Not many small towns so I'll keep rolling and not tarry here.
from Munich, and at the centre of a network of railways placing it in direct communication with all the principal towns of south Germany.
The burning of towns and villages, the retreats after battles, the blow dealt at Borodino and the renewed retreat, the burning of Moscow, the capture of marauders, the seizure of transports, and the guerrilla war were all departures from the rules.
His action in abolishing all tolls established on the Rhine since 1250, led to the formation of a league against him by the Rhenish archbishops and the count palatine of the Rhine; but aided by the towns, he soon crushed the rising.
The earth in flames, with earthquakes swallowing whole towns and buildings burning.
In some of the towns, however, and especially at Iglesias, they are good modern buildings.
Ibn Tumart, who had been driven from several other towns for exhibitions of reforming zeal, now took refuge among his own people, the Masmuda, in the Atlas.
A number of Roman towns are known to us.
He'd hitchhiked between towns and walked cross-country, admiring the Irish landscape as he went and cursing the cold, incessant rain of late autumn.
Mike says along the Mississippi, all the towns are like this.
Addresses were presented to him at Southampton, Birmingham and other towns; he was officially entertained by the lord mayor of London; at each place he pleaded the cause of his unhappy country.
After America's entrance into the war they were frequently charged with disloyalty and in many towns attempts were made to suppress them.
In Africa they were successful in expelling the garrisons placed in some of the coast towns by the Norman kings of Sicily.
Although of early origin, its appearance, like that of other great manufacturing towns of the vicinity, is wholly modern.
It thus serves as an entrepot for much of the commerce between Atlantic and Pacific ports, and between the interior towns of Central and South America and the cities of Europe and the United States.
Since 1731 it has been composed of the two towns of Clermont and Montferrand, now connected by a fine avenue of walnut trees and willows, 2 m.
It is remarkable how many creatures live wild and free though secret in the woods, and still sustain themselves in the neighborhood of towns, suspected by hunters only.
Small towns, children playing, birds singing.
New, disease resistant trees are bringing back the splendor of what has been called one of the prettiest towns in New England.
There are Turkish primary and secondary schools in some of the towns; in the village mosques instruction in the Koran is given by the imams, but neither reading nor writing is taught.
One of the strongest towns in Silesia it was besieged several times during the 17th and 18th centuries.
Surely you dwell here or in one of these surrounding towns.
We'd go twenty, thirty miles away to do our business, moving to different towns.
Although planned in the shape of a cross, with a square and tower in the middle, the arms of the cross are not straight, the constructor holding the ingenious opinion that, in order to prevent little towns from being taken in at a glance, their streets should be crooked.
Communication between these two towns is maintained by a line of smaller boats, the distance being 517 m.
m.) was incorporated with the rest of Transylvania; and in 1871 effect was given to the imperial decree of 1869 by which the districts of the Warasdin regiments (St George and the Cross) and the towns of Zengg, B elovar, Ivanic, &c., were "provincialized" or incorporated with the Croatian-Slavonian crown-land.
Eusebius in his Onomasticon uses it as a central point from which the distances of other towns are measured.
It is served by the Atlantic Coast Line, the Seaboard Air line, the Southern, the New York, Philadelphia & Norfolk, the Chesapeake & Ohio, the Norfolk & Western, the Norfolk & Southern and the Virginian railways, by many steamship lines, by ferry to Portsmouth (immediately opposite), Newport News, Old Point Comfort and Hampton, and by electric lines to several neighbouring towns.
Stavanger is the first port of call for northward-bound passenger steamers from Hull and Newcastle, and has regular services from all the Norwegian coast towns, from Hamburg, &c. A railway runs south along the wild and desolate coast of Jaederen, one of the few low and unprotected shores in Norway, the scene of many wrecks.
Sardinia is divided into two provinces - Cagliari and Sassari; the chief towns of the former (with their communal population in 1901) are: Cagliari (53,057); Iglesias (20,874); Quartu S.
For the Rhine provinces not incorporated in Prussia, with the special object of regulating episcopal elections; concerned Wurttemberg, Baden, Hesse, Saxony, Nassau, Frankfort, the Hanseatic towns, Oldenburg and Waldeck.
He reformed the administration and extended the powers of the Sicilian parliament, which was composed of the barons, the prelates and the representatives of the towns.
Frederick landed in Calabria, where he seized several towns, encouraged revolt in Naples, negotiated with the Ghibellines of Tuscany and Lombardy, and assisted the house of Colonna against Pope Bonif ace.
Charles's sons Robert and Philip landed in Sicily, but after capturing Catania were defeated by Frederick, Philip being taken prisoner (1299), while several Calabrian towns were captured by the Sicilians.
Mannheim is the chief commercial town on the upper Rhine, and yields in importance to Cologne alone among the lower Rhenish towns.
From it the exact time is conveyed each day at one o'clock by electric signal to the chief towns throughout the country; British and the majority of foreign geographers reckon longitude from its meridian.
Among these towns were Franeker in Friesland, Harderwyk, Deventer, Utrecht, Leiden, Amersfoort, Amsterdam, Leeuwarden in Friesland.
In 1257, along with his friend Bonaventura, he was created doctor of theology, and began to give courses of lectures upon this subject in Paris, and also in Rome and other towns in Italy.
Thus he gave to his undeserving son Franceschetto several towns near Rome and married him to the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici.
In Edinburgh, Glasgow, and elsewhere in Scotland, and in London (through the county council), Newcastle and other English towns, the corporations have laid down greens in public parks and open spaces.
By the end of the 15th century it had become one of the most prosperous towns of Holland, on account of its fisheries and its cloth-trade.
I've also moved towns in North Schleswig and Alsace-Lorraine.
After crossing the Hydra - 6 tes (Ravi) he once more came into contact with hostile tribes, and the work of storming petty towns began again.
With the development of cotton and silk industries the town has increased enormously, and is now second in importance only to Derby among the towns of the county.
The name Larissa was common to many "Pelasgian" towns, and apparently signified a fortified city or burg, such as the citadel of Argos.
They reside in small towns and mud forts scattered along the coast.
Between these two towns there is during the season regular steamboat communication.
There were formerly four towns of some importance in the island: - Iulis, about 3 m.
the people of the pagus or village, applied to the dwellers in the country where the worship of the old gods still lingered, when the people of the towns were Christians (but see Pagan for a more tenable explanation of that term).
In Jefferson county there were in 1900 more than 300 mining and manufacturing establishments, engaged, chiefly, in the production of iron, coal and coke, and a majority of these are in Birmingham and its suburban towns.
The principal towns are Scutari (Albanian Shkoder, with the definite article Shkodr-a), the capital of the vilayet of that name, pop. 32,000; Prizren, 30,000; Iannina (often incorrectly written Ioannina), capital of the southern vilayet, 22,000; Jakova, 12,000; Dibra, 15,000; Prishtina, 11,000; Ipek (Sla y.
In southern Albania there are Greek schools in the towns and a large Greek gymnasium at Iannina.
The ruins of Pandosia, Ephyra, Elatea, Phoenike, Buthrotum, Akrolissos and other towns may be identified.
It was almost entirely rebuilt after a destructive fire in 1834, and ranks among the handsomest provincial towns in Austria.
The principal cities and towns are: Winnipeg (90,153), Brandon (10,408), Portage la Prairie (5106), St Boniface (5119), West Selkirk (2701), and Morden (1437).
The number of decuriones varied in different towns, but was usually ioo.
In the large towns there were consistories composed of all the ministers and of delegates from the various parishes.
The northern part of the city was the village of Lansingburg (pop. 1900, 12,595) until 1901, when with parts of the towns of Brunswick and North Greenbush it was annexed to Troy.
The most considerable towns on its banks (south of Botzen) are Trent and Rovereto, in Tirol, and Verona and Legnago, in Italy.
The names, area and population of the provinces and territories are as follows: The principal towns, with estimated population for 1905, are as follows: Buenos Aires (1,025,653), Rosario (129,121), La Plata (85,000), Tucuman (55,000), Cordoba (43,000), Sante Fe (33, 200), Mendoza (32,000), Parana.
Tramway lines, which date from 1870, are to be found in all important towns.
For the instruction of teachers the republic has 28 normal schools, as follows: three in the national capital; one in Parana, three (regional) in Corrientes, San Luis and Catamarca; 14 for female teachers in the provincial capitals; and seven for either sex in the larger towns of the provinces of Buenos Aires, Santa Fe, Cordoba and San Luis.
Had the expenses of all the small towns and rural communities been included, the total would be in excess of $20 gold, or £4, per capita.
The following tables, showing the growth of the largest towns in France, are drawn up on the basis of the fourth classification, which is used throughout this work in the articles on French towns, except where otherwise stated.
In 1906 there were in France twelve towns with a population of over 100,000 inhabitants.
In the same years the following eighteen towns, now numbering from 50,000 to 100,000 inhabitants, each had:
749,753 Departments from which the adult males emigrate 532,567 regularly either to sea or to seek employment in towns 330,533 tend to fall under the first head, those in which large 188,553 bodies of troops are stationed under the second.
of uncultivable area covered by lakes, rivers, towns, &c. Only the roughest estimate is possible as to the sizes of holdings, but in general terms it may be said that about 3 million persons are proprietors of holdings under 25 acres in extent amounting to between 15 and 20% of the cultivated area, the rest being owned by some 750,000 proprietors, of whom 150,000 possess half the area in holdings averaging 400 acres in extent.
Haras or stallion stables containing in all over 3000 horses are established in twentytwo central towns, and annually send stallions, which are at the disposal of private individuals in return for a small fee, to various stations throughout the country.
The production of lace and guipure, occupying 112,000 persons, is carried on mainly in the towns and villages of Haute-Loire and in Vosges (Mirecourt), Rhne (Lyons), Pas-de-Calais (Calais) and Paris.
The organization of the Paris police, which is typical of that in other large towns, may be outlined briefly.
The bureaux de bien- Total in 0cc faisance in the larger centres are aided by unpaid workers (commissaires or dames de charit), and in the big towns by paid inquiry officers.
It was one of the five Wendish towns whose alliance extorted from King Eric of Norway a favourable commercial treaty in 1284-1285; and in the 14th century it was second only to Lubeck in the Hanseatic League.
As the name implies, the ports originally constituting the body were only five in number - Hastings, Romney, Hythe, Dover and Sandwich; but to these were afterwards added the "ancient towns" of Winchelsea and Rye with the same privileges, and a good many other places, both corporate and non-corporate, which, with the title of limb or member, held a subordinate position.
The ordinary business of the ports was conducted in two courts known respectively as the court of brotherhood and the court of brotherhood and guestling, - the former being composed of the mayors of the seven principal towns and a number of jurats and freemen from each, and the latter including in addition the mayors, bailiffs and other representatives of the corporate members.
William founded and richly endowed the abbey at Arbroath, and many of the Scottish towns owe their origin to his charters.
The capital is Ratzeburg, and there are two other towns, Malin and Lauenburg.
There must be some little exaggeration in the statement that Jericho was totally destroyed; a hamlet large enough to be enumerated among the towns of Benjamin (Josh.
of Le Treport, at the mouth of the Bresle, which is canalized between the two towns.
The early history of these towns is a record of brisk commercial expansion and active colonization.
The sites of Lindus, lalysus, and Camirus, which in the most ancient times were the principal towns of the island, are clearly marked, and the first of the three is still occupied by a small town with a medieval castle, both of them dating from the time of the knights, though the castle occupies the site of the ancient acropolis, of the walls of which considerable remains are still visible.
The principal cities and towns are Sydney (pop. 530,000), Newcastle, Broken Hill, Parramatta, Goulburn, Maitland, Bathurst, Orange, Lithgow, Tamworth, Grafton, Wagga and Albury, in New South Wales; Melbourne (pop. 511,900), Ballarat, Bendigo, Geelong, Eaglehawk, Warrnambool, Castlemaine, and Stawell in Victoria; Brisbane (pop. 128,000), Rockhampton, Maryborough, Townsville, Gympie, Ipswich, and Toowoomba in Queensland; Adelaide (pop. about 175,000), Port Adelaide and Port Pirie in South Australia; Perth (pop. 56,000), Fremantle, and Kalgoorlie in Western Australia; and Hobart (pop. 35,500) and Launceston in Tasmania.
was in 1840 a busy town of 6000 inhabitants, the population of the whole district, with the towns of Geelong and Portland, reaching 12,850; while its import trade amounted to 204,000, and its exports to 138,000.
The intelligence was made known in April or May; and then began a rush of thousands, - men leaving their former employments in the bush or in the towns to search for the ore so greatly coveted in all ages.
The capital of the duchy is Meiningen; the other principal towns are Salzungen, Hildburghausen, Eisfeld, Sonneberg, Saalfeld, Pdssneck and Kamburg.
He crossed the Tigris, destroyed the towns and spoiled the tombs of Arbela; but when Artabanus advanced at the head of an army, he retired to Carrhae.
The chief towns are Ischia on the E.
They first brought the products and arts of the Orient into western Europe; and in the Netherlands, by the impulse that they gave to commerce, they were one of the primary causes of the rise of the chartered towns.
Little is known about the Netherland towns before the 12th century.
In the northern Netherlands generally up to the end of the 14th century the towns had no great political weight; their importance depended upon their river commerce and their markets.
The principal towns gave in their submission to the prince of Orange, and acknowledged him as their lawful stadtholder.
On his arrival he reinstated Hyrcanus in the high-priesthood at Jerusalem, suppressed revolts, introduced important changes in the government of Judaea, and rebuilt several towns.
The Russians in Turkestan form only about 5% of the total pop., and since most of the rural Mussulman pop. take no part in the voting, the country is governed to all intents and purposes by men elected by the very small proportion of Russians of the lower classes living in the towns.
Figures for the pop. of some of the large towns in 1916 were: - Khokand, 112,000; Namangan, 103,000; Samarkand, 89,000; Tashkent, 201,000.
OSTRAU, the name of two Austrian towns in the OstrauKarwin coal-mining district.
150,000 in Johor, and the remainder in smaller communities or as isolated traders scattered throughout the villages and small towns of the peninsula.
The colony of the Straits Settlements, and to a lesser extent the towns of the Federated Malay States, carry a considerable heterogenous population, in which most of the races of Asia find their representatives.
Women have the right to vote in all elections relating to schools and school officers in cities, towns and graded school districts, and also the right to be elected to any local school position or to the office of township clerk.
The first legislature of the state met at Windsor in March 1778, and voted to admit sixteen towns east of the Connecticut river which were dissatisfied with the rule of New Hampshire.
The principal towns are Bandung, the capital of the residency, Sukabumi, Chianjar, Sumedang, Chichalengka, Garut, Tasik Malaya and Manon Jaya, all with the exception of Sumedang connected by railway.
In 1510, following their occupation of Oran and other towns on the coast of Africa, the Spaniards fortified the Penon.
It was among the towns that had the right of coinage, and it manufactured carts, baskets, &c. Cicero speaks of it as a place of some importance.
These advantages, however, scarcely benefited at all the Irish Roman Catholics, who were excluded from political life and from the corporate towns; and Cromwell's union meant little more than the union of the English colony in Ireland with England.
19 a easterly direction past the towns of Cieza and Archena to Murcia.
A light tramway connects the city and port, and a railway - the Alagoas Central - connects the two with various interior towns.
The exterior walls of the castles and palaces named are little damaged and give to Gondar a unique character among African towns.
After the city of Adrianople (pop. 1905, about 80,000), which is the capital, the principal towns are Rodosto (35,000), [[Gallipoli (disambiguation)|Gallipoli (25,000), Kirk-Kilisseh (Kirk-Kilisse)|Kirk-Kilisseh]] (16,000), Xanthi (14,000), Chorlu (11,500), Demotica (10,000), Enos (8000), Gumuljina (8000) and Dedeagatch (3000).
In the north are the large native towns of Yendi and Sansane Mangu, both on caravan routes between Ashanti and the Niger countries.
Good roads have been built connecting the coast towns with the principal places in the interior.
The government maintains schools at all the coast towns.
Duff Gordon, Perugia (" Medieval Towns Series"), (1898); R.
The borough includes the suburb (an ecclesiastical parish) of Luton, in which are the waterworks of Chatham and the adjoining towns.
In the large towns banking and commerce flourish to a degree beyond what might be expected.
The judges at Babylon seem to have formed a superior court to those of provincial towns, but a defendant might elect to answer the charge before the local court and refuse to plead at Babylon.
Bristol, Exeter and other important towns have been laid, and eventually telegraphic communication between every important town in the United Kingdom will be rendered safe from interruptions caused by gales or snowstorms.
At small country towns or villages, where the message traffic is light, the Wheatstone " A B C " instrument is used.
In large towns telephone distribution by means of open wires is practically impossible, and the employment of cables either laid in the ground or suspended from poles or other overhead supports is necessary.
The Post Office at the same time established several telephone exchanges in provincial towns so as to enable the PostmasterGeneral " to negotiate with the telephone companies in a satisfactory manner for licences."
In 1885 there were only 3800 telephone subscribers in London and less than io,000 in the rest of the United Kingdom, and telephonic services were available in only about 75 towns, while in the same year the American Bell Telephone Company had over 134,000 subscribers.
Within six years the services had been extended to 400 towns with about 55,000 subscribers.
The Anglo-French telephone service, which was opened between London and Paris in April 1891, was extended to the principal towns in England and France on the 11th of April 1904.
The service has since been extended to certain other English provincial towns; and the Anglo-Belgian telephone service has similarly been extended.
FRANCIS OF ASSISI (1181 or 1182-1226), founder of the Franciscans, was born in 1181 or 1182 at Assisi, one of the independent municipal towns of Umbria.
The vine is cultivated chiefly on the slopes of the Taunus, in the south-west, where the names of several towns are well known for their winesSchierstein, Erbach (Marcobrunner), Johannisberg, Geisenheim, Riidesheim, Assmannshausen.
The district is by no means devoid of fertility, the steep slopes facing the south enjoying so fine a climate as to render them very favorable for the growth of fruit trees, especially the olive, which is cultivated in terraces to a considerable height up the face of the mountains, while the openings of the valleys are generally occupied by towns or villages, some of which have become favorite winter resorts.
Few towns of any importance are found either on their northern or southern declivity, and the former region especially, though occupying a tract of from 30 to 40 m.
The whole of this portion of Central Italy is a hilly country, much broken and cut up by the torrents from the mountains, but fertile, especially in fruit-trees, olives and vines; and it has been, both in ancient and modern times, a populous district, containing many small towns though no great cities.
The population given in the foregoing table is the resident or "legal" population, which is also given for the individual towns.
The population of towns over 100,000 is given in the following table according to the estimates for 1906.
Market gardening is carried on both near towns and villages, where products find ready sale, and along the great railways, on account of transport facilities.
This mosquito does not as a rule enter the large towns; but low-lying coast districts and ill-drained plains are especially subject to it.
In the south they are rare, on account partly of the mountainous character of the country, and partly of the scarcity of traffic. All the important towns of Italy are provided with internal electric tramways, mostly with overhead wires.
In the principal towns letters may be posted in special boxes at the head office just before the departure of any given mail train, and are conveyed direct to the travelling post office.
Most large towns contain important state or communal archives, iii which a considerable amount of research is being done by local investigators; the various societies for local history (Societd di Storia Patria) do very good work and issue valuable publications; the treasures which the archives contain are by no means exhausted.
In 13 of the principal towns there are also pretori who have exclusively penal jurisdiction.
the so-called guardie di pubblica sicurezza, the carabinieri being really a military force; only the largest towns maintain a municipal police force), charities, education, &c., in case such expenditure is neglected by the communal authorities.
The taxes thus vary considerably in different towns.
We know from the Roman historians that a large force of Gauls came as far south as Rome in the year 390 B.C., and that some part of this horde settled in what was henceforward known as the Ager Gallicus, the easterdmost strip of coast in what was later known as Umbria, including the towns of Caesna, Ravenna and -Ariminum.
It was, for instance, necessary to the well-being of the towns that they should possess territory round their walls, and this had to be wrested from the nobles.
By these measures the counts became citizens, the rural population ceased to rank as serfs, and the Italo-Roman population of the towns absorbed into itself the remnants of Franks, Germans and other foreign stocks.
The Guelph towns of Lombardy again raised their levies.
The contest being carried on by warfare, it followed that these captains in the burghs were chosen on account of military skill; and, since the nobles were men of arms by profession, members of ancient houses took the lead again in towns where they had been absorbed into the bourgeoisie.
Henry established imperial vicars in the Lombard towns, confirming the tyrants, but gaining nothing for the empire in exchange for the titles he conferred.
In May they seized Bologna, Venkeby and Ancona in June, restoring order in those towns Austria.
the country districts, and to exclude from the franchise numbers of peasants and small proprietors who, though of more conservative temperament and of better economic position than the artizan population of the large towns, were often unable to fulfil the scholarship qualification.
The closing of the French market to Sicilian produce, the devastation wrought by the phylloxera and the decrease of the sulphur trade had combined to produce in Sicily a discontent of which Socialist agitators took advantage to organize the workmen of the towns and the peasants of the country into groups known as fasci.
Almost immediately afterwards an agitation of a still less defensible character broke out in various towns under the guise of anti-clericalism.
of Reggio and Messina, the smaller towns of Canitello, quake of Scilla, Villa San Giovanni, Bagnara, Palmi, Melito, December Porto Salvo and Santa Eufemia, as well as a large number of villages.
The Archivii storici and Deputazloni di storia patria of the various Italian towns and provinces contain a great deal of valuable material for local history.
The houses in Uzhitse are quite unlike those of more prosperous Servian towns, being tall, narrow structures of timber, frequently blackened by the damp. Pop. (1900) about 7000.
Upper Hungary and the mining towns were soon in Thbkoly's possession.
Other towns showed also that their sympathies were with the insurgents, and John was forced to his knees.
Another difference between the two documents concerns the towns and the trading classes.
One of the oldest towns in Lower Lusatia, Sorau contains a number of ancient buildings, among which the most prominent are several of the churches (one dating from 1204), the town hall, built in 1260, and the old palace of 1207 (now a prison).
The chief towns in addition to Trier were Coblenz, Cochem, Beilstein, Oberwesel, Lahnstein and Sayn.
Beyond Fundi it passed through the mountains to Formiae, the engineering of the road being noteworthy; and thence by Minturnae and Sinuessa (towns of the Aurunci which had been conquered in 314 B.C.) 1 to Capua.
Appingedam and Winschoten are very old towns, having important cattle and horse markets.
The establishments for dispensing medicines at Cordova, Toledo and other large towns under Arab rule, were placed under severe legal restrictions.
This society was instituted in 1841, the original founders being chemists and druggists in the metropolis and provincial towns.
deficiency of nutritive salts, especially nitrates and phosphates; the presence of poisonous salts of iron, copper, &c., or (in the soil about the roots of trees in towns) of coal-gas and so forth.
Brilliantly colored spots and patches follow the action of acid fumes on the vegetation near towns and factories, and such particoloured leaves often present striking resemblance to autumn foliage.
Such phenomena are nut uncommon in towns, where trees with their roots under pavement or other impervious covering do well for a time, but suddenly fail to supply the crown sufficiently with water during some hot summer.
Of Greek towns which they founded here we know Alexandria in Carmania (Plin.
233, where they are mentioned together with a great many Seleucid towns in Susiana and Babylonia, and compare Kern, No.
The hieroglyphic inscriptions of Egypt and the cuneiform inscriptions of Assyria are rich in records of the movements and achievements of armies, the conquest of towns and the subjugation of peoples; but though many of the recorded sites have been identified, their discovery by wandering armies was isolated from their subsequent history and need not concern us here.
The Greeks who accompanied Alexander described with care the towns and villages, the products and the aspect of the country.
The rushes to gold-fields and diamond-fields are typical in- stances; the growth of towns on coal-fields and near other sources of power, and the rapid settlement of such rich agricultural districts as the wheat-lands of the American prairies and great plains are other examples.
The aggregation of population in towns was at one time mainly brought about by the necessity for defence, a fact indicated by the defensive sites of many old towns.
In later times, towns have been more often founded in proximity to valuable mineral resources, and at critical points or nodes on lines of communication.
Chisholm, " On the Distribution of Towns and Villages in England," Geographical Journal (1897), ix.
and Liege - Brussels and Maestricht-Antwerp on the W., has favoured its rise to one of the most prosperous commerical towns of Germany.
Here, in fact, lay some of the oldest and wealthiest towns, the sites of which have, however, been removed inland by the silting up of the shore.
Both towns owe their prosperity to their situation in the most fertile part of the valley of the Isere.
There are a number of large towns in the state, but the census returns include their populations in those of the municipios (communes) to which they belong.
The most important are: Bezerros (17,484), Bom Jardim (40,160), Brejo da Madre de Deus (13,655), a town of the higher agreste region, Cabo (13,337), Caruaru (17,844), Escada (9331), Garanhuns (32,788, covering six towns and villages), Gloria de Goyta (24,554), Goyanna, Limoeiro (21,576), Olinda (8080), the old colonial capital and episcopal see, Rio Formosa (6080), Timbauba (9514) and Victoria (32,422).
The population of the Pernambuco sertao has always been noted for its turbulent, lawless character, due partly to distance from the coast where the bulk of the population is concentrated, partly to difficult means of communication, and partly to the fact that this remote region has long been the refuge of criminals from the coast towns.
THE BRONX, formerly a district comprising several towns in Westchester county, New York, U.S.A., now (since 1898) the northernmost of the five boroughs of New York City (q.v.).
The province is divided into six districts, the chief towns of which are Vyernyi (the capital), Jarkent, Kopal, Pishpek, Przhevalsk and Sergiopol.
To these the semi-sedentary Arabs who sparsely cultivate the river valley, dwelling sometimes in huts, sometimes in caves, pay a tribute, called kubbe, or brotherhood, as do also the riverain towns and villages, except perhaps the very largest.
The only riverain towns of any importance on this stretch of the river to-day are Samsat, Birejik, Deir, `Ana and Hit.
Between `Ana and Hit there were anciently at least four island cities or fortresses, and at the present time three such towns, insignificant relics of former greatness, Haditha, Alus or el-`Uzz and Jibba still occupy the old sites.
The Mongol invasion, in the latter part of that century, wrought their ruin, however, and from that time to the present there has been a steady decline in the commercial importance of the Euphrates route, and consequently also of the towns along its course, until at the present time it is only an avenue of ruins.
29 cities of former days, there is a succession of small towns along the course of the river - Ramadiya, Feluja, Mussaib, Hillah, Diwanieh, Samawa, el-Khudr (an ancient daphne or sacred grove, 3 I° 11' 58" N., 76° 6' 9" E., the only one anywhere which preserves to this day its ancient charter of the inviolability of all life within its precincts), Nasrieh and Suk-esh-Sheiukh----by means of which the Turkish government controls the river and levies taxes on a small part of the adjacent territory.
Trade flourished; the corporations of bargemen and the like on the Rhone made money; the many towns grew rich and could afford splendid public buildings.
The chefs-lieux of the tribes became practically, though not officially, municipalities, and many of these towns reached considerable size and magnificence of public buildings.
For Roman antiquities in Gaul see, beside articles on the modern towns (ARLES, NiMES, ORANGE, &C.), BIBRACTE, ALESIA, ITIUS PORTUS, AQUEDUCT, ARCHITECTURE, AMPHITHEATRE, &C.; for religion see DRUIDISM; for the famous schools of Autun, Lyons, Toulouse, Nimes, Vienne, Marseilles and Narbonne, see J.
The relations between the two differed widely in different parts of the island, according to the way in which the Saracens had become possessed of different towns and districts.
The principal towns are Montevideo, Salto, Paysandu and San Jose.
P. Powell's Historic Towns of the Western States (New York, 1901) .
As new settlers came, as the people of conquered towns were moved to Rome, as the character of Romans was granted to some allies and forced upon some enemies, this plebs, sharing some but not all of the rights of citizens, became a non-privileged order alongside of a privileged order.
But from such glimpses of early Attic history as we can get the union of the Attic towns would seem to have been completed before the constitutional struggle began.
On the whole it seems most likely that, while the kernel of the Roman plebs was rural or belonged to the small towns admitted to the Roman franchise, the Attic demos, largely at least, though doubtless not wholly, arose out of the mixed settlers who had come together in the city, answering to the p rotKot of later times.
We hardly look on the Spartans as a nobility among the other Lacedaemonians; Sparta rather is a ruling city bearing sway over the other Lacedaemonian towns.
This line shall be so drawn as to leave on the French side of the boundary the following towns: Kutumai, Kisi Kurumai, Sundibu, Zuapa, Nzibila, Koiama, Bangwedu and Lola.
The chief towns are on the banks of the Blue Nile.
above Khartum, one of the most thriving towns in the eastern Sudan; Sennar, 241 m above Khartum, the capital of the Funj empire and chief town of the mudiria of Sennarof the ancient city little remains except a mosque with a high minaret; and Roseires, 426 m.
The magistrates in some of the Italian towns, and especially Uberto Pallavicino at Milan, expelled the flagellants with threats, and for a time the sect disappeared.
On several occasions they incited the populations of the towns through which they passed against the Jews, and also against the monks who opposed their propaganda.
Many towns shut their gates upon them; but, in spite of discouragement, they spread from Poland to the Rhine, and penetrated as far as Holland and Flanders.
According to the results obtained by the census committee of 1897, working on a linguistic basis, the distribution of races was as given in the table opposite: 1 Taken as a whole, only 13% of the population of Russia lived in towns in 1897, but in the years 1857-60 less than 10% was urban.
In Russia proper less than 2% emigrated from the C villages to the towns during the forty years ending 1897.
The mortality in most towns is so great that during the last ten years of the 19th century, in a very great number of cities, the deaths exceeded the births by I to 4 in the thousand.
That in the Duma any Radical elements survive at all is mainly due to the peculiar franchise enjoyed by the seven largest towns - St Petersburg, Moscow, Kiev, Odessa, Riga and the Polish cities of Warsaw and Lodz.
2 Finally, in the towns every house is provided with a detective policeman in the person of the porter (dvornik), who is charged with the duty of reporting to the police the presence of any suspicious characters or anything else that may interest them .3 In addition to the above there is also a police organization, in direct subordination to the ministry of the interior, of which the principal function is the discovery, pre vention and extirpation of political sedition.
In 1894 municipal institutions, with still more restricted powers, were granted to several towns in Siberia, and in 1895 to some in Caucasia.
The justices of the peace, who must be landowners' or (in towns) persons of moderate property, are elected by the municipal dumas in the towns, and by the zemstvos Justices in the country districts, for a term of three years.
abolished the election of justices of the peace, except in certain large towns and some outlying parts of the empire, and greatly restricted the right of trial by jury.
In several university towns there are free teaching establishments for women, supported by subscription, with programmes and examinations equal to those of the universities.
In Kovno, Vilna, Mogilev, Grodno, Volhynia, Podolia, Minsk, Vitebsk, Kiev, Bessarabia and Kherson, they constitute, on the average, 12 to 172% of the population, while in the cities and towns of these governments they reach 30 to 59% of the population.
In many towns most of the skilled labourers and a great many of the unskilled (for instance, the grain-porters at Odessa and elsewhere) are Jews.
In the Baltic provinces they constitute the ennobled landlord class, and are the tradesmen and artisans in the towns.
Considerable numbers of Germans, tradesmen and artisans, settled at the invitation of the Russian government in many of the larger towns as early as the 16th century, and to a much greater extent in the 18th century.
The Greeks inhabit chiefly the towns, where they are traders, as also do the Armenians, scattered through the towns of S.
Since the days when Rurik had first chosen it as his headquarters, the little town on the Volkhov had grown into a great commercial of Nov- city and a member of the Hanseatic league, and it had brought under subjection a vast expanse of territory, stretching from the shores of the Baltic to the Ural Mountains, and containing several subordinate towns, of which the principal were Pskov, Nizhniy-Novgorod and Vyatka.
In accordance with the admonitions of Jenghiz to his children and grandchildren, they retained their pastoral mode of life, so that the subject races, agriculturists and dwellers in towns, were not disturbed in their ordinary avocations.
He not only insisted that his daughter's religion should be duly respected, but he constituted himself the protector of the Orthodox population and this led to a new war in 1499, which went on till 1503, when it was concluded by the cession to Russia of Chernigov, Starodub and 17 other towns.
In the negotiations for peace the inordinate pretensions of the Muscovite prince were put forward boldly: he not only refused to restore Smolensk, but claimed Kiev and a number of other towns on the ground that in the old time of the independent principalities they had belonged to descendants of Rurik.
He met with such a favourable reception from the tsar that on his return to England a special envoy was sent to Moscow by Queen Mary, and he succeeded in obtaining for his countrymen the privilege of trading freely in Russian towns.
As a precaution against Tatar invasions he founded fortified towns on his southern frontiers - Tambov, Kozlov, Penza and Simbirsk; but when the Don Cossacks offered him Azov, which they had captured from the Turks, and a National Assembly, convoked for the purpose of considering the question, were in favour of accepting it as a means of increasing Russian influence on the Black Sea, he decided that the town should be restored to the sultan, much to the disappointment of its captors.
Whilst primary education was neglected, secondary schools were created in the principal towns and a Russian Academy was founded in St Petersburg.
communes, the rural districts and the towns was carefully restricted, and placed to a greater extent under the control of the regular officials.
In January 1881 Count Loris-Melikov, minister of the interior, proposed to convene a " general commission " to examine legislative proposals before these were laid before the Imperial Council; this commission was to consist of members elected by the zemstvos and the larger towns, and others nominated in the provinces having no zemstvos.
The above sixty districts are grouped into eighteen subprovinces under governors appointed by the governor-general of Fars, but the towns of Bushire, Lingah and Bander Abbasi, together with the villages in their immediate neighbourhood, form a separate government known as that of the "Persian Gulf Ports" (Benadir i Khalij i Fars), under a governor appointed from Teheran.
Naturally the company named does not reach all of these points, but its line across the Andes supplies the indispensable link of communication, in the absence of which the east coast towns and the west coast towns have hitherto been as widely separated as if they had been located on different continents-indeed, far more widely separated in point of time and of freight charges than Great Britain and the United States.
It increases the tendency, already too strong, towards concentration of industrial life in large towns.
Sometimes also a viaduct consisting of a series of arches is preferred to an embankment when the line has to be taken over a piece of fiat alluvial plain, or when it is desired to economize space and to carry the line at a sufficient height to clear the streets, as in the case of various railways entering London and other large towns.
In the towns a deeper rail is used, weighing about 60 lb per yard.
per hour in towns and through villages.
Few Spanish towns have developed more rapidly than Baracaldo, which nearly doubled its population between 1880 and 1900.
There was disagreement from the first, however, with regard to the measure of loyalty to the king, and in 1643, when Massachusetts had asserted her claim to this region and the other three New Hampshire towns had submitted to her jurisdiction, the majority of the inhabitants of Exeter also yielded, while the minority, including the founder, removed from the town.
Above thy head is one who is above the towns.
From them it was purchased by the English in 1690, the purchase including not only the fort but the adjacent towns and villages "within ye randome shott of a piece of ordnance."
He has recorded one or two interesting notes on Turin, Genoa, Florence and other towns at which halt was made on his route; but Rome was the great object of his pilgrimage, and the words in which he has alluded to the feelings with which he Her letters to Walpole about Gibbon contain some interesting remarks by this ' ` aveugle clairvoyante," as Voltaire calls her; but they belong to a later period (1777).
There were then only three towns of importance: Reno, Virginia City and Carson City, the capital.
A long line of houses called Caesarea connected it with Ravenna, and in process of time there was such a continuous series of buildings that the three towns seemed like one.
They brought to the support of that instrument "the areas of intercourse and wealth" (Libby), the influence of the commercial towns, the greater planters, the army officers, creditors and property-holders generally, - in short, of interests that had felt the evils of the weak government of the Confederation, - and alsc of some few true nationalists (few, because there was as yet no general national feeling), actuated by political principles of centralization independently of motives of expediency and self-interest.
During his absence several towns had asserted their independence; but he succeeded in subduing them without much difficulty and gradually suppressed their communal liberties.
Charles, in a spirit of the most vindictive cruelty, had large numbers of Conradin's barons put to death and their estates confiscated, and the whole population of several towns massacred.
Kiang and Port Swettenham are contiguous towns in the Federated Malay States, having a population of 4000 and a rainfall of 100 in.
His method was to travel over the country on foot and barefooted, in extreme poverty, simplicity and austerity, preaching and instructing in highways and villages and towns, and in the castles of the nobility, controverting and discussing with the heretics.
It is one of the most ancient towns in the north of Scotland.
Parker (at one time music-master at the school), was held in the grounds of Sherborne Castle, and set the model for a succession of pageants held subsequently in other historic English towns.
As we have seen, the Bruttii were at the height of their power during the 3rd century B.C. Their chief towns were Consentia (Cosenza), Petelia (near Strongoli), and Clampetia (Amantea).
Under the empire, however, the whole district remained backward and was remarkable for the absence of important towns, as the scarcity of ancient inscriptions, both.
The Moslem element predominated in the principal towns, of which the population was - Candia, 21,368; Canea, 13,812; Retimo, 9274.
The three principal towns are on the northern coast and possess small harbours suitable for vessels of light draught.
The other towns, Hierapetra, Sitia, Kisamos, Selino and Sphakia, are unimportant.
Soap is produced at fifteen factories in the principal towns, and there are two distilleries of cognac at Candia.
" Minoan " towns, some of considerable extent, have been discovered at Cnossus itself, at Gournia, Palaikastro, and at Zakro.
During the insurrection which followed, the usual barbarities were committed on both sides; the Christians betook themselves to the mountains, and the Mussulman peasants crowded into the fortified towns.
The Moslem peasantry now flocked to the fortified towns and civil war began.
The forces of the powers shortly afterwards occupied Candia and the other maritime towns, while the international fleet blockaded the Cretan coast.
long and has no ports or towns of importance, the slopes of the Sierra Madre del Pacifico being precipitous and heavily wooded and the coastbelt sandy, hot and malarial.
Besides Morelia, the capital and largest city, the principal towns of the state are: La Piedad (pop. 15,123), an important commercial town on the Lerma river and on the Mexican Central railway, 112 m.
Among their towns were Magnus Portus (Portsmouth) and Venta Belgarum (Winchester).
Esna, one of the healthiest towns in Egypt, is noted for its manufactures of pottery and its large grain and live stock markets.
There are a number of openings through the outer bank and several small towns or ports have been built upon it.
Other remains which bear witness to tlae civilization of, the Mayas are the paved highways and the artificial reservoirs (aguadas) designed for the preservation of water for towns through the long dry season.
Some of their towns were built near large underground reservoirs, called cenotes, that afforded a perennial supply.
The capital is Merida, and its principal towns, inhabited almost exclusively by Indians and mestizos, are Valladolid, Acanceh, Tekax, Motul, Temax, Espita, Maxcanu, Hunucma, Tixkokob, Peto and Progreso, the port of Merida.
No ruins are to be seen as in other Persian towns; the houses are comfortable, in good repair, roofed with tiles and enclosed by substantial walls.
The cities and towns having a population in 1900 of 4000 or more were: Vicksburg, Meridian, Natchez, Jackson, Greenville, Columbus, Biloxi, Yazoo City, McComb and Hattiesburg.
Until 1905 the only grounds for an absolute divorce were 1 Under the Constitution of 1776 senators were elected by counties, one for each county, and representatives also by counties, two for each county - in addition, the towns of Edenton, Newbern, Wilmington, Salisbury, Hillsboro and Halifax each elected one representative; and a property qualification - a freehold of 50 acres held for six months before an election - was imposed on electors of senators.
State prohibition had been defeated in 1881 by a vote of 100,000; in 1902 the Anti-Saloon League organized in the state; in 1903 the Watts Law enacted rural prohibition, giving towns local option, under which many of the towns voted " no licence "; and in 1905 severe police regulations were provided for towns in which saloons were licensed.
In the middle of the 14th century the famous Goslar statutes, a code of laws, which was adopted by many other towns, was published.
He was one of the principal workers and leaders of the mixed committees for the defence of the country, formed with the help of the Zemstvos and towns.
In the vicinity of the towns are extensive lignite mines.
There are two small towns, Capri (450 ft.) and Anacapri (980 ft.), which until the construction of a carriage road in 1874 were connected only by a flight of 784 steps (the substructures of which at least are ancient).
It was abandoned in the 15th century on account of the inroads of pirates, and the inhabitants took refuge higher up at the two towns of Capri and Anacapri.
The Atlantic coast-line of the territory has one deep indentation - the Gulf of San Matias - but, owing to the arid surroundings, there are no ports or towns upon it.
The climate is generally such as to secure the population the necessaries of life without severe labour; the extremes of heat and drought are such as to render the land unsuitable for pasture, and the people everywhere subsist by cultivation of the soil or commerce, and live in settled villages or towns.
The whole tract, excepting south-eastern Arabia, is nominally subject to Turkey, but the people are to no small extent practically independent, living a nomadic, pastoral and freebooting life under petty chiefs, in the more arid districts, but settled in towns in the more fertile tracts, where agriculture becomes more profitable and external commerce is established.
In this tract the rainfall is nowhere sufficient for the purposes of agriculture, which is only possible by help of irrigation; and the fixed population (which contains a non-Turkish element) is comparatively small, and restricted to the towns and the districts near the rivers.
in altitude; along the foot of this range are the principal cultivated districts of central Asia, and here too are situated the few towns which have sprung up in this barren and thinly peopled region.
There are few towns or settled villages, except II.
The towns are entirely Russian.
Pursuing the foes, he inflicted upon them a signal chastisement and took a great booty, part of which he spent in politic gifts to the leading men of the towns in the south country.'
Its industrial activity is not great, but there are manufactures of machinery, chemicals, paper, tobacco and sugar; these are made chiefly in or near the large towns, while linen-weaving is practised as a domestic industry.
In the meantime, however, Pomerania had been devastated by the Thirty Years' War and occupied by the Swedes, who had taken possession of its towns and fortresses.
Cyrus managed very cleverly to gather a large army by beginning a quarrel with Tissaphernes, satrap of Caria, about the Ionian towns; he also pretended to prepare an expedition against the Pisidians, a mountainous tribe in the Taurus, which was never obedient to the Empire.
Other towns, like Zaria, may do as much trade, but Kano is pre-eminent as a manufacturing centre.
Kano district proper contains 170 walled towns and about 450 villages.
One of the most ancient towns in Thuringia, Saalfeld, once the capital of the extinct duchy of Saxe-Saalfeld, is still partly surrounded by old walls and bastions, and contains some interesting medieval buildings, among them being a palace,, built in 1679 on the site of the Benedictine abbey of St Peter, which was destroyed during the Peasants' War.
The chief towns are Miilhausen and Colmar in the upper district and Strassburg in the lower.
In the beginning of the 12th century the country was divided between the two landgraviates of Upper and Lower Alsace, but to counteract the power of the nobles the emperors established in Alsace a great number of free towns.
This state of things continued until 1648, when a large part of Alsace, comprising the two landgraviates of Upper and Lower Alsace and the prefecture of the ten free imperial towns, was ceded to France by the treaty of Westphalia.
The earlier battles of the campaign were fought there; Strassburg and other of its fortified towns were besieged and taken; and its people were compelled to submit to very severe exactions.
German stamps were introduced from Berlin; the occupied towns were garrisoned by the Landwehr; and requisitions on a large scale were demanded, and paid for in cheques which, at the close of the war, were to be honoured by whichever side should stand in the unpleasant position of the conquered.
Towns arose and agriculture began to flourish; but seeking to make itself independent, the Order lost its lands, and disappeared from Transylvania.
Unsuccessful in his attempt, he invited the Teutonic Order to come to the rescue, and bestowed on the Order Kuim and some of the frontier towns in his territory, with such lands as it should conquer (1228).
The towns were large and flourishing; as many as sixty arose in the period between 1233 and 1416, including Thorn and Elbing, Danzig and Konigsberg (named after Ottocar of Bohemia, who took part in the campaign during which it was founded).
The towns possessed the rights of Magdeburg, or (like Elbing) those of Lubeck; the most important of them soon came to join the Hanseatic League.
The Order only imposed customs duties: it levied no tolls within the land; and though its consent was necessary to any change in municipal ordinances, it allowed the towns a large amount of self-government.
The concord of the Order with the towns and the Hanse was one great cause of its prosperity until the close of the 14th century; and the rupture of that concord in the 15th century was largely responsible for its fall.
A religious order, largely composed of immigrants from abroad, could not permanently rule a state which had developed a national feeling of its own; and the native aristocracy, both of the towns and the country, revolted against its dominion.
This commercial policy had indeed a deeper and more fatal effect than the alienation of the towns; it secularized still further the brethren of the Order, and made them financiers instead of soldiers.
The discontented clergy, especially in Livonia; the towns, such as Danzig; the native aristocracy, organized in a league (the Eidechsenbund, or League of the Lizard), all sought to use their opportunity.
Above all, there arose in 1440 the Prussian League (Preussischer Bund), in which the nobles and towns joined together, nominally for common protection of their rights, but really against the Order.
The ultimate result was that in 1454 an embassy of the League offered Prussia to the Polish king, and that, after many years of war, the Peace of Thorn (1466) gave to Poland West Prussia, with Marienburg, Thorn, Danzig and other towns, in full possession, and, while leaving East Prussia to the Order, made the Order the vassals of Poland for the territory which it retained.
In 1270 it joined the Hanse towns, Stralsund, Rostock, Wismar and Lubeck, and took part in the wars which they carried on against the kings of Denmark and Norway.
Dumfries is beautifully situated and is one of the handsomest county towns in Scotland.
Lower down the valley cattle-breeding is the chief source of wealth, while in the small towns and villages of the former Georgian kingdom various petty trades, exhibiting a high development of artistic taste and technical skill, are widely diffused.
It is in this valley that the principal towns (except Vladikavkaz at the north foot of the Caucasus) of Caucasia are situated, namely, Baku (179,133 inhabitants in 1900), Tiflis (160,645 in 1897), Kutais (32,492), and the two Black Sea ports of Batum (28,512) and Poti (7666).
Among other towns may be mentioned Ashover (2426), Barlborough (2056), Chapel-en-le-Frith (4626), Clowne (3896), Crich (3063), Killamarsh (3644), Staveley (11,420), Whitwell (3380).
Henry, " Richmond on the James " in Historic Towns of the Southern States (New York, 1900), edited by Lyman P. Powell; and Samuel Mordecai, Richmond in By-Gone Days (Richmond, 1856; 2nd ed., 1860).
Where in some towns," says the statute 4th Henry VII.
It is equally true that, when under the influence of special local or other demand - proximity to towns, easy railway or other communication, for example - the products which would otherwise be retained on the farm are exported from it, the import of town or other manures is generally an essential condition of such practice.
In 197 Antiochus moved to Asia Minor to secure the coast towns which had acknowledged Ptolemy and the independent Greek cities.
In the towns the division of labour had proceeded much further than in the rural districts, and there were in existence organized bodies, such as the Gild Merchant and the crafts, whose functions were primarily economic. But one of the most striking characteristics of town life in the middle ages was the manner in which municipal and industrial privileges and responsibilities were interwoven.
(4) That in the counties and towns where they were regulated the action of the magistrates was in general spasmodic, and rarely continuous for a long series of years.
Competition, in the Darwinian sense, is characteristic not only of modern industrial states, but of all living organisms; and in the narrower sense of the " higgling of the market " is found on the Stock Exchange, in the markets of old towns, in medieval fairs and Oriental bazaars.
The promenade of Hamilton Terrace commands a fine view of the broad expanse of the Haven with its various towns and forts.
The Bonapartes, on the other hand, had long concerned themselves with legal affairs at Ajaccio or in the coast towns of the island.
At Auxonne, as previously at Valence, Napoleon commanded a small detachment of troops sent to put down disturbances in neighbouring towns, and carried out his orders unflinchingly.
On his first entry into Milan (15th of May 1796) he received a rapturous welcome as the liberator of Italy from the Austrian yoke; but the instructions of the Directory allowed him at the outset to do little more than effect the organization of consultative committees and national guards in the chief towns of Lombardy.
The police of all towns containing more than 100,000 inhabitants was controlled by the central government.
She further agreed to evacuate the papal states, Taranto and other towns in the Mediterranean coasts which she had occupied.
If Prussian towns "behaved badly" (he wrote on the 4th of March), they were to be burnt; Eugene was not to spare even Berlin.
founded Greek towns: Soteira, Charis, Achaea, Calliope (Appian, Syr.
In 208 many Greek inhabitants are found in the towns of Parthia and Hyrcania (Polyb.
even founded some Greek towns, and when they had conquered Babylonia and Mesopotamia they all adopted the epithet " Philhellen."
His son, Arsaces II., was attacked by Antiochus III., the Great, in 209, who conquered the Parthian and Hyrcanian towns but at last granted a peace.
Eï¿½ Mari containing little more than one great residence, and dominating lower towns of meaner houses, point to monarchy at all periods.
Sonsonate is the centre of a rich agricultural district, and one of the busiest manufacturing towns in the republic. It produces cotton cloth, pottery, mats and baskets, boots and shoes, sugar, starch, cigars and spirits.
Their chief towns were Vienna (Vienne), Genava (Geneva) and Cularo (afterwards Gratianopolis, whence Grenoble).
The only towns are Temir-khan-shura (pop. 9208 in 1897), the capital of the government, Derbent (14,821) and Petrovsk (9806), the last two both on the Caspian.
Its more important towns are the capital, Barcelona, Maturin (pop. 14,473), capital.
1520 and one of the oldest towns of the continent.
Portsmouth is served by the Boston & Maine railway, by electric lines to neighbouring towns, and in summer by a steamboat daily to the Isles of Shoals.
There are large engineering works and railway fitting shops at Penrith, which is also the junction for all the western goods traffic. The inhabitants of both towns are mainly railway employes.
Their chief towns were Massieville or Manchester (17 9 o) and Chillicothe (1796).
It is divided into twelve districts, the chief towns of which are KamenetsPodolskiy, the capital, Balta, Bratslav, Gaisin, Letichev, Litin, Mogilev-on-Dniester, Novaya-Ushitsa, Olgopol, Proskurov, Vinnitsa and Yampol.
Including the local parks of the cities and towns of the metropolitan district there are over 17,000 acres of pleasure grounds within the metropolitan park district.
Another, Daniel Neal, in 1720, found Boston conversation " as polite as in most of the cities and towns in England, many of their merchants having the advantage of a free conversation with travellers; so that a gentleman from London would almost think himself at home at Boston, when he observes the number of people, their houses, their furniture, their tables, their dress and conversation, which perhaps is as splendid and showy as that of the most considerable tradesmen in London."
GLADBACH, the name of two towns in Germany distinguished as Bergisch-Gladbach and Munchen-Gladbach.
In1643-1644the colony was expanded into the New Haven Jurisdiction, embracing the towns of New Haven, Guilford, Milford, Stamford and Branford in Connecticut, and, on Long Island, Southold; but this "Jurisdiction" was dissolved in 1664, and all these towns (except Southold) passed under the jurisdiction of Connecticut, according to the Connecticut charter of 1662.
The receipts of cotton in the season 1904-1905 at the leading interior towns and ports of the United States are given below.
Receipts of Cotton at 28 Interior Towns.
In addition to the small country ginneries, large modern ginneries have now been set up in all the leading Southern market towns.
Provinces and Towns.
The only towns of any importance are Tsitsihar and Mergen, both situated on the Nonni and Khailar in the west.
Sterling was formed in 1839 by the consolidation of two towns, Harrisburg and Chatham, founded here in 1836 and 1837 respectively; it was chartered as a city in 1857.
The most common method of distribution in cities and towns is by a series of pipes from 12 in.
There was, for instance, the ambition of the adventurer prince, the younger son, eager to carve a principality in the far East, of whom Bohemund is the type; there was the interest of Italian towns, anxious to acquire the products of the East more directly and cheaply, by erecting their own emporia in the eastern Mediterranean.
The armies of Fulcher and Gottschalk were destroyed by the Hungarians in just revenge for their excesses (June); the third, after joining in a wild Judenhetze in the towns of the valley of the Rhine, during which some io,000 Jews perished as the first-fruits of crusading zeal, was scattered to the winds in Hungary (August).
The influence of the Italian towns did not make itself greatly felt till after the end of the First Crusade, when it made possible the foundation of a kingdom in Jerusalem, in addition to the three principalities established by Bohemund, Baldwin and Raymond; but during the course of the Crusade itself the Italian ships which hugged the shores of Syria were able to supply the crusaders with provisions and munition of war, and to render help in the sieges of Antioch and Jerusalem.4 Sea-power had thus some influence in determining the victory of the crusaders.
on the pilgrims, against which the Papacy had already been forced to remonstrate; nor were the Italian towns, with the exception of favoured Venice, disposed to be friendly to the great monopolist city of Constantinople.
Here Tancred, followed by Baldwin, turned into Cilicia, and began to take possession of the Cilician towns, and especially of Tarsus - thus beginning, it would seem, the creation of the Norman principality of Antioch.
Still more important perhaps was the fact that the ports of the kingdom attracted the Italian towns; and it was therefore to the kingdom that they lent the strength of their armies and the skill of their siege-artillery - in return, it is true, for concessions of privileges so considerable as to weaken the resources of the kingdom they helped to create.
Meanwhile the armies of Alexius not only prevented any farther advance to the N.W., but conquered the Cilician towns (1104).
had thus no assistance to expect from the West, save that of the Italian towns.
We have seen that the action of Bohemund at Antioch was the negation of this theory, and that Alexius in consequence helped Raymund to establish himself in Tripoli as a thorn in the side of Bohemund, and sent an army and a fleet which wrested from the Normans the towns of Cilicia (1104).
Burgesses could buy and possess property in towns, which knights were forbidden to acquire; and though they could not intermarry with the feudal classes, it was easy and regular for a burgess to thrive to knighthood.
Yet (with the exception of Antioch, Tripoli and Acre in the course of the 13th century) the Frankish towns never developed a communal government: the domain of their development was private law and commercial life.
Midway between the seignorial cours de bourgeoisie and the privileged jurisdictions of the Italian quarter, there were two kinds of courts of a commercial character - the cours de la fonde in towns where trade was busy, and the cours de la chaine in the sea-ports.
Their houses, at any rate those in the towns, had thus the characteristics of Moorish villas; and in them they lived a Moorish life.
to allow the hope of gaining two small towns to induce them to break the vital alliance with Damascus.
One must not forget that there was a brisk native manufacture of carpets, pottery, ironwork, gold-work and soap; or that the Syrians of the towns had a definite legal position.
The rest of the county of Edessa, including Tell-bashir on the west, was now conquered (1150); while Raymund of Antioch was defeated and killed (in 1149), and several towns in the east of his principality were captured.
Nothing is more striking in these respects than Richard's proposal that Saladin's brother should marry his own sister Johanna and receive Jerusalem and the contiguous towns on the coast.
Yet it had at any rate saved for the Christians the principality of Antioch, the county of Tripoli, and some of the coast towns of the kingdom; 2 and if it had failed to accomplish its object, it had left behind, none the less, many important results.
Some of the coast towns, too, were recovered by the German crusaders, especially Beirut; and in 1198 the new king Amalric II.
It is Egypt therefore - to which, it must be remembered, the centre of Mahommedan power had now been virtually shifted, and to which motives of trade impelled the Italian towns (since from it they could easily reach the Red Sea, and the commerce of the Indian Ocean) - it is Egypt which is henceforth the normal goal of the Crusades.
By the treaty of the 18th of February 1229, which was to last for ten years, the sultan conceded to Frederick, in addition to the coast towns already in the possession of the Christians, Nazareth, Bethlehem and Jerusalem, with a strip of territory connecting Jerusalem with the port of Acre.
Other writers, again, blame the com mercial cupidity of the Italian towns; of what avail, they asked with no little justice, was the Crusade, when Venice and Genoa destroyed the naval bases necessary for its success by their internecine quarrels in the Levant (as in 1257), or - still worse - entered into commercial treaties with the common enemy against whom the Crusades were directed?
The dissolution of feudalism, the development of towns, the growth of scholasticism, all these and much more have been ascribed to the Crusades, when in truth they were concomitants rather than results, or at any rate, if in part the results of the Crusades, were in far larger part the results of other things.
The great route was that which led from Venice over the Brenner and up the Rhine to Bruges; and this route became the long red line of municipal development, along which - in Lombardy, Germany and Flanders - the great towns of the middle ages sprang to life.
It supported a large number of villages and small towns, whose remains are remarkably well preserved, and still serve to shelter a sparse pastoral population.
In the Phoenician coast towns are many Greeks (to be distinguished from Orthodox Syrians, called also Greeks on account of creed).
Moreover, we possess enumerations of towns in the geographical lists of the temple of Karnak and in a hieratic papyrus dating about 200 years after Tethmosis III.
With the fall of the Kheta the Aramaeans were the people who held the most important towns of Syria, gradually advancing until at last they occupied the whole country.
Population and Towns.
New towns were founded and old ones restored; new streets were laid out, and aqueducts, temples and magnificent buildings constructed.
Its two other chief towns were Figeac and Moissac. Ecclesiastically it was included almost entirely in the diocese of Cahors until 1317, when a bishopric for lower Quercy was established at Montauban.
The estates of the county had the bishop of Cahors for president; other members were the bishop of Montauban and other ecclesiastics, four viscounts, four barons and some other lords and representatives of eighteen towns.
Both the king of England and the king of France confirmed and added to the privileges of the towns and the district, each thus hoping to attach the inhabitants to his own interest.
In 1900 there were 92, and, in 1905, 125 incorporated cities, towns and villages; but only 14 (in 1905, 22) of these had a population of over 2000, and only 4 (in 1905, 8) a population of more than 5000.
The important coast towns were readily captured by Union forces; Fernandina, Pensacola and St Augustine in 1862, and Jacksonville in 1863; but an invasion of the interior in 1864 failed, the Union forces being repulsed in a battle at Olustee (on the 20th of February 1864).
The removal to London was proof that the leaders were alive to the necessity of grappling with the rapid growth of towns and cities, and that the Connexion, at first mainly a rural movement, had also urban work to accomplish.
At the foot of the dunes are the old towns and villages of Sassenheim, close to which are slight remains of the ancient castle of Teilingen (12th century), in which the countess Jacoba of Bavaria died in 1433.
"The Brill" was one of the four Dutch towns handed over to Queen Elizabeth in 1584 as security for English expenses incurred in aiding the Dutch.
As in other Swiss towns the trade gilds got all political power into their hands, especially by the 18th century.
The population is concentrated in a few small towns on the rivers and in some colonies, established by the national government to check Chilean invasions, in the fertile districts of the Andes.
9), violent and ecstatic exercises, ceremonial acts of bowing and kissing, the preparing of sacred mystic cakes, appear among the offences denounced by the Israelite prophets, and show that the cult of Baal (and Astarte) included the characteristic features of heathen worship which recur in various parts of the Semitic world, although attached to other names.5 By an easy transition the local gods of the streams and springs which fertilized the increase of the fields became identified with 2 Compounds with geographical terms (towns, mountains), e.g.
The Germans form 27.9% of the population, and are found mostly in the towns and in the border districts.
For administrative purposes Moravia is divided into 34 districts and 6 towns, with autonomous muncipalities: Briinn (pop., 108,944), the capital, Iglau (24,387), Olmiitz (21,933), Znaim (16,261), Kremsier (13991) and Ungarisch-Hradisch (5137).
Other principal towns are KOnigsfeld (11,022), Giiding (10,231), MahrischOstrau (30,125), Witkowitz (19,128), Mahrisch-Schonberg.
As a place of import, the Peiraeus surpasses Patras, Syra and all the other Greek maritime towns, receiving about 53% of all the merchandise brought into Greece.
The port and the capital are now connected by railway with Corinth and the principal towns of the Morea; the line opening up communication with northern Greece and Thessaly, when its proposed connexion with the Continental railway system has been effected, will greatly enhance the importance of the Peiraeus, already one of the most flourishing commercial towns in the Levant.
Volci was one of the twelve towns of Etruria.
There was less disturbance there in1895-1896than in other north Syrian towns.
In 1813 and 1814 it suffered considerably from the French, who then held Hamburg, and who built a bridge between the two towns, which remained standing till 1816.
The principal towns, with the population of each in 1910, are: San Juan, 48,716; Ponce, 35,027; Mayaguez, 16,591; Arecibo, 9612.
The Aeolians founded twelve cities on the mainland, including Cyme, and numerous towns in Mytilene: they were said also to have settled in the Troad and even within the Hellespont.
Other prominent towns of the state are Rincon de Romos (or Victoria de Calpulalpam), Asientos de Ibarra and Calvillo, the first having more and the others less than 5000 inhabitants.
The towns are on the coast of the North Sea separated by Hartlepool Bay, with a harbour, and both have stations on branches of the North Eastern railway, 247 m.
The wide extension of the cult is attributable largely to Syrian merchants; thus we find traces of it in the great seaport towns; at Delos especially numerous inscriptions have been found bearing witness to its importance.
Conscience Courts were local courts, established by acts of parliament in London and various provincial towns, for the recovery of small debts, usually sums under £5.
The area and population of the three provinces of Hesse are as follow: The chief towns of the grand duchy are Darmstadt (the capital) and Offenbach in Starkenburg, Mainz and Worms in Rheinhessen and Giessen in Oberhessen.
The lower chamber consists of ten deputies from large towns and forty from small towns and rural districts.
Between Alloa and Stirling the stream forms the famous "links," the course being so sinuous that whereas by road the two towns are but 62 m.
Therefore the Arabs designate the whole complex of towns which lay together around Seleucia and Ctesiphon and formed the residence of the Sassanids by the name Madain, "the cities," - their number is often given as seven.
From then, these towns decayed before the increasing prosperity of the new Arab capitals Basra and Bagdad.
The meridian of Greenwich has been universally accepted as the initial meridian, but in the case of most topographical maps of foreign countries local meridians are still adhered to - the more important among which are: The outline includes coast-line, rivers, roads, towns, and in fact all objects capable of being shown on a map, with the exception of the hills and of woods, swamps, deserts and the like, which the draughtsman generally describes as " ornament."
Among them were cadastral plans of villages, maps of the provinces of the empire of the Aztecs, of towns and of the coast.
27 9) that the inhabitants of Colchis whom, like Herodotus (ii., 104) he looks upon as the descendants of Egyptian colonists, preserved, as heirlooms, certain graven tablets (Kbp(€ls) on which land and sea, roads and towns were accurately indicated.
gives further details with reference to the principal towns of each map, as to geographical position, length of day, climata, &c.
Other features frequently met with are the Paradise in the Far East, miniatures of towns, plants, animals, human beings and monsters, and an indication of the twelve winds around the margin.
Both maps abound in miniature pictures of towns, animals, fabulous beings and other subjects.
In no other country of Europe was there at the close of the 16th century a geographical establishment capable of competing with the Dutch towns or with Sanson, but the number of those who produced maps, in many instances based upon original surveys, was large.
It ranks among the first twelve towns in Sweden both in population and in the value of its manufacturing industries.
Vespasian could be liberal to impoverished senators and knights, to cities and towns desolated by natural calamity, and especially to men of letters and of the professor class, several of whom he pensioned with salaries of as much as £boo a year.
About 50,000 persons are settled in the coast towns; the rest are nomads.
The latter course was decided upon, and during the first months of 1910 the advanced posts were withdrawn and the British administration confined to the coast towns.
Also situated on the gulf are the small towns of Tajura, Sagallo, Gobad and Ambabo.
The chief towns are on the coast.
In the coast towns of the eastern seaboard there are Swahili, Arab and Indian settlements, and tribes, such as the Amaran, of mixed Arab and Somali blood.
The chief cities and towns of Alberta are Edmonton (11,167), Calgary (11,967), Medicine Hat (3020), Lethbridge (2948) and Strathcona (2927).
Up till 1742 Wesley's work was chiefly confined to London and Bristol, with the adjacent towns and villages or the places which lay between them.
r Alexandria is linked by a network of railway and telegraph lines to the other towns of Egypt, and there is a trunk telephone line to Cairo.
It includes the market towns Of Broseley, Madeley and Much Wenlock.
The parish of Madeley includes the small towns of Ironbridge and Coalport, with part of Coalbrookedale.
After a month's vigorous drilling Hicks led 5000 of his men against an equal force of dervishes in Sennar, whom he defeated, and cleared the country between the towns of Sennar and Khartum of rebels.
The government had 947,625 inhabitants in 1870, and in 1897, 1,706,511, of whom 861,533 were women, and 146,752 lived in towns.
Chartres was one of the principal towns of the Carnutes, and by the Romans was called Autricum, from the river Autura (Eure), and afterwards civitas Carnutum.
Lake Charles, Westlake, Bogalusa, Bon Ami, Carson, Fisher, Fullerton, Leesville, Oakdale and Pickering were the leading sawmill towns of the state in 1908.
Since that time conditions of health in New Orleans have been revolutionized (in 1907 state control of maritime quarantine on the Mississippi was supplanted by that of the national government), and smaller cities and towns have been stimulated to take action by her example.
Sanitary institutes are held by the state board at various towns each year for the instruction of the public. Boards of appraisers and equalization oversee the administration of the tax system; the cost of collection, owing to the fee system for payment of collectors, was higher than in any other state of the Union until 1907, when the fees were greatly reduced.