For the administration of local affairs the state is divided into 14 counties and 245 townships.
Hoyt, Brief of a Title in the Seventeen Townships in the County of Luzerne (Harrisburg, 1879).
Except in the vicinity of cities and townships, however, little use has been made of the abundant deposits of clay.
But the Tribuni Majores were equally powerless to allay the jealousies of the growing townships which formed the lagoon community.
Among the salaried staff of officials, the townships officers are the ultimate representatives of government who come into most direct contact with the people.
From the fact that several Cretan townships passed for colonies of Tegea, it may be inferred that this city had oversea connexions in prehistoric days.
Brownhills, Burntwood and Chase Town, Great Wyrley, Hednesford, Hammerwich, and Pelsall are townships or villages of the mining population.
The state is divided into fifteen counties, each of which is governed in local matters by a board of county commissioners, and is divided for administrative purposes into townships.
On each occasion, no doubt, some of the refugees remained behind in the islands, and gradually built and peopled the twelve lagoon townships, which formed the germ of the state of Venice and were subsequently concentrated at Rialto or in the city we now know as Venice.
These twelve townships were Grado, Bibione, Caorle, Jesolo, Heraclea, Torcello, Murano, Rialto, Malamocco, Poveglia, Chioggia and Sottomarina.
Turning to the other problem, that of internal fusion and consolidation, we find that in 466, fourteen years after the fall of Aquileia, the population of the twelve lagoon townships met at Grado for the election of one tribune from each island for the better government of the separate communities, and above all to put an end to rivalries which had already begun to play a disintegrating part.
The external menace to their independence had welded together the place and the people; the same pressure had brought about the fusion of the conflicting parties in the lagoon townships into one homogeneous whole.
School districts fall into four classes - cities, villages, townships and special districts - each of which has its own board of education elected by popular vote.
Three institutions for higher education are supported in large measure by the state: Ohio University at Athens, founded in 1804 on the proceeds derived from two townships granted by Congress to the Ohio Company; Miami University (chartered in 1809) at Oxford, which received the proceeds from a township granted by Congress in the Symmes purchase; and Ohio State University (1873) at Columbus, which received the proceeds from the lands granted by Congress under the act of 1862 for the establishment of agricultural and mechanical colleges, and reorganized as a university in 1878.
When the war was over and these cessions had been made a great number of war veterans wished an opportunity to repair their broken fortunes in the West, and Congress, hopeful of receiving a large revenue from the sale of lands here, passed an ordinance on the 20th of May 1785 by which the present national system of land-surveys into townships 6 In.
Between this central barrier and the northern frontier range of Cnemis (3000 ft.) is the narrow but fertile valley of the Cephissus, along which most of the Phocian townships were scattered.
The municipal area embraces the three townships of Seaton Carew, a seaside resort with good bathing, and golf links; Stranton, with its church of All Saints, of the 14th century, on a very early site; and Throston.
The cadastral surveys in Canada are carried on by a commission of Crown-lands in the old provinces and by a Dominion land office, which lays out townships as in the United States, but with greater accuracy.
The states are subdivided into cornarcas, or judicial districts, and into municipios, or townships, which is the smallest autonomous division.
It lies partly within Stillwater and partly within Half-Moon townships, in the bottom-lands at the mouth of the Anthony Kill, about 1 z m.
The ancient parish of Llangammarch consists of the townships of Penbuallt and Treflis, the wells being in the former, which comprises 11,152 acres and had in 1901 a population of only 433.
The Lea separates the county of London from Essex, but the townships of West Ham and Stratford, Barking and Ilford, Leyton and Walthamstow continue the metropolis in this direction almost without a break.
There is telegraphic communication between the magistracies and townships and with Natal.
With the exception of the townships and a district of Emtonjaneni magistracy known as " Proviso B," 1 mainly occupied by Boer farmers, all the land was vested in the crown and very little has been parted with to Europeans.
Subordinate to the deputy commissioners are assistant commissioners, extra-assistant commissioners and myooks, who are invested with various magisterial, civil and revenue powers, and hold charge of the townships, as the units of regular civil and revenue jurisdiction are called, and the sub-divisions of districts, into which most of these townships are grouped.
Thrice portions have been added to Cambridge, and it has contributed territory to form the new townships of Weston (1712), Waltham (1738), and Belmont (1859).
For purposes of administration and local government the state is divided into ninety-nine counties, each of which is itself divided into townships that are usually 6 m.
The capital and the residence of the prince is Arolsen (pop. 2811 in 1905) in Waldeck; twelve smaller townships and about one hundred villages are also situated in the county.
About 469 B.C. Mantineia alone of Arcadian townships refused to join the league of Tegea and Argos against Sparta.
Massachusetts is also one of the few states in which the legislature meets in annual session.4 Townships were represented as such in this body (called the General Court) until 1856.
The same method of voting has been adopted in about two-thirds of the townships of the state.
Beginning in 1892 various townships and cities, numbering 18 in 1903, adopted municipal ownership and operation of lighting works.
Many townships and cities maintain free evening schools.
During the war all but twelve small townships raised troops in excess of every call, the excess throughout the state amounting in all to more than 15,000 men; while the total recruits to the Federal army (including re-enlistments) numbered, according to the adjutantgeneral of the state, 159,165 men, of which less than 7000 were raised by draft.
Townships governed by close corporations, and all embedded in the despotic power of the crown, presented none of the elements out of which a commonwealth could be formed.
It consists of two scattered townships, Low Harrogate and High Harrogate, which have gradually been connected by a continuous range of handsome houses and villas.
For purposes of local government the state is divided into counties; each county into townships, school districts and road districts; and there are incorporated cities and towns.
are: the management of county property; the levying of taxes; the equalizing of assessments; the division of the county into townships, school districts and road districts; the laying out.
For the administration of local government the state is divided into counties (64 in 1910) and these in turn are subdivided into townships and municipal corporations.
Poll taxes are levied by the counties and townships for school and local purposes.
Milwaukee county was set off from Brown county in 1834, and in 1836 the establishment of townships was authorized.
- There are very few towns with a population of over 10,000 inhabitants in Siam, the majority being merely scattered townships or clusters of villages, the capitals of the provinces (muang) being often no more than a few houses gathered round the market-place, the offices and the governor's residence.
The township of Hartford was one of the first three original townships of Connecticut.
It includes the contiguous townships of Ossett, South Ossett and Gawthorpe.
When the Ohio Company, through Manasseh Cutler, obtained from congress their land in what is now Ohio, it was arranged that the income from two townships was to be set aside "for the support of a literary institution."
In 1795 the townships (Athens and Alexander) were located and surveyed, and in 1800 Rufus Putnam and two other commissioners, appointed by the Territorial legislature, laid out a town, which was also called Athens.
The states are generally subdivided into distritos (districts) or partidos, and these into municipios (municipalities) which correspond to the townships of the American system.
Local affairs are administered by counties, towns (townships) village districts and cities.
Both provinces granted townships within the disputed territory; Massachusetts arrested men there who refused to pay taxes to its officers, and sought to defer the settlement of the dispute.
Within a few years the governor of New Hampshire granted in the disputed territory 138 townships which were rapidly settled by those whom it was the duty of the province to protect.
broad along the north-western coast, and the two western townships (Chilmark and Gay Head), which are hilly, with several eminences of 200 to 300 ft.
Moreover, special provision had been made in the Constitutional Act of 1791 for the liberal endowment of the Protestant religion, then identified in the official mind with the Church of England, through what were afterwards known as the Clergy Reserves, being one-seventh of the lands of the new townships opened for settlement.
In the 8th and 7th centuries it founded thirty townships on the peninsula of Chalcidice, and several important cities in Sicily.
square, and a separate quasi-municipal organization is usually provided for the villages which have grown up in many townships.
In most states county administration belongs to a small board of three commissioners elected for the county at large, but in New York, Michigan, lllinois and Wisconsin there is a larger board of supervisors elected by townships and cities within each county.
This is one of the largest townships in the Cleveland ironstone district, and its industrial population is wholly employed in the quarries.
In Quebec the chief portion is south of the St Lawrence on the low plain extending from Montreal to the mountains of the " Eastern Townships," while in Ontario it extends from the Archean on the north to the St Lawrence and Lakes Ontario, Erie and Huron.
They resented the presence of the Canadian surveyors sent to lay out roads and townships, and the tactless way in which some of these did their work increased the suspicion that long-established rights to the soil would not be respected.
For purely local matters municipal institutions are organized to cover counties and townships, cities and towns, all based.
The borough, composed of three townships identical with the ancient manors of Salford, Pendleton and Broughton, is for the most part separated from Manchester by the river Irwell, which is crossed by a series of bridges.
This will be seen by an examination of the rateable value of the three townships now comprised in the borough.
It was the constant ambition of the Thebans to absorb the other townships into a single state, just as Athens had annexed the Attic communities.
About this time the Boeotian League comprised eleven groups of sovereign cities and associated townships, each of which elected one Boeotarch or minister of war and foreign affairs, contributed sixty delegates to the federal council at Thebes, and supplied a contingent of about a thousand foot and a hundred horse to the federal army.
Boeotia is at present a Nomos with Livadia (the old Turkish capital) for its centre; the other surviving townships are quite unimportant.
The numerous townships which then sprang_up acquired rights of self-government according to German law, Breslau being refounded about 1250 as a German town, and a feudal organization was introduced among the landholding nobility.
Justices of the peace are elected in wards, districts, boroughs and townships.
Besides founding townships in the west and north of Greece, it acquired dependencies among the Cyclades and joined the great mercantile alliance of Miletus and Aegina.
Aradus presided over three subordinate townships (Arrian ii.
Acting on the recommendation of Governor Robert Lucas (1781-1853), on the 23rd of February 1835 the Ohio legislature passed an Act extending the northern boundaries of what were then Wood, Henry and Williams counties (lying partly within the disputed strip) north to the Harris line, and providing for the organization of new townships within this added territory, and for the appointment of three commissioners to re-mark the line.
Within its original limits were included what are now the townships of Redding (separated, 1767), Weston (1787) and Easton (formed from part of Weston in 1845), and parts of the present Westport and Bridgeport.
This is the northernmost of a series of populous townships extending from the suburbs of London along the Lea valley as far as its junction with the Stort, which is close to Hoddesdon.
The borough of South Trenton was annexed in 1850; the borough of Chambersburg and the township of Millham in 1888; the borough of Wilbur in 1898; and parts of the townships of Ewing and Hamilton in 1900.
For the administration of justice Denmark is divided into herreds or hundreds; as, however, they are mostly of small extent, several are generally served by one judge (herredsfoged); the townships are likewise separate jurisdictions, each with a byfoged.
Theseus now carried out a political revolution in Attica by abolishing the semi-independent powers of the separate townships and concentrating those powers at Athens, and he instituted the festival of the Panathenaea,3 as a symbol of the unity of the Attic race.
Cook county, although it has a township system, is governed, like those counties in which townships are not found, by a Board of Commissioners, elected by the townships and the city of Chicago.
Boards of Revision and Boards of Supervision then equalize the assessments in the counties and townships, while a State Board of Equalization seeks to equalize the total valuation of the various counties.
In 1862 parts of the townships of Orange, Caldwell and Livingston were united into a new township named Fairmount.
In Ipswich were originally included the present townships of Hamilton (1793) and Essex (1819).
Instead of appearing under the Hundreds and townships they now appeared under the names of the local "barons," i.e.
Wigan, otherwise Wygan and Wigham, is not mentioned in Domesday Book, but three of the townships, Upholland, Dalton and Orrel are named.
The name, variously written Espinoza, De Spinoza, D'Espinoza and Despinoza, probably points to the province of Leon as the previous home of the family; there are no fewer than five townships so called in the neighbourhood of Burgos.
Some townships, however, contained more than one tithing.
In 1877 it received a municipal charter, the boundaries of the borough including the suburban townships of Tranmere, Claughton, Oxton and part of Higher Bebington.
Justices of the peace are elected by the townships for a term of four years - there are not more than four in each township; in civil matters they have exclusive jurisdiction of cases in which the demand does not exceed $loo and concurrent jurisdiction with the circuit courts in contract cases in which the demand does not exceed $300.
lines into several townships.
section of the lower peninsula the townships are much larger than in other parts of the state.
The supervisor is also the township assessor, and the several township supervisors constitute the county board of supervisors who equalize property valuations as between townships, authorize townships to borrow money with which to build or repair bridges, are entrusted with the care and management of the property and business of the county, and may borrow or raise by tax what is necessary to meet the more common expenses of the county.
of Palermo, and in the townships of Geraci, Castelbuono, and other places in the district of Cefalu, 50 to 70 m.
Because of its hard and rough soil, Ware was not settled as early as the surrounding townships, the first permanent settlement being made in 1730.
For the purposes of local government the state is divided into counties, cities, townships, towns and boroughs.
The government of the towns is administered through a council, clerk, collector, assessor, treasurer, &c., chosen by popular vote; that of the townships is vested in the annual town meeting, at which administrative officers are elected.
Three years later townships were authorized to levy taxes for maintaining schools for poor children.
The division of townships into school districts and the election of three trustees were provided for in 1829.
After a closely contested election in which six members of Congress were chosen on a general ticket, although there was an apparent Democratic majority of about one hundred votes (in a total of 57,000), two county clerks rejected as irregular sufficient returns from townships to elect five Whig candidates to whom the state board of canvassers (mostly Whigs and headed by the Whig governor, William Pennington) gave commissions under the broad seal of the state.
At first a part of Strabane township, one of the original thirteen townships of Washington county, in February 1786 Washington was made a separate election district; it was incorporated as a town in 1810; was chartered as a borough and enlarged in 1852, and its limits were extended in 1854 and 1855.
In 1903 various neighbouring industrial townships were incorporated with the town.
Pop. (1885) 47,5 1 9; (1900) 92,729; (1905), including many outlying townships then recently incorporated, 191,551.
The industry is carried on in a great number of neighbouring townships, but the cloth is commonly finished or dressed in the city itself, this procedure differing from that of the wool manufacturers in Gloucestershire and the west of England, who carry out the entire process in one factory.
Ashtabula township was created in 1808, and from it the townships of Kingsville, Plymouth and Sheffield have subsequently been formed.
In 1785 New Cambridge and West Britain, another ecclesiastical society of Farmington, were incorporated as the township of Bristol, but in 1806 they were divided into the present townships of Bristol and Burlington.
The township system may be adopted by county option, but has not been widely established, though purely administrative (not corporate) "townships" are an essential part of state administration.
2 In 1902 the bonded debts of counties and townships aggregated $8,066,878; that of towns and cities (mostly that of St Louis), $31,193,870.
Under this system Boo out of 1016 townships and more than 30 entire counties were in 1908 without saloons.
Thus Arcadia lagged behind the general development of Greece, and its political importance was small owing to chronic feuds between the townships (notably between Mantineia and Tegea) and the readiness of its youth for mercenary service abroad.
The urban district includes the townships of Upper Swinford and Wollaston.
' The counties have been divided into municipal townships, each of which elects a trustee, a clerk and a treasurer, who together constitute a board of directors for the management of township affairs.
The university, agricultural and mechanical college and normal schools also are maintained to a considerable extent out of the proceeds of section 13 in several townships.
The constitutional limit on the state tax levy is 31 mills on a dollar, and legislation has fixed the limit of the county levy at 5 mills, of the levy in cities at 7, in incorporated towns at 5, in townships at 3, and in school districts at 5.
The families are grouped in townships or otherwise (qali) under the lesser chiefs, who again owe allegiance to the supreme chief of the matanitu or tribe.
The Irish Education Act of 1892 provided that the parents of children of not less than 6 nor more than 14 years of age should cause them to attend school in the absence of reasonable excuse on at least 150 days in the year in municipal boroughs and in towns or townships under commissioners; and provisions were made for the partial or total abolition of fees in specified circumstances, for a parliamentary school grant in lieu of abolished school fees, and for the augmentation of the salaries of the national teachers.
Counties are divided into townships and under the constitution each " shall constitute a body politic and corporate," but in 1910 there were no separate township govern-' ments, the existing division of counties into townships being for the purpose of convenience in adjusting taxes.
The foundation of Patras goes back to prehistoric times, the legendary account being that Eumelus, having been taught by Triptolemus how to grow grain in the rich soil of the Glaucus valley, established three townships, Aroe (i.e.
Windsor has been called "The Mother of Towns"; it originally included the territory now constituting the present township, and the townships of East Windsor (1768), Ellington (1786), South Windsor (1845), Simsbury (1670), Granby (1786), East Granby (1858), Bloomfield (1835) and Windsor Locks (1854).
Behetrias, called plebeian lordships, were districts and townships of peasants who were bound to have a lord, and to make him payments in money or in kind, but who had a varying freedom of choice in electing their lord.
Parish, in English ecclesiastical law, may be defined as the township or cluster of townships which was assigned to the ministration of a single priest, to whom its tithes and other ecclesiastical dues were paid; but the word has now acquired several distinct meanings.
Before the process of subinfeudation became prevalent, the most ancient manors were the districts which we call by that name when speaking of the tenants, or "townships" when we regard the inhabitants, or "parishes" as to matters ecclesiastical.
The boundaries of the old ecclesiastical parishes are usually identical with those of the township or townships comprised within its precinct; they are determined by usage, in the absence of charters or records, and are evidenced by perambulations, which formerly took place on the "gang-days" in Rogation week, but are now, where they still survive, for the most part held triennially, the Poor-Law Act of 1844 permitting the parish officers to charge the expense on the poor-rate, "provided the perambulations do not occur more than once in three years."
Many parishes contain more than one township, and this is especially the case in the northern counties, where the separate townships are organized for administrative purposes under an act passed in 1662.
Amendments are adopted after approval by a majority vote of the lower house of the general assembly, a two-thirds majority of both houses of the next general assembly, and ratification by the townships.
All children between 7 and 16 are required to attend school, but those over 14 are excused if they labour; every township of more than ro,000 inhabitants must support an evening school for those over 14; and textbooks are provided by the townships for those unable to purchase them.
The government thus established was not the product of a federation of townships, as has often been stated; indeed, the townships had been governed during the first year by commissioners deriving authority from Massachusetts, and the first general court was probably convened by them.
In 1643 the jurisdiction of the New Haven colony was extended by the admission of the townships of Milford, Guilford and Stamford to equal rights with New Haven, the recognition of their local governments, and the formation of two courts for the whole jurisdiction, a court of magistrates to try important cases and hear appeals from " plantation " courts, and a general court with legislative powers, the highest court of appeals, which was similar in composition to the general court of the Connecticut Colony.
Two other townships were afterwards added to the colony, Southold, on Long Island, and Branford, Conn.
Representation in the lower house of the general assembly, by the constitution of 1818, was based on the townships, each township having two representatives, except townships created after 1818, which had only one each; this method constituted a serious evil when, in the transition from agriculture to manufacturing as the leading industry, the population became concentrated to a considerable degree in a few large cities, and the relative importance of the various townships was greatly changed.
But the greater inequalities in township representation subsisted, although in 1874 an amendment had given all townships of 5000 inhabitants two seats in the lower house, every other one " to be entitled to its present representation," and in 1876 another amendment had provided that no township incorporated thereafter should be entitled to a representative " unless it has at least 2500 inhabitants, and unless the town from which the major portion of its territory is taken has also at least 2500 inhabitants."
These provisions did not remedy the grosser defects, and as proposals for an amendment of the constitution could be submitted to the people only after receiving a majority vote of the lower house, all further attempts at effective reform seemed to be blocked, owing to the unwillingness of the representatives of the smaller townships to surrender their unusual degree of power.
The small townships thus secured practical control of the convention, and no radical changes were made.
Johnston's Connecticut is well written, but his theories regarding the relationship between the townships and the state are not generally accepted by historical scholars.
This will also help identify churches in nearby townships and/or parishes.
His sumptuous improvisations evoke the spirit of the townships, where music, politics & personal experiences have a great influence on the people.
Most of the population live in crofting townships on the west coast.
This demographic chance was counterbalanced by the rise of some settlements to fortified townships.
The Union comprises 34 townships, of which 19 are in Yorkshire.
Ramsey Abbey thus obtained Slepe, including the neighboring townships of Woodhurst and Old Hurst, which were included in the Soke of Slepe.
However, there are plenty of options in surrounding townships as well as in Athens itself.
The sub-district bears the name of West Leigh, and contains the townships of West Leigh and Pennington.
Maybe spend the day in the medieval townships or get into the San Fermin atmosphere at the camp's bar.
townships and/or parishes.
In December 1768 the company divided a part of the valley into five townships of 5 sq.
each, granting to forty proprietors the choice of one of these on condition that they should take possession of it by the ist of February 1769, and the other four townships to 200 settlers on condition that they should follow by the ist of May.
The State University, established at Elko in 1874 and removed to Reno in 1887, is supported by the income from a Federal grant of two townships (72 sq.
Placing his parents under the charge of the king of Moab, he took up the life of a guerilla captain, cultivating friendly relations with the townships of Judah (xxx.
The growing importance of the lagoon townships, owing to their maritime skill, their expanding trade, created by their position between east and west, their monopoly of salt and salted fish, which gave them a strong position in the mainland markets, rendered it inevitable that a clash must come over the question of independence, when either east or west should claim that Venice belonged to them; and inside the lagoons the growing prosperity, coupled with the external threat to their liberties, concentrated the population into two well-defined parties - what may be called the aristocratic party, because it leaned towards imperial Byzantium and also displayed a tendency to make the dogeship hereditary, and the democratic party, connected with the original population of the lagoons, aspiring to free institutions, and consequently leaning more towards the church and the Frankish kingdom which protected the church.
The legislative power is vested in the General Assembly,' which consists of a Senate made up of the lieutenant-governor and of one senator from each of the thirty-eight cities and townships in the state, and a House of Representatives of one hundred members, apportioned according to population, but with the proviso that each town or city shall have at least one member and none shall have more than one-fourth of the total (see History).
But this form of pure democracy was in various cases long since inevitably abandoned: by Boston reluctantly in 1822, and subsequently by many other townships or cities, as growing population made action in town meeting unbearably cumbersome.
Many townships have published their local records, and many township and county histories contain valuable matter of general interest (e.g.
Martha's Vineyard is divided into the following townships (from east to west): Edgartown (in the south-east of the island), pop. (1905, state census), 1175; area, 29.7 sq.
Maybe spend the day in the medieval townships or get into the San Fermin atmosphere at the camp 's bar.
The latter presents the easier quest as many townships and cities contain a Nordstrom, Neiman Marcus, or Saks Fifth Avenue.
Various other Massachusetts townships, as they have grown older, have been similarly compelled to abandon their old form of government.
The metropolitan water district (1895) included in 1908 Boston and seventeen cities or townships in its environs; the metropolitan sewerage district (1889) twenty four; the park service (1893) thirty-nine.
Sebastiani, commanding the advanced guard, overtook the Russians in the act of evacuating Moscow, and agreed with the latter to observe a seven hours' armistice to allow the Russians to clear the town, for experience had shown the French that street fighting in wooden Russian townships always meant fire and the consequent destruction of much-needed shelter and provisions.
In this aspect the principal extension of London has been into the counties of Kent and Surrey, to the pleasant hilly districts about Sydenham, Norwood and Croydon, Chislehurst and Orpington, Caterham, Redhill and Reigate, Epsom, Dorking and Leatherhead; and up the valley of the Thames through Richmond to Kingston and Surbiton, Esher and Weybridge, and the many townships on both the Surrey and the Middlesex shores of the river.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.