
"Why don't we trade?" he suggested.
She'd trade it for the one he took away in a heartbeat.
Charlottesville is a trade centre for the surrounding country; among its manufactures are woollen goods, overalls, agricultural implements and cigars and tobacco.
His trade here was that of a ditcher.
Consider just a few of the mechanisms by which the Internet promotes trade that otherwise would not have occurred.
When partners trade more, they fight less.
"It's an honorable trade," Wynn replied.
They couldn't keep the foal as a stud, but she might be able to trade it for a mare when it was older.
If working every day were not my trade, I could get all the meat I should want by hunting-pigeons, woodchucks, rabbits, partridges--by gosh!
A massive collection of sinister looking implements was growing—tools of their trade, all apparently necessary in order to remain aloft when maneuvering up or down perpendicular columns of frozen water.
We could trade it for a filly.
These stores are able to increase trade a number of ways.
I'd trade you all for two men like these here.
It was selected by the French convention of 1886 as the seat of the overland trade between Tongking and Yunnan, and opened two years later.
Both parties must win for the trade to occur.
My purpose is to explain the net effect of free trade, technological advance, and outsourcing on the overall economic system of the planet.
It means I can trade you a good or service for an intermediate store of value known as money, and then trade that money to the person who actually has the goods I want.
During that twenty-year period an immense number of fields were left untilled, houses were burned, trade changed its direction, millions of men migrated, were impoverished, or were enriched, and millions of Christian men professing the law of love of their fellows slew one another.
But in spite of the relative economic displacement they all cause, free trade, outsourcing, and technological displacement all have a positive net effect on the economics of the planet.
Nay, be a Columbus to whole new continents and worlds within you, opening new channels, not of trade, but of thought.
She possessed promising coordination and ability to learn at least the basics of the warrior's trade, skills no other nishani had ever needed.
With each trade he got something he valued more than what he traded away; and presumably all the people he traded with along the way also increased their value with each trade.
Darian basically had to trade a life debt to the Others to keep them from taking me.
My purpose in this chapter will not be to persuade the reader of any political doctrine of trade; please apply your own political and social values as you see fit.
He said to trade her for it.
We trade for them or get them from the military.
It is the principal seat of the linen trade in the county, and has extensive cloth and thread factories, bleachfields and chemical works.
A considerable overland trade has sprung up since the opening of Mengtsze.
The idea of free trade has divided people for as long as trade has existed.
As long as these states were to share a currency, a military, provide for interstate trade, and have a single foreign policy, they could retain the economic advantages of being a large nation while maximizing individual liberty and self-determination.
But today, trade is encouraged by specialization.
When you trade with someone in a free market, you are giving up something you have for something the other person has, which you value more.
Etsy allows people to trade their crafts, items they have made with their own hands and materials.
He devoted many years to carrying out a project for organizing the fur trade from the Great Lakes to the Pacific Ocean, and thence by way of the Hawaiian Islands to China and India.
"Trade you an iPad for your mate," Gabe replied.
Instead I ambled past the house where I am to trade a damp and soiled mattress for domestic duties when arrangements are finally made by Joshua.
I wouldn't trade you for anyone.
The foreign trade is not large, and consists chiefly in the exportation of pineapples and other fruit.
Stuttgart is the centre of the publishing trade of south Germany, and it has busy industries in everything connected with the production of books.
But in addition, when nations trade, the underlying economies themselves grow ever more intertwined.
I have thought that Walden Pond would be a good place for business, not solely on account of the railroad and the ice trade; it offers advantages which it may not be good policy to divulge; it is a good port and a good foundation.
The ability to instantly and, for a very low cost, reliably transfer money to anyone on the planet is a key ingredient in increasing the amount of trade that occurs online.
"We'll trade," he started.
He was the first to attempt to open a trade route with Tibet, and to organize a survey of Bengal and of the eastern seas.
This is simply another form of trade, so some might accuse me of double counting some of my forty-three reasons war will end.
Even with this technology called money, trade has been difficult.
But if you can tolerate it, what follows will explain why free trade sometimes hurts the (net) world economy.
We have established that outsourcing, free trade, and technological advance all have the same effect on the system: They lower prices and increase net wealth.
If this is not the case, people will not trade their labor for things that can easily or capriciously be taken away. 3.
Trade and the division of labor have given us vast amounts of wealth.
Let not to get a living be thy trade, but thy sport.
A season before, his father was called in by his brother, the king, to personally travel to the barbarian lands after a tribe of barbarians invited them to trade with them.
It wasn't an honorable trade in my time, but money made up for it.
Trade is not like this at all.
What did you trade them for this favor?
Its powers have been exercised with the greatest caution, yet with consistent firmness; and the publicity which has been given to the true and detailed causes of scores and scores of railway accidents by the admirable reports of the Board of Trade inspectors has been a powerful lever in improving the railway service.
long unites Mazarron to its port on the Mediterranean, where there is a suburb with 2500 inhabitants (mostly engaged in fisheries and coasting trade), containing barracks, a custom-house, and important leadworks.
The export, moreover, of live sheep and of frozen mutton to Europe has become an important factor in the trade of Argentina.
The following were the countries sending the largest quantities of goods (special trade) to France (during the same periods as in previous table).
There is an export trade in opium.
The chief manufactures are silk, confectionery and earthenware; and there is besides a considerable trade in fruit, grain and cattle.
His fourth journey in 1883-1885 was to Sining (the great trade centre of the Chinese borderland), and thence through northern Tibet (crossing the Altyn Tagh to Lop Nor), and by the Cherchen-Keriya trade route to Khotan.
Although the establishment of a lucrative trade between India and central Asia had been the dream of many successive Indian viceroys, and much had been done towards improving the approaches to Simla from the north, very little was in really known of the highlands of the Pamirs, or of the regions of the great central depression, before the mission of central Asia.
The harbour of Cagliari (along the north side of which runs a promenade called the Via Romo) is a good one, and has a considerable trade, exporting chiefly lead, zinc and other minerals and salt, the total annual value of exports amounting to nearly 12 million sterling in value.
The town has large cattle markets and an agricultural trade.
And we got them all, more or less, by trade and the wealth generated by our work doing some function for which we are trained.
Tiny countries willing to engage in free trade with their neighbors can prosper.
Technology brings about economic wealth through improved production, facilitation of trade, and promoting the division of labor.
But I have since learned that trade curses everything it handles; and though you trade in messages from heaven, the whole curse of trade attaches to the business.
You made Kris and Gabe trade their souls for Katie and baby's then you quit.
Its trade also in books, hops, horses, and cloth is considerable, and a large banking and exchange business is done here.
The large transit trade and the local trade of the island centre upon Valletta.
So when people have excess goods, they are able to trade those goods away for things they want and suffer less of a decrease in utility than the amount they are increasing in their trading partners.
To the extent that the Internet is able to increase trade, it increases utility.
I want to do what's right for my people, and it made sense to trade you to the Others, if they'd leave me alone.
Did I trade you?
I'll trade almost anything for sex.
It is noted for the fine boxwood grown in the vicinity, is a port of call for Black Sea coasting steamers and carries on a considerable trade with Constantinople which might be increased were it not for the obstruction of the harbour by a bar.
The total exports of the province of Cagliari in 1905 attained a value of £1,388,735, of which £J50,023 was foreign trade, while the imports amounted to £1,085,514, of which £360,758 was foreign trade.
There are signs of trade with Etruria as early as the 7th century B.C. The Carthaginians made it into an important grainproducing centre; and the Romans set foot in the island more than once during the First Punic War.
Sheerness has some trade in corn and seed,, and there is steamboat connexion with Port Victoria, on the opposite side of the Medway; with Southend, on the opposite side of the Thames; and with Chatham and London, and the town is in some favour as a seaside resort.
He was named on the council of plantations and on that of trade.
An able paper written by him to the king in support of these principles, on the ground especially of their advantage to trade, has been preserved.
His attention to all trade questions was close and constant; he was a member of the council of trade and plantations appointed in 1670, and was its president from 1672 to 1676.
He was, too, ever the friend of religious freedom and of an enlightened policy in all trade questions.
The chief manufactures are boots and shoes, tobacco and machinery; there is also some trade in cattle.
It has post and telegraph offices and a lively trade in wool, cotton and dry fruits (almonds, pistachios).
The An pass, an important trade route, rises to a height of 4664 ft.
It stands at the head of the effective navigation on the Rhine, and is not only the largest port on the upper course of that stream, but is the principal emporium for south Germany for such commodities as cereals, coal, petroleum, timber, sugar and tobacco, with a large trade in hops, wine and other south German produce.
The industries are equal in importance to the transit trade, and embrace metalworking, ironfounding and machine building, the manufacture of electric plant, celluloid, automobiles, furniture, cables and chemicals, sugar refining, cigar and tobacco making, and brewing.
Its trade was mainly directed towards Sicily, where Megarian colonies were established at Hybla (Megara Hyblaea) and Selinus, and towards the Black Sea, in which region the Megarians were probably i As we have seen, it was mentioned in 1726 by Valentyn, and a young example' was in 1830 described and figured by Quoy and Gaimard (Voy.
Gyula-Fellavar carries on an active trade in cereals, wine and cattle.
103, owing to the silting up of the Claudian harbour, and the increase of trade, to construct another port further inland - a hexagonal basin enclosing an area of 97 acres with enormous warehouses - communicating with the harbour of Claudius and with the Tiber by means of the channel already constructed by Claudius, this channel being prolonged so as to give also direct access to the sea.
Ostia thus lost a considerable amount of its trade, but its importance still continued to be great.
During the Gothic wars, however, trade was confined to Portus, and the ravages of pirates led to its gradual abandonment.
It is in a rich farming region, of which Indian corn and oats are important products, and has a large trade.
Sueca has a thriving trade in grain and fruit from the Jucar valley, which is irrigated by waterways created by the Moors.
A large wholesale trade is carried on with all the settlements of the province.
Its importance is due to its command of the point where the chief trade route from Persia and Central Asia to Europe, over the table-land of Armenia by Bayezid and Erzerum, descends to the sea.
He then returned to Bavaria, and his absence bringing him into ill odour at Vienna, he complained of the incompetence of the council of commerce and dedicated a tract on trade (CommercienTractat) to the emperor Leopold.
There are numerous tile-works and potteries of fine ware; and a considerable trade is carried on in anchovies and oysters caught in the Scheldt.
Alkmaar derives its chief importance from being the centre of the flourishing butter and cheese trade of this region of Holland.
Burton is the seat of an enormous brewing trade, representing nearly one-tenth of the total amount of this trade in the United Kingdom.
Burton was the scene of several engagements in the Civil War, when its large trade in clothing and alabaster was practically ruined.
The city has also a large trade in cotton, the annual receipts averaging about ioo,000 bales.
It was opened to foreign trade towards the latter end of the 18th century.
The maritime traffic is largely conducted by the steamers of the subsidized Austrian-Lloyd company, Trieste being the principal commercial centre; the coasting trade is carried on by small Greek and Turkish sailing vessels.
The trade of the northern and western districts has to some extent been diverted to Salonica since the opening of the railways from that town to Mitrovitza and Monastir.
Vessels of light draught easily ascend the Orinoco to this point, and a considerable trade is carried on, the exports being cocoa, sugar, cotton, hides, jerked beef and various forest products.
7), and Azariah his successor was able to renew the sea trade of the Gulf of Akaba (2 Kings xiv.
The trade of Market Bosworth is principally agricultural, and there are brickworks.
Trade is also brisk, and is facilitated by a canal connecting the town with Vienna, and used chiefly for the transport of coal and timber.
It lay on the ancient trade route from Sinope to the Euphrates, on the Persian "Royal Road" from Sardis to Susa, and on the great Roman highway from Ephesus to the East.
The centres of the cotton trade are Hubli and Gadag, junctions on the Southern Mahratta railway, which traverses the district in several directions.
Tecuci has a large transit trade in grain, timber, cattle and horses, on their way from northern and eastern Moldavia to the Danubian ports.
The prosperity of the city depends on that of the rich mining country about it, on a very extensive wholesale trade, for which its situation and railway facilities admirably fit it, and on its large manufacturing and farming interests.
The city throve on the freighting trade of the mines.
A very considerable trade is carried on at Parma in grain, cattle and the dairy produce of the district.
One of the ancient trade routes across the Sahara - that from Tripoli to Kuka in Bornu - strikes the lake at its northwest corner, but this has lost much of its former importance.
Trade is in cider, cattle, butter, flowers and fruit, and there are salmon and other fisheries.
The rapid development of the foreign trade of the republic since 1881 is due to settled internal conditions and to the prime necessity to the commercial world of many Argentine products, such as beef, mutton, hides, wool, wheat and Indian corn.
The import trade shows the largest totals in foodstuffs, wines and liquors, textiles and raw materials for their manufacture, wood and its manufactures, iron and its manufactures, paper and cardboard, glass and ceramic wares.
Thus at the opening of the 17th century, after many adventurous efforts, and the expenditure of many lives and much treasure, the Spaniards found themselves securely established on the river Plate, and had planted a number of centres of trade and colonization in the interior.
To prevent internal trade with Peru a custom-house was set up at Cordoba to levy a duty of 50% on everything in transit to and from the river Plate.
This naturally Asie led to a contraband trade of considerable dimensions.
At the same time all this country was opened to Spanish trade even with Peru, and the development of its resources, so long thwarted, was allowed comparatively free play.
His period of office was marked by the rapid advance of Buenos Aires in population and prosperity, and by an expansion of trade that was unfortunately accompanied by financial extravagance.
The violent fluctuations in the value of the paper dollar, which caused so much damage to trade and industry, were thus checked.
Trade 1,132,621 689,999 1,822,620
After entering on a rgime of free trade in 1860 France gradually reverted towards protection; this system triumphed in the Customs Law of 1892, which imposed more or less considerable duties on importsa law associated with the name of M.
Being in the main a self-supporting country France carries on most of her trade within her own borders, and ranks below _________ commerce, in Millions of Pounds Sterling.
Great Britain, Germany and the United States in volume of exterior trade.
The above table shows the developments of French trade during the years from 1876 to 1905 by means of quinquennial averages.
Divided into these classes the imports and exports (special trade) for quinquennial periods from 1886 to 1905 averaged as shown in the preceding table.
The average value of the principal articles of import and export (special trade) over quinquennial periods following 1890 is shown in the two tables below.
Trade with Principal Countries.
The following are the principal countries receiving the exports of France (special trade), with values for the same periods.
The trade of France was divided between foreign countries and her colonies in the following proportions (imports and exports combined).
General Trade., Special Trade.
The respective shares of the leading customs in the tfade of the country is approximately shown in the following table, which gives the value of their exports and imports (general trade) in 1905 in millions sterling.
Shipping.The following table thhows the increase in tonnage of sailing and steam shipping engaged in foreign trade entered and cleared at the ports of France over quinquennial periods from 1890.
The prosperity of the French shipping trade is hampered, by the costliness of shipbuilding and by the scarcity of outward-bound cargo.
Shipping has been fostered by paying bounties for vessels constructed in France and sailing under the French flag, and by reserving the coasting trade, traffic between France and Algeria, &c., to French vessels.
persons who have held the licence to trade (sec FINANCE) for five years and upwards.
Commerce.The value of the external trade of the French possessions, exclusive of Algeria and Tunisia, increased in the ten years 1896-1905 from 18,784,060 to 34,957,479.
In the last-named year the commerce of Algeria amounted to 24,506,020 and that of Tunisia to 5,969,248, making a grand total for French colonial trade in 1905 of 65,432,746 The figures were made up as follows:
Over three-fourths of the trade of Algeria and Tunisia is with France and other French possessions.
In the other colonies and protectorates more than half the trade is with foreign countries.
The value of the trade with British colonies and Great Britain in 1905 was over 7,200,000.
Soap, candles and tobacco are also manufactured, and the town is a centre for local agricultural trade.
There is a lively trade in hemp, hemp-seed oil, hemp goods and cattle, and there are hemp-mills, soap-works and tanneries.
Thus it was the Aeginetans who, within thirty or forty years of the invention of coinage by the Lydians (c. 700 B.C.), introduced to the western world a system of such incalculable value to trade.
Commerce was the source of Aegina's greatness, and her trade, which appears to have been principally with the Levant, must have suffered seriously from the war with Persia.
The town has grown rapidly since the completion of the railway system, and has a large trade in petroleum from Baku.
Tsaritsyn is also the centre of the trade in the mustard of Sarepta, Dubovka and the neighbourhood.
Some trade is carried on by means of the river, and the town is the centre of a salmon fishery district.
The town has a tribunal of commerce and a communal college, flour-mills, manufactories of earthenware, biscuits, furniture, casks, and glass and brick works; the port has trade in grain, timber, hemp, flax, &c.
The expansion of trade was due to the establishment of a boat route directly to the island.
The expansion of Levantine trade which ensued in the Hellenistic age brought especial profit to Rhodes, whose standard of coinage and maritime law became widely accepted in the Mediterranean.
In return for their more equivocal attitude during the Third Macedonian War they were deprived by Rome of some possessions in Lycia, and damaged by the partial diversion of their trade to Delos (167).
Under their mild and just rule both the native Greeks and the Italian residents were able to carry on a brisk trade.
The mines, however, are situated too far from the coast to permit of serious competition with Newcastle in an export trade, and the output is practically restricted to supplying local requirements.
The number of vessels engaged in the over-sea trade of Australia in 1905 was 2112, viz.
The value of the external trade was £95,188,000, viz.
The imports represent £9:11:6 per inhabitant and the exports 11 4: 4: 2, with a total trade of L23:15:8.
The import trade is divided between the United Kingdom and possessions and foreign countries as follows: - United Kingdom £23,074,000, British possessions £5,3 8 4, 000, and foreign states L9,889,000, while the destination of the exports is, United Kingdom £26,703,000, British possessions £12,519,000, and foreign countries £17,619,000.
Alive to the importance of the trade, the South Australian government despatched Hiibbe from Oodnadatta to Coolgardie.
able trade of rearing fine wool sheep, first commenced by Captain John McArthur in 1803.
was in 1840 a busy town of 6000 inhabitants, the population of the whole district, with the towns of Geelong and Portland, reaching 12,850; while its import trade amounted to 204,000, and its exports to 138,000.
At that time the district contained about 25,000 inhabitants; and in the first six years its population was quadrupled and its trade trebled.
The lack of employment in factories naturally affected the coal mining industry, and indeed every industry in the states, except those connected with the export trade, was severely affected.
Trade between the federated colonies to be absolutely free.
Within two years uniform customs duties were to be imposed; thereafter the parliament of the Commonwealth had exclusive power to impose customs and excise duties, or to grant bounties; and trade within the Commonwealth was to be absolutely free.
The constitution, parliament and laws of each state, subject to the federal constitution, retained their authority; state rights were carefully safeguarded, and an inter-state commission was given powers of adjudication and of administration of the laws relating to trade, transport and other matters.
Naturally, however, as the ideals of the members of the party are the same, the members of the Labour party will be generally found voting together on all important divisions, the chief exception being with regard to free trade or protection.
In all this legislation one of the most hotly contested points was whether the arbitration court should be given power to lay it down that workers who were members of a trade union should be employed in preference to non-unionists.
Calbayog has an important export trade in hemp, which is shipped to Manila.
It is now a centre of the trade in Malwa opium, with a wealthy colony of Bohra merchants.
Philip's reign in the Netherlands was chiefly noteworthy for his efforts for the revival of trade with England.
Tournai carries on a large trade in carpets (called Brussels), bonnet shapes, corsets and fancy goods generally.
All trade and industry were in 1921 at an absolute standstill owing to Bolshevism.
After the decline of the power of Rome, the dominant force in Asiatic commerce and navigation was Persia, and from that time onward, until the arrival of the Portuguese upon the scene early in the 16th century the spice trade, whose chief emporia were in or near the Malay Peninsula, was in Persian or Arab hands.
As early as the 3rd century B.C. Megasthenes makes mention of spices brought to the shores of the Ganges from " the southern parts of India," and the trade in question was probably one of the most ancient in the world.
The desire to obtain the monopoly of the spice trade has been a potent force in the fashioning of Asiatic history.
Very soon the spice trade had become a Portuguese monopoly, and Malacca was the great headquarters of the trade.
The salt trade declined altogether in the 18th century, with the exception of one salt-works, which was kept open until 1856.
There was a shoe trade in the town as early as the 17th century, and gloves were made from the end of the 16th century until about 1863.
The state's lumber trade was important until 1890, when the white pine was nearly exhausted, although there were still spruce and hemlock.
The first important industry of the state was "rafting" lumber from Vermont through Lake Champlain and the Richelieu and St Lawrence rivers to Quebec. Burlington became a great lumber market for a trade moving in the direction of Boston after the Richelieu river was blocked to navigation and railway transportation began, and in 1882 Burlington was the third lumber centre in the United States.
A former woollen trade is extinct.
In other respects the trade resembles that of other Algerian ports.
Thereafter a considerable trade grew up between Algiers and Spain.
While his treaty with Lord Lyons in 1862 for the suppression of the slave trade conceded to England the right of search to a limited extent in African and Cuban waters, he secured a similar concession for American war vessels from the British government, and by his course in the Trent Affair he virtually committed Great Britain to the American attitude with regard to this right.
Ballota, a closely allied species abundant in Morocco, bears large edible acorns, which form an article of trade with Spain; an oil, resembling that of the olive, is obtained from them by expression.
The law was ably and justly administered, and Irish trade was admitted to the same privileges as English, enjoying the same rights in foreign and colonial trade; and no attempt was made to subordinate the interests of the former to the latter, which was the policy adopted both before and after Cromwell's time, while the union of Irish and English interests was further recognized by the Irish representation at Westminster in the parliaments of 1654, 1656 and 16J9.
Large steps were made towards the union of the two kingdoms by the representation of Scotland in the parliament at Westminster; free trade between the two countries was established, the administration of justice greatly improved, vassalage and heritable jurisdictions abolished, and security and good order maintained by the council of nine appointed by the Protector.
In foreign policy Cromwell's chief aims appear to have been to support and extend the Protestant faith, to promote English trade, and to prevent a Stuart restoration by foreign policy.
In 1651 the Dutch completed a treaty with Denmark to injure English trade in the Baltic; to which England replied the same year by the Navigation Act, which suppressed the Dutch trade with the English colonies and the Dutch fish trade with England, and struck at the Dutch carrying trade.
Cromwell wisely inclined towards France, for Spain was then a greater menace than France alike to the Protestant cause and to the growth of British trade in the western hemisphere; but as no concessions could be gained from either France or Spain, the year 1654 closed without a treaty being made with either.
Great writers like Milton and Harrington supported Cromwell's view of the duty of a statesman; the poet Waller acclaimed Cromwell as "the world's protector"; but the London tradesmen complained of the loss of their Spanish trade and regarded Holland and not Spain as the national enemy.
The hindrance, however, to the general development of trade which the act involved aroused at once loud complaints, tO which Cromwell turned a deaf ear, continuing to seize Dutch ships trading in forbidden goods.
In spite of almost insuperable difficulties the colony took root, trade began, the fleet lay in wait for the Spanish treasure ships, the settlements of the Spaniards were raided, and their repeated attempts to retake the island were successfully resisted.
The trade of Faringdon is agricultural.
trade winds, and the city is considered healthful.
From 1835 to 1838 he edited The Reformation, a radically partisan publication, devoted to free trade and the extreme states' rights theory.
The town has an important woollen trade and possesses dyeing and fulling mills.
The part of this atmospheric circulation which is steadiest in its action is the trade winds, and this is, therefore, the most effective in producing drift movement of the surface waters.
The trade winds give rise, in the region most exposed to their influence, to two westward-moving drifts - the equatorial currents, which are separated in parts of their course by currents moving in the opposite direction along the equatorial belt.
Since the pacification of the Sudan by the British (1886-1889) there has been some revival of trade between Gondar and the regions of the Blue Nile.
There is a trade in beer, cattle and grain, sold at eleven annual fairs, three of which last for ten days each.
It has an extensive trade in the wines of the district.
The chief trade is in, and the principal exports are, palm oil and kernels, rubber, cotton, maize, groundnuts (Arachis), shea-butter from the Bassia parkii (Sapotaceae), fibres of the Raphia vinifera, and the Sansevieria guineensis, indigo, and kola nuts, ebony and other valuable wood.
It has iron foundries, machinery factories, railway workshops and a considerable trade in cattle, and among its other industries are weaving and malting and the manufacture of cloth.
The public buildings include the town hall, court house and orphan hospital; and the industries are mainly connected with the cattle trade and the distilling of whisky.
Watson continued to exert his pen with vigour, and in general to good purpose, denouncing the slave trade, advocating the union with Ireland, and offering financial suggestions to Pitt, who seems to have frequently consulted him.
There are numerous brickyards, lime-kilns and flour-mills in the district neighbouring to Chatham; and the town carries on a large retail trade, in great measure owing to the presence of the garrison.
In the middle ages it was the seat of a large trade in linen.
It became in effect the principal feast of the Church, the procession of the Sacrament a gorgeous pageant, in which not only the members of the trade and craft gilds, with the magistrates of the cities, took part, but princes and sovereigns.
Trade was very extensive.
Owing to its position the city enjoys a considerable transit trade with Portugal; its other industries include the manufacture of linen, woollen and leather goods, and of pottery.
There is a considerable trade in wine and agricultural produce, other industries being brewing and malting.
The province is not notably well suited to agriculture, but in forests it is the richest in Prussia, and the timber trade is large.
The export trade, however, is decreasing considerably, while the home consumption is increasing.
Considerable trade is done in agro di limone or lemon extract, which forms the basis of citric acid.
Fowls are kept on all farms and, though methods are still antiquated, trade in fowls and eggs is rapidly increasing.
Handlooms and small spinTextiles ning establishments have, in the silk industry, given place to large establishments with steam looms. The production of raw silk at least tripled itself between 1875 and 1900, and the value of the silks woven in Italy, estimated in 1890 to be 2,200,000, is now, on account of the development of the export trade calculated to be almost 4,000,000.
It has, however, a comparatively small export trade.
The last named has succeeded, by means of the large establishments at Milan in supplying not only the whole Italian market but an export trade.
There is a considerable trade (not very large for export, however) in natural mineral Waters, which are often excellent.
In some trades, for instance the silk trade, women earn little more than lod.
Although in some industrial centres the working-class movement has assumed an importance equal to that of other countries, there is no general working-class organization comparable to the English trade unions.
In the movement of shipping, trade with foreign countries prevails (especially as regards arrivals) over trade between Italian ports.
The substitution of steamships for sailing vessels has brought about a diminution in the number of vessels belonging to the Italian mercantile marine, whether employed in the coasting trade, the fisheries or in traffic on the high seas.
Italian trade with foreign countries (imports and exports) during the quinquennium 1872-1876 averaged 94,000,000 a year; in the quinquennium 1893f 897 it fell to 88,960,000 a year.
Thus: Trade with Foreign Countries in 1000
The countries with which this trade is mainly carried on are: (imports) United Kingdom, Germany, United States, France, Russia and India; (exports) Switzerland, United States, Germany, France, United Kingdom and Argentina.
The balance of Italian trade has undergone frequent fluctuations.
The large predominance of imports over exports after 1884 was a result of the falling off of the export trade in live stock, olive oil and wine, on account of the closing of the French market, while the importation of corn from Russia and the Balkan States increased considerably.
Each city which had been the cradle of freedom thankfully accepted a master, to qutmch the conflagration of party strife, encouragt trade, and make the handicraftsmen comfortable.
The lesser people tolerated him because he extended the power of their city and made it beautiful with public buildings., The bourgeoisie, protected in their trade, found it convenient to support him.
The loss of trade consequent upon the closing of Egypt and the Levant, together with the discovery of America and ~e~ilne the sea-route to the Indies, had dried up her thief of Vonl~e source of wealth.
On the other hand, they suffered from the rigorous measures of the continental system, which seriously crippled trade at the ports and were not compensated by the increased facilities for trade with France which Napoleon opened up. The drain of men to supply his armies in Germany, Spain and Russia was also a serious loss.
The closing of the French market to Sicilian produce, the devastation wrought by the phylloxera and the decrease of the sulphur trade had combined to produce in Sicily a discontent of which Socialist agitators took advantage to organize the workmen of the towns and the peasants of the country into groups known as fasci.
by the university of Oxford; in December he became a commissioner of trade, and in December 1696 governor of the Royal Fishery Company.
He was also to sound the Lutheran princes with a view to an alliance, and to obtain the removal of some restrictions on English trade.
This was intended to give greater freedom to inland navigation, the rivers being the main highways of trade.
Very few experts are employed in supervision; practically everything is directed by the officials, who themselves have first to learn each trade.
There is a school of viticulture and a very considerable trade in Moselle wines, especially during the annual auctions.
Under their protection, and favoured by its site, the city rapidly grew in wealth and population, the zenith of its power and prosperity being reached between the 13th and 15th centuries, when it was the emporium of the trade of Germany and the Low Countries, the centre of a great cloth industry, and could put some 20,000 armed citizens into the field.
Delfzyl, which was formerly an important fortress for the protection of the ancient sluices on the little river Delf (hence its name), has greatly benefited by the construction of the Ems (Eems) shipcanal connecting it with Groningen, and has a good harbour with a considerable import trade in wood.
With the Jews of Cochin, they represent a very ancient Judaic invasion of India, and are to be entirely distinguished from those Jews who have come to India in modern days for purposes of trade.
Some of the amber districts of the Baltic and North Sea were known in prehistoric times, and led to early trade with the south of Europe.
35 is described under another Hebrew word, and refers to ladanum, a fragrant resin produced in Cyprus, and the use of this drug, as well as that of cinnamon and cassia, indicates even at that early period a knowledge of the products of Somaliland, Arabia and the East Indies and the existence of trade between the farther East and Egypt.
Brewing is carried on, but the trade is principally agricultural.
The fort has been dismantled; and in trade the town is outstripped by Astara, the customs station on the Persian frontier.
(1) Mathematical geography, which deals with the form, size and movements of the earth and its place in the solar system; (2) Moral geography, or an account of the different customs and characters of mankind according to the region they inhabit; (3) Political geography, the divisions according to their organized governments; (4) Mercantile geography, dealing with the trade in the surplus products of countries; (5) Theological geography, or the distribution of religions.
They traded also on the Red sea, and opened up regular traffic with India as well as with the ports of the south and west, so that it was natural for Solomon to employ the merchant navies of Tyre in his oversea trade.
The great Phoenician colony of Carthage, founded before 800 B.C., perpetuated the commercial enterprise of the parent state, and extended the sphere of practical trade to the ocean shores of Africa and Europe.
It does not seem that any maritime trade followed these discoveries, and indeed it is doubtful whether his contemporaries accepted the truth of Pytheas's narrative; Strabo four hundred years later certainly did not, but the critical studies of modern scholars have rehabilitated the Massilian explorer.
The conqueror also intended to open up trade by sea between Europe and India, and the narrative of his general Nearchus records this famous voyage of discovery, the detailed accounts of the chief pilot Onesicritus being lost.
After two successful voyages, Eudoxus, impressed with the idea that Africa was surrounded by ocean on the south, left the Egyptian service, and proceeded to Cadiz and other Mediterranean centres of trade seeking a patron who would finance an expedition for the purpose of African discovery; and we learn from Strabo that the veteran explorer made at least two voyages southward along the coast of Africa.
of all the countries of the known world, led to an active R trade both by ships and caravans.
It was the trade with the East that originally gave importance to the city of Visby in Gotland.
Fernan Gomez followed in 1469, and opened trade with the Gold Coast; and in 1484 Diogo Cao discovered the mouth of the Congo.
Until then the Venetians held the carrying trade of India, which was brought by the Persian Gulf and Red sea into Syria and Egypt, the Venetians receiving the products of the East at Alexandria and Beirut and distributing them over Europe.
This commerce was a great source of wealth to Venice; but after the discovery of the new passage round the Cape, and the conquests of the Portuguese, the trade of the East passed into other hands.
He reached the White Sea, performed the journey overland to Moscow, where he was well received, and may be said to have been the founder of the trade between Russia and England.
Nor was the trade to Muscovy and Turkey neglected; while latterly a resolute and successful attempt was made to establish direct commercial relations with India.
James Lancaster made a voyage to the Indian Ocean from 1591 to 1594; and in 1599 the merchants and adventurers of London resolved to form a company, with the object of establishing a trade with the East Indies.
It was Captain Best who secured a regular firman for trade from the Great Mogul.
Australia and Polynesia By 87, 000,000 392,000,000 170,000,000 1 43, 000,000 7,000,000 influence of climate, and by the development of trade even to inhabit countries which cannot yield a food-supply, the mass of mankind is still completely under the control of those conditions which in the past determined the distribution and the mode of life of the whole human race.
Trade makes it possible to work mineral resources in localities where food can only be grown with great pope a u.
Other prominent structures are the U.S. government and the judiciary buildings, the latter connected with the capitol by a stone terrace, the city hall, the county court house, the union station, the board of trade, the soldiers' memorial hall (with a seating capacity of about 4500), and several office buildings.
Columbus is near the Ohio coal and iron-fields, and has an extensive trade in coal, but its largest industrial interests are in manufactures, among which the more important are foundry and machine-shop products (1905 value, $6,259,579); boots and shoes (1905 value, $5,425,087, being more than one-sixtieth of the total product value of the boot and shoe industry in the United States, and being an increase from $359,000 in 1890); patent medicines and compounds (1905 value, $3,214,096); carriages and wagons (1905 value, $2,197,960); malt liquors (1905 value, $2,133,955); iron and steel; regalia and society emblems; steam-railway cars, construction and repairing; and oleo-margarine.
In respect of trade and industry Aix-la-Chapelle occupies a high place.
It has some large breweries and manufactories of chemicals, and does a considerable trade in cereals, leather, timber and wine.
It has an active trade in cereals and cattle.
For a long period the city was noted for its commerce with the West Indies, which began to decline about 1876, but the coast trade and commerce with Great Britain are still considerable, especially in the winter, when Portland is the outlet of much of the trade from the Great Lakes that in the other seasons passes through Montreal.
Except such as are of coral formation, the Antilles are hilly, not to say mountainous, their summits rising in places to an elevation of 8000 ft., and nearly all, prior to their occupation by Europeans, were covered with luxuriant forest, which, assisting in the collection and condensation of the clouds brought by the trade winds, ensured its own vitality by precipitating frequent and long-continued rains; upon the fertile soil.
Abingdon has manufactures of clothing and carpets and a large agricultural trade.
In the 13th and 14th centuries Abingdon was a flourishing agricultural centre with an extensive trade in wool, and a famous weaving and clothing manufacture.
In 1622 he took the island of Ormuz from the Portuguese, by the assistance of the British, and much of its trade was diverted to the town of Bander-Abbasi, which was named after the shah.
There is a considerable trade in dairy produce; and there are shipyards,.
JOHN POND (c. 1767-1836), English astronomer-royal, was born about 1767 in London, where his father made a fortune in trade.
The land-locked character of this region greatly restricts the city's trade and development; but it is considered the most important town in the department.
It lies on the south-western outskirts of the Matra mountains, and carries on a brisk trade in the Erlauer wine, which is produced throughout the district.
There is trade in walnuts, walnut-oil, silk, cattle, &c.
Without the pilgrims who come to visit it, Meshed would be a poor place, but lying on the eastern confines of Persia, close to Afghanistan, Russian Central Asia and Transcaspia, at the point where a number of trade routes converge, it is very important politically, and the British and Russian governments have maintained consulates-general there since 1889.
Meshed had formerly a great transit trade to Central Asia, of European manufactures, mostly Manchester goods, which came by way of Trebizond, Tabriz and Teheran; and of Indian goods and produce, mostly muslins and Indian and green teas, which came by way of Bander Abbasi.
Since then the transit trade has been practically nil.
Pardubitz has a tolerably active trade in grain and timber, and the horse-fairs attract numerous customers.
It has a hot, humid climate, relieved to some extent by the south-east trade winds.
by rail from the port of Guanta, which has superseded the incommodious river port in the trade of this district.
There is a trade with China, valued at less than half a million sterling annually.
Besides manufactures of brandy, flour, oil, soap, linen and cloth, it has an active trade in wheat, wine and fruit, especially melons.
A harbour was first granted to Newhaven in 1713, and during the early part of the 18th century it possessed a large shipping trade.
The coasting trade consists chiefly of imports of coal and provisions, the exports being principally timber for shipbuilding and flint for the Staffordshire potteries.
The city is a trade centre for a rich farming district, has car-shops (of the Pere Marquette railway) and iron foundries, and manufactures wagons, pottery, furniture and clothing.
Narbonne) and its trade route by Toulouse to the Atlantic, was formed into the province of Gallia Narbonensis and Narbo itself into a Roman municipality.
Trade flourished; the corporations of bargemen and the like on the Rhone made money; the many towns grew rich and could afford splendid public buildings.
Calarashi has a considerable transit trade in wheat, linseed, hemp, timber and fish from a broad mere on the west or from the Danube.
The trade in fruit, cereals, oil and wine is considerable.
The town owed its origin and growth to its position on the shores of the Bristol Channel, and its good harbour developed an oversea trade with Bristol, South Wales and the Irish ports.
Trade is carried on in flax, cloth, cereals, oilseeds, &c.
There is also some trade in wine.
The cattle are destined chiefly for the saladero establishments for the preparation of tasajo, or jerked beef, for the Brazilian and Cuban markets, and for the Liebig factory, where large quantities of extract of meat are prepared for the European trade.
Trade is controlled by foreigners, the British being prominent in banking, finance, railway work and the higher branches of commerce; Spaniards, Italians and French in the wholesale and retail trade.
The foreign trade passes mainly through Montevideo, wherekhe port has been greatly improved.
The city has a considerable trade with the surrounding country, in which large quantities of tobacco and hemp are produced; its manufactures include lumber, brooms, chairs, shoes, hemp twine, canned vegetables and glass bottles.
In the British mercantile marine all ships (except those employed exclusively in trading between ports on the coasts of Scotland) are compelled to keep an official log book in a form approved by the Board of Trade.
The last named was opened in 1904, and is controlled by the Winona Lake corporation, having official connexion with several national trade unions.
Holloway, Indianapolis, a Historical and Statistical Sketch (Indianapolis, 1870); the Indianapolis Board of Trade's Report on the Industries of Indianapolis (1889); Civic Studies of Indianapolis (Indianapolis, 1907 seq.), edited by Arthur W.
It is situated on the Pruth, and has an active trade in agricultural products.
The Portuguese traveller Pero de Covilham visited Calicut in 14,87 and described its possibilities for European trade; and in May 1498 Vasco da Gama, the first European navigator to reach India, arrived at Calicut.
The language of government and trade is English, which is understood far and wide throughout Liberia.
At all of these Europeans are allowed to settle and trade, and with very slight restrictions they may now trade almost anywhere in Liberia.
The rubber trade is controlled by the Liberian Rubber Corporation, which holds a special concession from the Liberian government for a number of years, and is charged with the preservation of the forests.
Another English company has constructed motor roads in the Liberian hinterland to connect centres of trade with the St Paul's river.
The trade is done almost entirely with Great Britain, Germany and Holland, but.
Frankfort is a trade centre fJr an agricultural and lumbering region; among its manufactures are handles, agricultural implements and foundry products.
Paper-making, milling, and the making of mineral waters are the chief manufactures, but the town is an important centre of the cattle trade with London, markets being held at frequent intervals.
The distance from Rarotonga to New Zealand is about 2000 m., and, with the aid of the trade wind, large canoes could traverse the distance within a month.
The horse-fair of Sneek is widely attended, and there is a considerable activity in trade and shipping.
Panama has had an important trade: its imports, about twice as valuable as its exports, include cotton goods, haberdashery, coal, flour, silk goods and rice; the most valuable exports are gold, india-rubber, mother of pearl and cocobolo wood.
Docks, wharves, piers, curing stations and warehouses have been provided or enlarged to cope with the growth of the trade, and an esplanade has been constructed along the front.
In the latter half of the 15th century Sofia, owing to its situation at the junction of several trade routes, became an important centre of Ragusan commerce.
By means of his sons and his deputies (or viceroys) and by his system of matrimonial alliances he gave Athens a widespread influence in the centres of commerce, and brought her into connexion with the growing sources of trade and production in the eastern parts of the Greek world.
Other noteworthy sources of revenue are trade licences, direct taxes on lands and forests, stamp duties, posts and telegraphs, indirect taxes on tobacco, sugar and other commodities, the crown forests, and land redemption payable annually by the peasants since 1861.
Organized as they are into a kind of community for mutual protection and mutual help, they soon become masters of the trade wherever they penetrate.
In the villages they are mostly innkeepers, intermediaries in trade and pawnbrokers.
They, too, are inclined to trade, but they also carry on agriculture successfully.
Far from being destroyed by the competition of the " modern " factories, domestic industries have well maintained their ground, new branches of petty trade having sprung up in some districts, among them the manufacture of agricultural machinery (thrashing machines in Ryazan, Vyatka and Perm; ploughs in Smolensk, &c.) deserves notice.
The wealth of Russia consisting mainly of raw produce, the trade of the country turns chiefly on the purchase of this for export, and on the sale of manufactured and imported goods I in exchange.
Jews, and elsewhere Russians,-to whom the peasants are for the most part in debt, as they purchase in advance on security of subsequent payments in corn, tar, wooden wares, &c. A good deal of the internal trade is carried on by travelling merchants.
Those of Nizhniy-Novgorod, with a return of 20 millions sterling, of Irbit and Kharkov, of Menzelinsk in Ufa, and Omsk and Ishim in Siberia, have considerable importance both for trade and for home manufactures.
The external trade of the Russian empire (bullion and the external trade of Finland not included) since the year 1886 is shown in the following table: The exports rank in the following order :- cereals (wheat, barley, rye, oats, maize, buckwheat) and flour, 49.2%; timber and wooden wares, 7.2; petroleum, 5.8; eggs, 5.4; flax, 5; butter, 3; sugar, 2-4; cottons and oilcake, 2 each; oleaginous seeds, &c., 1.5; with hemp, spirits, poultry, game, bristles, hair, furs, leather, manganese ore, wool, caviare, live-stock, gutta-percha, vegetables and fruit, and tobacco.
But of the vessels that visit the Russian ports in the way of trade every year only 8.3% are Russian, the rest being of course foreign.
Machat, La Developpement economique de la Russie (Paris, 1902); Industries of Russia, by the Department of Trade and Manufactures (English by J.
A ship of an English squadron which was trying First to reach China by the North-East passage, entered the relations northern Dvina, and her captain, Richard Chancellor, with journeyed to Moscow in quest of opportunities for trade.
In return the Russians were allowed to trade freely in England.
Some of them wished to gain him as an ally against their rivals, whilst others hoped to obtain from him commercial privileges and permission to trade directly with Persia.
In 1883 he was apprenticed to the trade of printer and compositor.
When the Labour party joined the Coalition movement in 1915 he became a Lord Commissioner of the Treasury; he was parliamentary secretary to the Board of Trade 1916-7; Minister of Labour, 1917-8; Food Controller, Jan.
From 1889 to 1892 he was parliamentary secretary to the Board of Trade in the Conservative Government, and from 1895 to 1903 (when he resigned as a Free Trader opposed to tariff reform) Secretary for Scotland.
In 1903 he became chairman of the commission on food supply in time of war, and in 1909 of that on trade relations with Canada and the West Indies, receiving in 1911 the G.C.M.G.
In the article on " Railways " in the Supplement to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, published in 1824, it is said: "It will appear that this species of inland carriage [railways] is principally applicable where trade is considerable and the length of conveyance short; and is chiefly useful, therefore, in transporting the mineral produce of the kingdom from the mines to the nearest land or water communication, whether sea, river or canal.
Attempts have been made to bring it into more general use, but without success; and it is only in particular circumstances that navigation, with the aid either of locks or inclined planes to surmount the elevations, will not present a more convenient medium for an extended trade."
The amount of capital which parliament authorized railway companies to raise was about 42 millions on the average of the two years 1842-1843, 174 millions in 1844, 60 millions in 1845, and 132 millions in 1846, though this last sum was less than a quarter of the capital proposed in the schemes submitted to the Board of Trade; and the wild speculation which occurred in railway shares in 1845 contributed largely to the financial crisis of 1847.
On the whole, the best statistical source for this information is the annual computation published by the Archiv fiir Eisenbahnwesen, the official organ of the Prussian Ministry of Public Works; but the figure quoted above utilizes the Board of Trade returns for the United Kingdom and the report of the Interstate Commerce Commission for the United States.
How far this movement will extend it is impossible to say; it is certain, however, that it will be enormously important in re-aligning trade conditions in the United States, Canada and Mexico.
The United States of America, with a capital of £3,059,800,000 invested in its railways on the 30th of June 1906, was easily ahead of every other country, and in 1908 the figure was increased to £ 3,443, 02 7, 68 5, of which £2,636,569,089 was in the hands of the public. On a route-mileage basis, however, the capital cost of the British railway system is far greater than that of any other country in the world, partly because a vast proportion of the lines are double, treble or even quadruple, partly because the safety requirements of the Board of Trade and the high standards of the original builders made actual construction very costly.
The British figures are from the Board of Trade returns for the calendar year 1908.
The Departmental Committee of the Board of Trade, sitting in 1909 to consider railway accounting forms, while recommending ton-miles to the careful consideration of those responsible for railway working in Great Britain, considered the question of their necessity in British practice to be still open, and held that, at all events, they should not be introduced under compulsion.
This rate increases as the distance increases, but not in equal proportion; while the rates from large trade centres to other trade centres at a great distance are not higher than those to intermediate points somewhat less remote; if the law permits, there is a tendency to make them actually a little lower.
Besides the system of charges thus prescribed in the classification and rate-sheet, each tariff provides for a certain number of special rates or charges made for particular lines of trade in certain localities, independently of their relation to the general system.
Finally, the legislation of 1888 put into the hands of a reorganized Railway Commission and of the Board of Trade powers none the less important in principle because their action has been less in its practical effect than the advocates of active control demanded.
From the early days of railways parliament has also been careful to provide for the safety of the public by inserting in the general or special acts definite conditions, and by laying upon the Board of Trade the duty of protecting the public using a railway.
The first act which has reference to the safety of passengers is the Regulation of Railways Act of 1842, which obliges every railway company to give notice to the Board of Trade of its intention to open the railway for passenger traffic, and places upon that public department the duty of inspecting the line before the opening of it takes place..
If the officer appointed by the Board of Trade should, after inspection of the railway, report to the department that in his opinion " the opening of the same would be attended with danger to the public using the same, by reason of the incompleteness of the works or permanent way, or the insufficiency of the establishment for working such railway," it is lawful for the department to direct the company to postpone the opening of the line for any period not exceeding one month at a time, the process being repeated from month to month as often as may be necessary.
The inspections made by the officers of the Board of Trade under this act are very complete: the permanent way, bridges, viaducts, tunnels and other works are carefully examined; all iron or steel girders are tested; stations, including platforms, stairways, waiting-rooms, &c., are inspected; and the signalling and " interlocking " are thoroughly overhauled.
This act further defines the duties and powers of the inspectors of the Board of Trade, and also authorizes the Board to dispense with the notice which the previous act requires to be given prior to the opening of a railway.
It' may be remarked that neither of these acts confers on the Board of Trade any power to inspect a railway after it has once been opened, unless and until some addition or alteration, such as is defined in the last-named act, has been made.
When a line has once been inspected and passed, it lies with the company to maintain it in accordance with the standard of efficiency it originally possessed, but no express statutory obligation to do so is imposed upon the company, and whether it does so or not, the Board of Trade cannot interfere.
The act of 1871 further renders it obligatory upon every railway company to send notice to the Board of Trade in the case of (1) any accident attended with loss of life or personal injury to any person whatsoever; (2) any collision where one of the trains is a passenger train; (3) any passenger train or part of such train leaving the rails; (4) any other accident likely to have caused loss of life or personal injury, and specified on that ground by any order made from time to time by the Board of Trade.
The inspector, after making his investigation, is required to make a report to the Board of Trade as to the causes of the accident and the circumstances attending the same, with any observations on the subject which he deems right, and the Board " shall cause every such report to be made public in such manner as they think expedient."
It should be noted that although the inspecting officer may in his report make any recommendations that he may think fit with a view to guarding against any similar accident occurring in the future, no power is given to the Board of Trade, or to any other authority, to compel any railway company to adopt such recommendations.
The above-named acts enable the Board of Trade to take all the necessary steps to ensure that the safety of passenger trains is sufficiently guarded.
The Federal government, having authority in railway matters only when interstate traffic is affected, gathers statistics and publishes them; but in the airing of causes-the field in which the British Board of Trade has been so useful-nothing so far has been done except to require written reports monthly from the railways.
1249 2691 1181 2483 See the Quarterly and Annual Reports, issued by the Board of Trade, London, and the Annual Statistical Reports and Quarterly Accident Bulletins, published by the Interstate Commerce Commission, Washington.
But British share capital has been issued so freely for extension and is ?- provement work of all sorts, including the costly requirements of the Board of Trade, that a situation has been reached where the return on the outstanding securities tends to diminish year by year.
In Great Britain the Board of Trade requires facing points to be avoided as far as possible; but, of course, they are a necessity at junctions where running lines diverge and at the crossing places which must be provided to enable trains to pass each other on single-track lines.
The lines through them should be, if possible, straight and on the level; the British Board of Trade forbids them being placed on a gradient steeper than i in 260, unless it is unavoidable.
The advantage claimed for roofs formed with one or two large spans is that they permit the platforms and tracks to be readily rearranged at any time as required, whereas this is difficult with the other type, especially since the British Board of Trade requires the pillars to be not less than 6 ft.
The saving of cost is effected in two ways: (I) Instead of having to incur the expenses of a protracted inquiry before parliament, the promoters of a light railway under the act of 1896 make an application to the light railway commissioners, who then hold a local inquiry, to obtain evidence of the usefulness of the proposed railway, and to hear objections to it, and, if they are satisfied, settle the draft order and hand it over to the Board of Trade for confirmation.
On the lines actually authorized by the Board of Trade under the 1896 act the normal minimum radius of the curves has been fixed at about 600 ft.; when a still smaller radius has been necessary, the speed has been reduced to 10 m.
It should be mentioned that the act provided that the Treasury might advance a portion of the money required for a line in cases where the council of any county, borough or district had agreed to do the same, and might also make a special advance in aid of a light railway which was certified by the Board of Agriculture to be beneficial to agriculture in any cultivated district, or by the Board of Trade to furnish a means of communication between a fishing-harbour and a market in a district where it would not be constructed without special assistance from the s' ate.
Towards the end of 1901 a departmental committee of the Board of Trade was formed to consider the Light Railways Act, and in 1902 the president of the Board of Trade (Mr Gerald Balfour) stated that as a result of the deliberations of this committee, a new bill had been drafted which he thought would go very far to meet all the reasonable objections that had been urged against the present powers of the local authorities.
In July 1903, Lord Wolverton, on behalf of the Board of Trade, introduced a bill to continue and amend the Light Railways Act.
It provided that the powers of the light railway commissioners should continue until determined by parliament, and also provided, inter alia, that in cases where the Board of Trade thought, under section (9) subsection (3) of the original act, that a proposal should be submitted to parliament, the Board of Trade itself might submit the proposals to parliament by bringing in a bill for the confirmation of the light railway order, with a special report upon it.
The bill was withdrawn on the 11th of August 1903, Lord Morley appealing to the Board of Trade to bring in a more comprehensive measure to amend the unsatisfactory state of legislation in relation to tramways and light railways.
In 1904 the president of the Board of Trade brought in a bill on practically the same lines as the amending bill of 1903.
According to the light railway commissioners, experience satisfied them (a) that light railways were much needed in many parts of the country and that many of the lines proposed, but not constructed, were in fact necessary to admit of the progress, and even the maintenance, of existing trade interests; and (b) that improved means of access were requisite to assist in retaining the population on the land, to counteract the remoteness of rural districts, and also, in the neighbourhood of industrial centres, to cope with the difficulties as to housing and the supply of labour.
See Evans Austin, The Light Railways Act 1896, which contains the rules of the Board of Trade; W.
Addison, Report to the Board of Trade (1894) on Light Railways in Belgium.
It is supposed to be the Camanes of Ptolemy, and was formerly a very flourishing city, the seat of an extensive trade, and celebrated for its manufactures of silk, chintz and gold stuffs; but owing principally to the gradually increasing difficulty of access by water, owing to the silting up of the gulf, its commerce has long since fallen away, and the town has become poor and dilapidated.
The trade is chiefly confined to the export of cotton.
The right to send a ship to trade with China was one for which large sums were paid, and Pereira, as commander of the expedition, would enjoy commercial privileges which Ataide had, ex officio, the power to grant or withhold.
Public sittings are apt to be means of obtaining money by false pretences, and the great scandal of spiritualism is undoubtedly the encouragement it gives to the immoral trade of fraudulent mediumship.
The leading industry of Udine is silk-spinning, but it also possesses manufactures of linen, cotton, hats and paper, tanneries and sugar refineries, and has a considerable trade in flax, hemp, &c. Branch railways lead to Cividale del Friuli and S.
Trade is carried on almost entirely with the United Kingdom; the approximate annual value of exports is £120,000, and of imports a little more than half that sum.
The Falkland Islands Company, having its headquarters at Stanley and an important station in the camp at Darwin, carries on an extensive business in sheep-farming and the dependent industries, and in the general import trade.
A former trade in oil and sealskin has decayed, owing to the smaller number of whales and seals remaining about the islands.
The city had been founded in 1158 with the express object of controlling the Baltic trade.
By closing Lubeck Valdemar had German trade and the German over-seas settlements entirely at his mercy.
Trade and other gilds in antiquity held subscription suppers or g pavot, similar to those of the early Corinthian church, usually to support the needs of the poorer members.
C. Godeffroy & Son developed the trade of the island.
The industries of the town include cotton spinning and weaving, silk spinning, the manufacture of tobacco, ropes, metal-ware, furniture, &c. The market gardens of the neighbourhood are famous, and there is a considerable shipping trade by the river and the Ludwigskanal.
The inhabitants of Peking being consumers only, and in no way producers, the trade of the city is very small, though the city is open to foreign commerce.
meet and pass seawards off Cape Kiti a few miles south, and greatly facilitated ancient trade.
Among the people she had always been intensely disliked; the love of justice, and the fear of trade losses imminent upon a breach with Charles V., combined to render her unpopular.
The black "Kaisow" teas are brought from the Ho-kow district, where they are grown, down the river Kin to Juy-hung on the lake, and the Siu-ho connects by a navigable stream I-ning Chow, in the neighbourhood of which city the best black teas of this part of China are produced, with Wu-ching, the principal mart of trade on the lake.
Kiu-kiang, the treaty port of the province, opened to foreign trade in 1861, is on the Yangtsze-kiang, a short distance above the junction of the Po-yang Lake with that river.
At thirty, still a dependant, without a settled occupation, without a definite social status, he often regretted that he had not " embraced the lucrative pursuits of the law or of trade, the chances of civil office or India adventure, or even the fat slumbers of the church."
all my views tended to the convenient and respectable place of a lord of trade."
The ministry of Lord North, however, was tottering, and soon after fell; the Board of Trade was abolished by the passing of Burke's bill in 1782, and Gibbon's salary vanished with it - no trifle, for his expenditure had been for three years on a scale somewhat disproportionate to his private fortune.
Half a century later a party of trappers of the Hudson's Bay Company entered Nevada and plied their trade along the Humboldt river.
The river is locked, and carries a small trade up to Evesham, 28 m.
It is the trade centre of a rich and beautiful agricultural region in which tobacco, wheat and Indian corn are the principal crops.
Silks, wood-carvings, silver and jade ornaments, tin and copper wares, fruits and tobacco are the chief articles of the local trade.
1786), visited the place in 1744, and attempted to open a direct trade through it between Europe and central Asia.
Since 1890 the Turkomans who impeded trade by their perpetual raids have been kept more in check, and with the decrease of insecurity the commercial activity of Astarabad has increased considerably.