Bacteria can process toxic wastes and oil spills into harmless biodegradable materials.
But every antiseptic, however good is more or less toxic and irritating to a wounded surface.
On the toxic properties of nickel salts see A.
In large doses toxic symptoms are produced, death following on coma.
Tested upon animals and found to have no toxic properties.
Brieger and Boer, by precipitation with certain salts, notably of zinc, obtained a body which was toxic but gave no reaction of any form of proteid.
We cannot as yet speak definitely with regard to the part played by enzymes in these toxic processes.
They are based on the experimental toxic, as distinguished from lethal dose.
The methods used in the investigations were, however, open to objection, and it is now recognized that although organic bases may sometimes be formed, and may be toxic, the important toxins are not of that nature.
Attempts to get a pure toxin by repeated precipitation and solution have resulted in the production of a whitish amorphous powder with highly toxic properties.
In the case of diphtheria Sidney Martin obtained toxic albumoses in the spleen, which he considered were due to the digestive action of an enzyme formed by the bacillus in the membrane and absorbed into the circulation.
In small therapeutic and in small toxic doses atropine stimulates the motor apparatus of the spinal cord, just as it stimulates the centres in the medulla oblongata.
Their metabolic products may induce blood-poisoning or other toxic effects (facultative parasites) though they are not true parasites.
In many cases, however, the filtrate, when injected, produces comparatively little effect, whilst toxic action is observed when the bacteria in a dead condition are used; this is the case with the organisms of tubercle, cholera, typhoid and many others.
It is interesting to note that in the case of the closely analogous example of snake venoms, there may be separated from a single venom a number of toxic bodies which have a selective action on different animal tissues.
The general result of such research has been to show that the toxic bodies are, like proteids, precipitable by alcohol and various salts; they are soluble in water, are somewhat easily dialysable, and are relatively unstable both to light and heat.
According to this view, then, a part at least of the directly toxic substance is produced in the living body by enzymes present in the so-called toxin obtained from the bacterial culture.
Long ago, his ancestors had rigged the planet to blow the mines and turn the atmosphere into a toxic mix no one would survive.
In toxic doses podophyllin causes intense enteritis, with all its characteristic symptoms, and severe depression, which may end in death.
Salicylic acid and salicin (q.v.) share the properties common to the group of aromatic acids, which, as a group, are antiseptic without being toxic to man - a property practically unique; are unstable in the body; are antipyretic and analgesic; and diminish the excretion of urea by the kidneys.
In twenty-four hours, without any toxic symptoms. The artificial acid and its salt contain ortho-, paraand meta-cresotic acids, which are cardiac depressants.
Yet even the distribution of toxic matters by the blood is not necessarily followed by general and indiscriminate injury to the nervous elements.
Crismer, and others, all conclusively show that acetylene is much less toxic than carbon monoxide, and indeed than coal gas.
It is by no means the most powerful poison known, for such an alkaloid as pseud-aconitine, which is lethal in dose of about 1/200 of a grain, is some hundreds of times more toxic, but prussic acid is by far the most rapid poison known, a single inhalation of it producing absolutely instantaneous death.
The diluted form, in toxic quantities, will cause symptoms usually within a few seconds.
Treatment is only rarely of use, owing to the rapidity of the toxic action.
In medicine antipyrine ("phenazonum") has been used as an analgesic and antipyretic. The dose is 5-20 grs., but on account of its depressant action on the heart, and the toxic effects to which it occasionally gives rise, it is now but little used.
The seeds contain a toxic substance, which makes them actively poisonous; so much so that three have been known to kill an adult.
A toxic dose causes unpleasant symptoms, but in certain cases, such as this, it may require very many times a toxic dose to produce the lethal effect.
So valuable are certain of the properties of atropine that it is often desirable to give doses of one-twentieth or onetenth of a grain; but these will never be ventured upon by the practitioner who is ignorant of the great interval between the minimum toxic and the minimum lethal dose.
Toxic doses of atropine - and therefore of belladonna - raise the temperature several degrees.
In large toxic and in lethal doses the activity of the spinal cord is lowered.
According to Rabuteau the toxic properties of the higher alcohols increase with their molecular weight and boiling point.
Thiourea and many of its unsymmetrical derivatives have marked physiological action; thiourea causes a slowing of the pulse and respiration, cardiac failure, and death in convulsions; phenyl-, ethyland acetyl-thiourea are actively toxic. The most important derivative pharmacologically is allyl-thiourea, also known as thiosinamine or rhodallin, NH2 CS NH CH2 CH:CH2.
Little is known of its toxic action; only a weak toxin has been obtained from cultures.
The toxic symptoms have already been detailed, the patient usually dying from arrest of the renal functions.
What occurs with snake venom takes place also when the toxins are formed by microbes, and a new method of treatment by anti-toxic serums has been introduced of late years with great success.
These disagreeable results, however, are not to be compared with the benefits obtained by the injection of anti-toxic serum, and this method of treatment is likely to maintain its place in therapeutics.
The modes by which bacteria produce their effects also became a subject of study, and attention was naturally turned to their toxic products.
A new field of inquiry was, however, opened up when, by filtration a bacterium-free toxic fluid was obtained which produced the important symptoms of the disease-in the case of diphtheria by P. P. E.
Research was thus directed towards ascertaining the nature of the toxic bodies in such a fluid, and Brieger and Fraenkel (1890) found that they were proteids, to which they gave the name " toxalbumins."
In the United Kingdom the work of Sidney Martin, in the separation of toxic substances from the bodies of those who have died from certain diseases, is also worthy of mention.
Toxic substances have also been separated by corresponding methods from the bodies of those who have died of certain diseases, and the action of such substances on animals is in some cases an important point in the pathology of the disease.
Although the formation of toxins with characteristic action can be shown by the above methods, yet in some cases little or no toxic action can be demonstrated.
A considerable amount of work has been done in connexion with this subject, and many observers have found that fluids taken from the living body in which the organisms have been growing, contain toxic substances, to which the name of aggressins has been applied.
Not only are the general symptoms of poisoning in bacterial disease due to toxic substances, but also the tissue changes, many of them of inflammatory nature, in the neighbourhood of the bacteria.
Thus, to mention examples, diphtheria toxin produces inflammatory oedema which may be followed by necrosis; dead tubercle bacilli give rise to a tubercle-like nodule, &c. Furthermore, a bacillus may give rise to more than one toxic body, either as stages in one process of change or as distinct products.
But this has not been proved, and hitherto no enzyme has been separated from a pathogenic bacterium capable of forming, by digestive or other action, the toxic bodies from proteids outside the body.
He watched explosions wrack his planet until they rose high enough that the toxic dust storm he'd started marred the surface of the planet from view.
The natural (laevo) base is twice as toxic as the dextro.
The action of aconitine on the circulation is due to an initial stimulation of the cardio-inhibitory centre in the medulla oblongata (at the root of the vagus nerves), and later to a directly toxic influence on the nerve-ganglia and muscular fibres of the heart itself.
It is frequently found associated with, or as a sequel to, cloudy swelling in intense or prolonged toxic conditions.
The fact of this increased leucocytic activity during the early stages, or the whole course of infection by Cestodes, is indirect proof that these parasites do normally discharge toxic substances into their hosts.
The serum is then removed and its anti-toxic power tested by ascertaining the amount necessary to counteract a given amount of active toxin in a guinea-pig of a certain size, the standard weight being three hundred grammes.
Fluid containing these aggressins greatly increases the toxic effect of the corresponding bacteria, and may produce death at an earlier stage than ever occurs with the bacteria alone.
The cyst is filled with a toxic fluid and may bud off new or daughter scolices.
Though subsequent researches have on the whole confirmed these results, it is still a matter of dispute whether these proteids are the true toxins or merely contain the toxic bodies precipitated along with them.
Or nanites that clean up any toxic chemicals they find and turn them into harmless agents?
In infantile palsy, for example, and in tabes dorsalis, there is good reason to believe of that, definitely as the traces of the disease are found in certain physiologically distinct nervous elements, they are due nevertheless to toxic agents arriving by way of the blood.
The toxic actions produced in continued fevers, in certain chronic diseases, and by intestinal parasites largely aid in producing degeneration, emaciation and atrophy.
In the sphere of physiology and in the interpretation of associated arterial diseases much obscurity still remains; as, for instance, concerning the nature of the toxic substances which produce those bilateral changes in the kidneys which we call Bright's disease, and bring about the "uraemia" which is characteristic of it.