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toxins

toxins Sentence Examples

  • both adult and larval, contain toxins of great virulence, though in.

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  • In 1904 he delivered at the university of California a course of lectures, the object of which was to illustrate the application of the methods of physical chemistry to the study of the theory of toxins and antitoxins, and which were published in 1907 under the title Immunochemistry.

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  • What occurs with snake venom takes place also when the toxins are formed by microbes, and a new method of treatment by anti-toxic serums has been introduced of late years with great success.

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  • What occurs with snake venom takes place also when the toxins are formed by microbes, and a new method of treatment by anti-toxic serums has been introduced of late years with great success.

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  • Hyaline degeneration is found in certain acute infective conditions; the toxins specially act on these connective-tissue cell elements.

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  • Massart and Bordet, Leber, Metchnikoff and others have studied the phenomenon in leucocytes, with the result that while there is evidence of their being positively chemiotactic to the toxins of many pathogenic microbes, it is also apparent that they are negatively influenced by such substances as lactic acid.

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  • It has been proved that the pyo-genic bacterial toxins, if not too concentrated, will attract the polymorpho-nuclear leucocytes, but if concentrated, may have a repelling influence.

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  • This splitting up of the fats previously combined with albumin in the cell by the action of natural ferments - lipases - and the setting free of the fats under the influence of toxins represent the normal and the pathological process in the production of so-called fatty degeneration.

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  • This and similar facts have suggested that some toxins are only produced in the living body.

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  • Amongst these may be mentioned the neutralizing of the toxins in cases of diphtheria, tetanus and poisonous snake-bite; " serum therapeutics "; and treatment by " vaccines."

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  • In the mutual behaviour of such cells, toxins, and antitoxins, and again of microbes themselves, we may demonstrate even on the field of the microscope some of the modes of such actions, which seem to partake in great measure at any rate of a chemical quality (agglutinins, coagulins, chemotaxis).

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  • It forms a valuable treatment in diabetic coma and eclampsia, acting by diluting the toxins in the blood.

    1
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  • Weir Mitchell and others have shown that serpent venom consists chiefly of albumoses, and the toxins formed by infective bacilli have a somewhat similar chemical nature.

    1
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  • It forms a valuable treatment in diabetic coma and eclampsia, acting by diluting the toxins in the blood.

    1
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  • Toxins may thus become so closely keyed into their corresponding atom groups, as for instance in tetanus, that they are no longer free to combine with the antitoxin; or, again, an antitoxin injected before a toxin may anticipate it and, preventing its mischievous adhesion, dismiss it for excretion.

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  • Lardaceous disease, however, here and in other regions, now appears to be due to the specific toxins of pyogenetic micro-organisms. In stone of the kidney a great advance has been made in treatment by operative means, and the formation of these stones seems to recent observers to depend less upon constitutional bent (gout) than upon unhealthy local conditions of the passages, which in their turn again may be due to the action of microorganisms.

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  • The microbes appear in many cases to attract the leucocytes (positive chemiotaxis), but when very virulent they usually repel the leucocytes (negative chemiotaxis) and excrete toxins which kill the leucocytes.

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  • The toxins produced by microbes, if too weak to destroy the leucocytes, induce them to secrete antitoxins, which not only act as antidotes to the toxins and are injurious to the microbes, but also increase the phagocytic power of the leucocytes (opsonius of Wright).

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  • The presence of toxins in the blood not only affects the brain, causing delirium, but also other organs, the heart and lung, and may cause fatal syncope or respiratory failure.

    1
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  • toxins S.

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  • In one, Haffkine employs the toxins obtained by growing plague bacilli in broth for five or six weeks, and then heating the whole to 65° or 70° C. so as to destroy the bacilli.

    1
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  • Another condition which is probably due to toxins is high pressure within the arteries.

    1
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  • The action of toxins is little understood.

    1
    1
  • Lardaceous disease, however, here and in other regions, now appears to be due to the specific toxins of pyogenetic micro-organisms. In stone of the kidney a great advance has been made in treatment by operative means, and the formation of these stones seems to recent observers to depend less upon constitutional bent (gout) than upon unhealthy local conditions of the passages, which in their turn again may be due to the action of microorganisms.

    1
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  • At once they proceed to make good their hold on the position they have secured by secreting and throwing out toxins which cause more or less injury to the tissues in their immediate neighbourhood.

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  • By the continuous injections under the skin, in increasing doses, of the toxins of certain pathogenic micro-organisms, such as that of diphtheria, an animal-usually the horse-may be rendered completely refractory to the disease.

    1
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  • Ludwig Brieger then discovered the toxins of certain infections; and Emil A.

    1
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  • Of such probably are the toxins and antitoxins of certain infections, which, anchoring themselves not by any means indiscriminately, but to particular and concerted molecules, by such anchorage antagonize them or turn them to favourable or unfavourable issues.

    1
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  • At once they proceed to make good their hold on the position they have secured by secreting and throwing out toxins which cause more or less injury to the tissues in their immediate neighbourhood.

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  • On reaching the vicinity they leave the blood stream and join in the warfare - many performing their function of phagocytosis (q.v.), others falling victims to the toxins.

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  • By producing Toxins.

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  • These facts, and the further knowledge that many bacteria never observed as parasites, or as pathogenic forms, produce toxins or poisons as the result of their decompositions and fermentations of organic substances, have led to important results in the applications of bacteriology to medicine.

    0
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  • Little is known of the mode of action of bacteria on these plants, but it may be assumed with great confidence that they excrete enzymes and poisons (toxins), which diffuse into the cells and kill them, and that the effects are in principle the same as those of parasitic fungi.

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  • Though subsequent researches have on the whole confirmed these results, it is still a matter of dispute whether these proteids are the true toxins or merely contain the toxic bodies precipitated along with them.

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  • Immunity against toxins also became a subject of investigation, and the result was the discovery of the antitoxic action of the serum of animals immunized against tetanus toxin by E.

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  • Though the causal relationship of a bacterium to a disease may be completely established by the methods given, another very important part of bacteriology is concerned with the poisons or toxins formed by bacteria.

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  • These toxins may become free in the culture fluid, and the living bacteria may then be got rid of by filtering the fluid through a filter of unglazed porcelain, whose pores are sufficiently small to retain them.

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  • In other instances the toxins are retained to a large extent within the bacteria, and in this case the dead bacteria are injected as a suspension in fluid.

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  • Methods have been introduced for the purpose of breaking up the bodies of bacteria and setting free the intracellular toxins.

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  • At this temperature the bacterial bodies are extremely brittle, and are thus readily broken up. The study of the nature of toxins requires, of course, the various methods of organic chemistry.

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  • brain and kidneys, it may now be stated as an accepted fact that all the important results of bacteria in the tissues are due to poisonous bodies or toxins formed by them.

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  • in the case of the tetanus and diphtheria bacilli, the production of soluble toxins can be readily demonstrated by filtering a culture in bouillon germ-free by means of a porcelain filter, and then injecting some of the filtrate into an animal.

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  • Such toxins being set free in the culture medium are often known as extracellular.

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  • The toxins are here manifestly contained within the bodies of the bacteria, i.e.

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  • The action of these intracellular toxins has in many instances nothing characteristic, but is merely in the direction of producing fever and interfering with the vital processes of the body generally, these disturbances often going on to a fatal result.

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  • In other words, the toxins of different bacteria are closely similar in their results on the body and the features of the corresponding diseases are largely regulated by the vital properties of the bacteria, their distribution in the tissues, &c. The distinction between the two varieties of toxins, though convenient.

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  • Although the formation of toxins with characteristic action can be shown by the above methods, yet in some cases little or no toxic action can be demonstrated.

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  • This, for example, is the case with the anthrax bacillus; although the effect of this organism in the living body indicates the production of toxins which diffuse for a distance around the bacteria.

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  • Regarding the chemical nature of toxins less is known than regarding their physiological action.

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  • The methods used in the investigations were, however, open to objection, and it is now recognized that although organic bases may sometimes be formed, and may be toxic, the important toxins are not of that nature.

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  • A later research by Brieger along with Fraenkel pointed to the extracellular toxins of diphtheria, tetanus and other diseases being of proteid nature, and various other observers have arrived at a like conclusion.

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  • It may also be mentioned that many toxins have now been obtained by growing the particular organism in a proteid-free medium, a fact which shows that if the toxin is a proteid it may be formed synthetically by the bacterium as well as by modification of proteid already present.

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  • With regard to the nature of intracellular toxins, there is even greater difficulty in the investigation and still less is known.

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  • Many of them, probably also of proteid nature, are much more resistant to heat; thus the intracellular toxins of the tubercle bacillus retain certain of their effects even after exposure to ioo° C. Like the extracellular toxins they may be of remarkable potency; for example, fever is produced in the human subject by the injection into the blood of an extremely minute quantity of dead typhoid bacilli.

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  • Certain toxins resemble enzymes as regards their conditions of precipitation and relative instability, and the fact that in most cases a considerable period intervenes between the time of injection and the occurrence of symptoms has been adduced in support of the view that enzymes are present.

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  • the multiplication of the living organisms in the tissues; this is essential to, and regulates, the supply of toxins.

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  • It is important that these two essential factors should be kept clearly in view, since the means of defence against any disease may depend upon the power either of neutralizing toxins or of killing the organisms producing them.

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  • In such diseases the bacteria, when introduced into the subcutaneous tissue, rapidly gain entrance to the blood stream and multiply freely in it, and by means of their toxins cause symptoms of general poisoning.

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  • .In still another class of diseases the bacteria are restricted to some particular part of the body, and the symptoms are due to toxins which are absorbed from it.

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  • The effects produced by bacteria may be considered under the following heads: (I) tissue changes produced in the vicinity of the bacteria, either at the primary or secondary foci; (2) tissue changes produced at a distance by absorption of their toxins; (3) symptoms. The changes in the vicinity of bacteria are to be regarded partly as the direct result of the action of toxins on living cells, and partly as indicating a reaction on the part of the tissues.

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  • The action of toxins on various glands, producing diminished or increased functional activity, has a close analogy to that of certain drugs.

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  • In short, if we place aside the outstanding exception of tumour growth, we may say that practically all the important phenomena met with in disease may be experimentally produced by the injection of bacteria or of their toxins.

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  • A third method is by injections of the separated toxins of a bacterium, the resulting immunity being not only against the toxin, but, so far as present knowledge shows, also against the living organism.

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  • In the development of toxin-immunity the doses, small at first, are gradually increased in successive inoculations; or, as in the case of very active toxins, the initial injections are made with toxin modified by heat or by the addition of various chemical substances.

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  • Immunity of the same nature can be acquired in the same way against snake and scorpion poisons, and against certain vegetable toxins, e.g.

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  • The laws of antitoxin production and action are not confined to bacterial toxins, but apply also to other vegetable and animal toxins, resembling them in constitution, viz.

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  • It is by means of such side-chains that toxin molecules are attached to the protoplasm, so that the living molecules are brought under the action of the toxophorous groups of the toxins.

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  • Natural immunity against toxins must be taken into account, and, if Ehrlich's view with regard to toxic action be correct, this may depend upon either the absence of chemical affinity of the living molecules of the tissues for the toxic molecule, or upon insensitiveness to the action of the toxophorous group. It has been shown with regard to the former, for example, that the nervous system of the fowl, which possesses immunity against tetanus toxin, has little combining affinity for it.

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  • Pharmacology is a branch of biology; it is also closely connected with pathology and bacteriology, for certain drugs produce structural as well as functional changes in the tissues, and in germ diseases the peculiar symptoms are caused by foreign substances (toxins) formed by the infective organisms present in the body.

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  • The effects of many of these toxins bear a close resemblance to the action of certain wellknown drugs, as in the case of tetanus toxin and strychnine, and are studied by the same methods of observation and research.

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  • Tolerance is therefore analogous to, but not identical with, the immunity which takes place with the toxins of infectious diseases and snake poison.

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  • Antitoxins can be prepared by immunizing a large animal, such as a horse, by injecting gradually increasing doses of specific toxins into its subcutaneous tissue.

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  • Antitoxins are organic products designed to neutralize the formation of the toxins of certain diseases in the blood.

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  • accumulate toxins, if these are released to the soil.

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  • These powerful antioxidants help the body to eliminate toxins.

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  • Fiber helps to sweep toxins out of the body and the rich supply of protective antioxidants protect body cells against damage.

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  • Green tea antioxidants have been shown to protect the liver against toxins like alcohol and chemicals in cigarette smoke.

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  • bile secretion, which is linked closely to control of toxins.

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  • Trikatu formula increases the digestive fire, which then burns away these accumulated toxins and cleanses the alimentary canal.

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  • Aflatoxins are fungal toxins, which are potent carcinogens.

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  • Finally the neutrophils can use chemical means to direct themselves toward toxins of interest, and this mechanism is called chemotaxis.

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  • This treatment combines vacuum and laser to eliminate toxins, break down fatty deposits and smooth unwanted dimples.

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  • effluent from fish farms directly affects toxins.

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  • eliminate toxins.

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  • expel toxins from the body.

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  • flush out the toxins that have been pushed out from the cells with the massage.

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  • For example, it appears to produce antioxidants in response to harmful free radicals and other poisonous toxins it encounters.

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  • Exercise the toxins out Ever felt strangely frisky with a hangover?

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  • It is also diuretic and speeds the elimination of toxins, which makes it valuable for treating gout.

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  • herbivore feeding on R ponticum would also contain toxins derived from the foliage.

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  • The otters were either killed directly through a build up of the toxins in their body or it rendered the females infertile.

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  • Lung toxins Some of the toxins present in smoke are highly irritant or directly toxic to the bronchial mucosa causing airway inflammation.

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  • lactobacillus rhamnosus can inhibit the growth of pathogenic organisms in the GI tract and inhibit putrefactive toxins.

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  • lethal toxins in Frost's fatty tissue.

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  • lymphatic drainage, helping to flush the systems of toxins.

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  • The Cry gene toxins target specific insect cell receptor proteins and create pores that lead to osmotic lysis of the insect gut cells.

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  • A vaccine can also consist of the weakened toxins produced by microorganisms.

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  • Bad Bug Book - an introduction to foodborne pathogenic microorganisms and natural toxins.

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  • Lung toxins Some of the toxins present in smoke are highly irritant or directly toxic to the bronchial mucosa causing airway inflammation.

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  • Many countries regulate specific mycotoxins and most countries try to limit exposure to the toxins [1] .

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  • nitrite levels is to dilute the build-up of toxins by carrying out partial water changes.

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  • odourorophyll doesn't just work to cover up smells but helps neutralize odor and toxins in the intestinal tract.

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  • opposes new incinerators because they encourage waste, use resources and energy inefficiently and can produce harmful toxins.

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  • pathogenic micro-organisms or the formation of toxins.

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  • perspire naturally, allowing toxins to be released from the body.

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  • Nettles are useful in ridding the lungs of excess phlegm and cleansing the body of toxins and make an ideal herbal cuppa.

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  • reheating food won't get rid of the toxins.

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  • rid the body of toxins.

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  • shellfish toxins was reported at the weekend.

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  • It has the ability to form a gel, which can bind water and toxins together, thus solidifying watery stools.

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  • Bt toxins encompass a large superfamily of Cry proteins made by different strains of B. thuringiensis.

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  • It provides a short introduction and overview of food toxicology which of course includes a number of toxins of microbial origin.

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  • Drink plenty of water to help eliminate the toxins from your body.

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  • Cleansing your body of its accumulated toxins is a great way to boost well-being.

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  • The leaves, flowers and berries are beneficial in cases of cols and flu, as they expel toxins from the body.

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  • toxins in shellfish in the area.

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  • The problems are not confined to land; there are also concerns about algal toxins in fish and the chemicals used in fish farming.

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  • For example, Monsanto's approach to Colorado Beetle is to develop potato plants that produce bacterial toxins which kill the beetles.

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  • Kahn found high levels of lethal toxins in Frost's fatty tissue.

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  • It only takes harmful toxins out of the body.

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  • This is no joke when the ants are fierce when provoked and have some of the most potent toxins around, wear your shoes.

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  • Secondly an increased gut transit time means that toxins normally confined to the small bowel can irritate and inflame the more sensitive colonic mucosa.

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  • The modified organism may also produce new toxins: genetically engineered bacteria produced toxic tryptophan.

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  • unbalanced food intake or excessive feeding of treats, leading to increased toxins in the blood and muscles.

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  • unripe green tomatoes can contain glycoalkaloids, which are natural toxins that can irritate the gastrointestinal tract.

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  • Horses cannot vomit to get rid of toxins, or indigestible food.

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  • In 1904 he delivered at the university of California a course of lectures, the object of which was to illustrate the application of the methods of physical chemistry to the study of the theory of toxins and antitoxins, and which were published in 1907 under the title Immunochemistry.

    0
    0
  • Amongst these may be mentioned the neutralizing of the toxins in cases of diphtheria, tetanus and poisonous snake-bite; " serum therapeutics "; and treatment by " vaccines."

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  • The irritants may be bacteria and their toxins, or they may be mechanical, chemical or thermic.

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  • This acquired immunity is brought about by the development of a protective body as a result of the struggle of the cells and fluids of the body with the invading bacteria and their toxins.

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  • This is an increased exudation of fluid from the engorged blood vessels which not only dilutes the toxins, but is supposed to contain substances which in some way act on these living micro-organisms and render them a more easy prey to the polymorpho-nuclear leucocytes (fig.

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  • It has been proved that the pyo-genic bacterial toxins, if not too concentrated, will attract the polymorpho-nuclear leucocytes, but if concentrated, may have a repelling influence.

    0
    0
  • On reaching the vicinity they leave the blood stream and join in the warfare - many performing their function of phagocytosis (q.v.), others falling victims to the toxins.

    0
    0
  • This splitting up of the fats previously combined with albumin in the cell by the action of natural ferments - lipases - and the setting free of the fats under the influence of toxins represent the normal and the pathological process in the production of so-called fatty degeneration.

    0
    0
  • Hyaline degeneration is found in certain acute infective conditions; the toxins specially act on these connective-tissue cell elements.

    0
    0
  • Massart and Bordet, Leber, Metchnikoff and others have studied the phenomenon in leucocytes, with the result that while there is evidence of their being positively chemiotactic to the toxins of many pathogenic microbes, it is also apparent that they are negatively influenced by such substances as lactic acid.

    0
    0
  • The phagocytes are attracted from the blood vessels and elsewhere towards the noxious focus by the chemiotaxis exerted upon them by the toxins secreted by the bacteria contained within it.

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  • The chemiotaxis in this instance is positive, but the toxins from certain other bacteria may act negatively; and such bacteria are fraught with particular danger from the fact that they can spread through the body unopposed by the phagocytes, which may be looked upon as their natural enemies.

    0
    0
  • By the continuous injections under the skin, in increasing doses, of the toxins of certain pathogenic micro-organisms, such as that of diphtheria, an animal-usually the horse-may be rendered completely refractory to the disease.

    0
    0
  • Ludwig Brieger then discovered the toxins of certain infections; and Emil A.

    0
    0
  • Of such probably are the toxins and antitoxins of certain infections, which, anchoring themselves not by any means indiscriminately, but to particular and concerted molecules, by such anchorage antagonize them or turn them to favourable or unfavourable issues.

    0
    0
  • Toxins may thus become so closely keyed into their corresponding atom groups, as for instance in tetanus, that they are no longer free to combine with the antitoxin; or, again, an antitoxin injected before a toxin may anticipate it and, preventing its mischievous adhesion, dismiss it for excretion.

    0
    0
  • In the mutual behaviour of such cells, toxins, and antitoxins, and again of microbes themselves, we may demonstrate even on the field of the microscope some of the modes of such actions, which seem to partake in great measure at any rate of a chemical quality (agglutinins, coagulins, chemotaxis).

    0
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  • By producing Toxins.

    0
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  • both adult and larval, contain toxins of great virulence, though in.

    0
    0
  • The microbes appear in many cases to attract the leucocytes (positive chemiotaxis), but when very virulent they usually repel the leucocytes (negative chemiotaxis) and excrete toxins which kill the leucocytes.

    0
    0
  • The toxins produced by microbes, if too weak to destroy the leucocytes, induce them to secrete antitoxins, which not only act as antidotes to the toxins and are injurious to the microbes, but also increase the phagocytic power of the leucocytes (opsonius of Wright).

    0
    0
  • The presence of toxins in the blood not only affects the brain, causing delirium, but also other organs, the heart and lung, and may cause fatal syncope or respiratory failure.

    0
    0
  • toxins S.

    0
    0
  • Weir Mitchell and others have shown that serpent venom consists chiefly of albumoses, and the toxins formed by infective bacilli have a somewhat similar chemical nature.

    0
    0
  • In one, Haffkine employs the toxins obtained by growing plague bacilli in broth for five or six weeks, and then heating the whole to 65° or 70° C. so as to destroy the bacilli.

    0
    0
  • Both sleeplessness and pain are sometimes due to the action of toxins absorbed from the intestine, and both of them may High sometimes be relieved more efficiently by thorough purgation than by narcotics.

    0
    0
  • Another condition which is probably due to toxins is high pressure within the arteries.

    0
    0
  • These facts, and the further knowledge that many bacteria never observed as parasites, or as pathogenic forms, produce toxins or poisons as the result of their decompositions and fermentations of organic substances, have led to important results in the applications of bacteriology to medicine.

    0
    0
  • Little is known of the mode of action of bacteria on these plants, but it may be assumed with great confidence that they excrete enzymes and poisons (toxins), which diffuse into the cells and kill them, and that the effects are in principle the same as those of parasitic fungi.

    0
    0
  • Though subsequent researches have on the whole confirmed these results, it is still a matter of dispute whether these proteids are the true toxins or merely contain the toxic bodies precipitated along with them.

    0
    0
  • Immunity against toxins also became a subject of investigation, and the result was the discovery of the antitoxic action of the serum of animals immunized against tetanus toxin by E.

    0
    0
  • Though the causal relationship of a bacterium to a disease may be completely established by the methods given, another very important part of bacteriology is concerned with the poisons or toxins formed by bacteria.

    0
    0
  • These toxins may become free in the culture fluid, and the living bacteria may then be got rid of by filtering the fluid through a filter of unglazed porcelain, whose pores are sufficiently small to retain them.

    0
    0
  • In other instances the toxins are retained to a large extent within the bacteria, and in this case the dead bacteria are injected as a suspension in fluid.

    0
    0
  • Methods have been introduced for the purpose of breaking up the bodies of bacteria and setting free the intracellular toxins.

    0
    0
  • At this temperature the bacterial bodies are extremely brittle, and are thus readily broken up. The study of the nature of toxins requires, of course, the various methods of organic chemistry.

    0
    0
  • brain and kidneys, it may now be stated as an accepted fact that all the important results of bacteria in the tissues are due to poisonous bodies or toxins formed by them.

    0
    0
  • in the case of the tetanus and diphtheria bacilli, the production of soluble toxins can be readily demonstrated by filtering a culture in bouillon germ-free by means of a porcelain filter, and then injecting some of the filtrate into an animal.

    0
    0
  • Such toxins being set free in the culture medium are often known as extracellular.

    0
    0
  • The toxins are here manifestly contained within the bodies of the bacteria, i.e.

    0
    0
  • The action of these intracellular toxins has in many instances nothing characteristic, but is merely in the direction of producing fever and interfering with the vital processes of the body generally, these disturbances often going on to a fatal result.

    0
    0
  • In other words, the toxins of different bacteria are closely similar in their results on the body and the features of the corresponding diseases are largely regulated by the vital properties of the bacteria, their distribution in the tissues, &c. The distinction between the two varieties of toxins, though convenient.

    0
    0
  • Although the formation of toxins with characteristic action can be shown by the above methods, yet in some cases little or no toxic action can be demonstrated.

    0
    0
  • This, for example, is the case with the anthrax bacillus; although the effect of this organism in the living body indicates the production of toxins which diffuse for a distance around the bacteria.

    0
    0
  • This and similar facts have suggested that some toxins are only produced in the living body.

    0
    0
  • Regarding the chemical nature of toxins less is known than regarding their physiological action.

    0
    0
  • The methods used in the investigations were, however, open to objection, and it is now recognized that although organic bases may sometimes be formed, and may be toxic, the important toxins are not of that nature.

    0
    0
  • A later research by Brieger along with Fraenkel pointed to the extracellular toxins of diphtheria, tetanus and other diseases being of proteid nature, and various other observers have arrived at a like conclusion.

    0
    0
  • It may also be mentioned that many toxins have now been obtained by growing the particular organism in a proteid-free medium, a fact which shows that if the toxin is a proteid it may be formed synthetically by the bacterium as well as by modification of proteid already present.

    0
    0
  • With regard to the nature of intracellular toxins, there is even greater difficulty in the investigation and still less is known.

    0
    0
  • Many of them, probably also of proteid nature, are much more resistant to heat; thus the intracellular toxins of the tubercle bacillus retain certain of their effects even after exposure to ioo° C. Like the extracellular toxins they may be of remarkable potency; for example, fever is produced in the human subject by the injection into the blood of an extremely minute quantity of dead typhoid bacilli.

    0
    0
  • Certain toxins resemble enzymes as regards their conditions of precipitation and relative instability, and the fact that in most cases a considerable period intervenes between the time of injection and the occurrence of symptoms has been adduced in support of the view that enzymes are present.

    0
    0
  • The action of toxins is little understood.

    0
    0
  • the multiplication of the living organisms in the tissues; this is essential to, and regulates, the supply of toxins.

    0
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  • It is important that these two essential factors should be kept clearly in view, since the means of defence against any disease may depend upon the power either of neutralizing toxins or of killing the organisms producing them.

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  • In such diseases the bacteria, when introduced into the subcutaneous tissue, rapidly gain entrance to the blood stream and multiply freely in it, and by means of their toxins cause symptoms of general poisoning.

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  • .In still another class of diseases the bacteria are restricted to some particular part of the body, and the symptoms are due to toxins which are absorbed from it.

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  • The effects produced by bacteria may be considered under the following heads: (I) tissue changes produced in the vicinity of the bacteria, either at the primary or secondary foci; (2) tissue changes produced at a distance by absorption of their toxins; (3) symptoms. The changes in the vicinity of bacteria are to be regarded partly as the direct result of the action of toxins on living cells, and partly as indicating a reaction on the part of the tissues.

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  • The changes produced at a distance by distribution of toxins may be very manifold - cloudy swelling and fatty degeneration, serous effusions, capillary haemorrhages, various degenerations of muscle, hyaline degeneration of small blood-vessels, and, in certain chronic diseases, waxy degeneration, all of which may be widespread, are examples of the effects of toxins, rapid or slow in action.

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  • The action of toxins on various glands, producing diminished or increased functional activity, has a close analogy to that of certain drugs.

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  • In short, if we place aside the outstanding exception of tumour growth, we may say that practically all the important phenomena met with in disease may be experimentally produced by the injection of bacteria or of their toxins.

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  • A third method is by injections of the separated toxins of a bacterium, the resulting immunity being not only against the toxin, but, so far as present knowledge shows, also against the living organism.

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  • In the development of toxin-immunity the doses, small at first, are gradually increased in successive inoculations; or, as in the case of very active toxins, the initial injections are made with toxin modified by heat or by the addition of various chemical substances.

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  • Immunity of the same nature can be acquired in the same way against snake and scorpion poisons, and against certain vegetable toxins, e.g.

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  • The laws of antitoxin production and action are not confined to bacterial toxins, but apply also to other vegetable and animal toxins, resembling them in constitution, viz.

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  • It is by means of such side-chains that toxin molecules are attached to the protoplasm, so that the living molecules are brought under the action of the toxophorous groups of the toxins.

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  • Natural immunity against toxins must be taken into account, and, if Ehrlich's view with regard to toxic action be correct, this may depend upon either the absence of chemical affinity of the living molecules of the tissues for the toxic molecule, or upon insensitiveness to the action of the toxophorous group. It has been shown with regard to the former, for example, that the nervous system of the fowl, which possesses immunity against tetanus toxin, has little combining affinity for it.

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  • Pharmacology is a branch of biology; it is also closely connected with pathology and bacteriology, for certain drugs produce structural as well as functional changes in the tissues, and in germ diseases the peculiar symptoms are caused by foreign substances (toxins) formed by the infective organisms present in the body.

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  • The effects of many of these toxins bear a close resemblance to the action of certain wellknown drugs, as in the case of tetanus toxin and strychnine, and are studied by the same methods of observation and research.

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  • Tolerance is therefore analogous to, but not identical with, the immunity which takes place with the toxins of infectious diseases and snake poison.

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  • - These are substances which antagonize the toxins formed in the body by pathogenic organisms, the toxins of snake venom and other animal poisons, and vegetable toxins such as abrin, ricin, &c. A healthy person can be rendered insusceptible by gradually accustoming him to increasing doses of these poisons, and this immunity is due to antitoxins which are found in the blood-serum and which are products of the blood cells.

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  • Antitoxins can be prepared by immunizing a large animal, such as a horse, by injecting gradually increasing doses of specific toxins into its subcutaneous tissue.

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  • Antitoxins are organic products designed to neutralize the formation of the toxins of certain diseases in the blood.

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  • Toxins are also injected in order to stimulate the blood plasma to form antitoxins (see Bacteriology).

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  • Reheating food wo n't get rid of the toxins.

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  • It is not enough to undergo dietary regimens to rid the body of toxins.

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  • North Isles scallop fishing ban The first outbreak of algal bloom in Orkney this year to produce shellfish toxins was reported at the weekend.

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  • It has the ability to form a gel, which can bind water and toxins together, thus solidifying watery stools.

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  • Bt toxins encompass a large superfamily of Cry proteins made by different strains of B. thuringiensis.

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  • Click Here Further Details Mushroom toxins An account of various mushroom toxins ingested as food, leading to mushroom poisoning, or toadstool poisoning.

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  • It provides a short introduction and overview of food toxicology which of course includes a number of toxins of microbial origin.

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  • Drink plenty of water to help eliminate the toxins from your body.

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  • Cleansing your body of its accumulated toxins is a great way to boost well-being.

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  • The ban follows the detection of high levels of amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) toxins in shellfish in the area.

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  • The problems are not confined to land; there are also concerns about algal toxins in fish and the chemicals used in fish farming.

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  • For example, Monsanto 's approach to Colorado Beetle is to develop potato plants that produce bacterial toxins which kill the beetles.

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  • It only takes harmful toxins out of the body.

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  • This is no joke when the ants are fierce when provoked and have some of the most potent toxins around, wear your shoes.

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  • Secondly an increased gut transit time means that toxins normally confined to the small bowel can irritate and inflame the more sensitive colonic mucosa.

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  • The modified organism may also produce new toxins: genetically engineered bacteria produced toxic tryptophan.

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  • Unbalanced food intake or excessive feeding of treats, leading to increased toxins in the blood and muscles.

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  • Unripe green tomatoes can contain glycoalkaloids, which are natural toxins that can irritate the gastrointestinal tract.

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  • Horses cannot vomit to get rid of toxins, or indigestible food.

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  • Suspicions that this may indeed be the situation prompted the FDA to screen many of these pet foods for kidney-harming mold toxins.

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  • Allergies can be an indicator of toxins in the system.

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  • Some vets believe that cats get toxins built up in their systems just like humans do.

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  • The environment is full of toxins: in food, water and in the air.

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  • It helps the body rid itself of toxins that may be suppressing proper metabolic functions.

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  • When there is a build up of toxins, the body can't provide proper nourishment to all of the cells, no mater how balanced the diet is.

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  • If the liver you are serving your feline friend is not organic then you should keep in mind that the liver filters out the toxins in the things that go into the body.

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  • Other feline ailments appear later in a cat's life due to aging or repeated exposure to environmental toxins.

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  • Antigens or toxins cause the body to produce antibodies in order to destroy the foreign matter.

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  • You will also save yourself from the potential toxins found in household insecticides, the kind you will need to use should your cat bring in fleas and other pests.

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  • Elderly cats cannot deal with such toxins properly, and this is why kidney disease is so prominent in aging felines.

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  • Keep your household free of toxins such as chemical cleaners.

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  • A product can do this by reducing VOC's or other toxins that can leach into the air.

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  • While environmentalists often talk about toxins and chemicals, many people are unsure what the true effects of regular exposure to some cleaning products could mean for their bodies.

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  • Kidney and liver damage is also a common side affect of some toxins found in cleaning products.

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  • Factories and industrial sites often contaminate the soil with hazardous chemicals, and waste treatment plants, landfills, and septic systems leach contaminants into the soil that are both chemical and organic toxins.

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  • Biofuels produce fewer carbon emissions than fossil fuels, thereby reducing air pollution, greenhouse gasses, and toxins.

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  • Anything that churns out harmful smoke, toxins, chemicals, or biological substances into the air is considered a pollutant.

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  • The HydroSecure II system filters water from your well or other water source and frees it from toxins, E. coli, bacteria, and other contaminants.

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  • Not only would you be contributing to the volume of our already bulging landfills, but you'd also be potentially contaminating the earth with toxins.

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  • Toxins have leached out of industry facilities and factories into water supplies such as streams, rivers and into the world's oceans.

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  • The potential exists for these toxins to leach into the soil and groundwater that can be a source of drinking water.

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  • Land, air and water environmental problems are also all threatened by pollution and toxins that are a result of unsustainable industry practices and chemical dumping.

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  • It contains a wealth of information on the most commonly used toxins in household products.

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  • Dementia, Alzheimer, reproductive problems in men, asthma, bronchitis and headaches are all linked to the toxins found in a typical home.

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  • This in turn allows toxins to be flushed from the body more quickly.

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  • Because your body has been poisoned with toxins that are now building up in your bloodstream much faster than you get rid of them.

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  • Sports drinks - Chugging down sports drinks will not only hydrate your body, but also replace some of the glucose and other water-soluble nutrients that are flushed out of your system along with the toxins.

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  • Unfortunately, as the body battles the toxins, your normal sleep patterns are disrupted, so that your sleep is not refreshing or revitalizing.

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  • Acai Berry Supreme is one of the many acai pills that more and more everyday people and celebrities alike are taking to flush toxins out of their system and lose weight.

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  • It also draws increased blood flow to the area it is applied, causing infection, foreign bodies and toxins to rise to the surface.

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