Tourette-syndrome Sentence Examples
Children with Tourette syndrome are more likely to have obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention deficient disorder (ADD), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
The symptoms of Tourette syndrome are extremely variable over time, with some symptoms beginning and some ceasing to be a problem as the child grows.
Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is the most common and severe form of multiple tic disorder.
Children with Tourette syndrome show symptoms before the age of 18, usually around age seven, and have symptoms that usually last into adulthood.
The symptoms of Tourette syndrome are usually motor and/or vocal tics, although in some children other symptoms such as socially inappropriate comments, and socially inappropriate or self-injurious behaviors sometimes occur.Advertisement
Many people with Tourette syndrome experience a decrease in symptoms as they age, and some people see a complete disappearance of their symptoms.
The exact frequency of Tourette syndrome is unknown, but estimates range from 0.05 percent to 2 percent.
Estimates vary widely in part because many people with Tourette syndrome have very mild symptoms and may not seek medical attention.
It is estimated that there are about 1,000 new cases of Tourette syndrome diagnosed in the United States every year.
The causes of Tourette syndrome are not fully understood.Advertisement
Most studies agree that symptoms of Tourette syndrome involve the chemicals in the brain that help transmit information from one nerve cell in the brain to another.
Some studies suggest that the tics in Tourette syndrome are caused by an increased amount of a neurotransmitter called dopamine.
Most studies suggest that Tourette syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder with decreased penetrance.
There is some evidence that females who inherit the Tourette syndrome gene have a lower probability of exhibiting symptoms than males who inherit the gene.
The principal symptoms of Tourette syndrome include simple and complex motor and vocal tics.Advertisement
Perhaps the most striking example of this is coprolalia, the involuntary expression of obscene or socially inappropriate words or phrases, which occurs in fewer than one-third of people with Tourette syndrome.
Adolescents with Tourette syndrome often experience unpredictable and more severe than usual symptoms, which may be related to fluctuating hormone levels and decreased compliance in taking medications.
Many people who as children have Tourette syndrome experience a decrease in symptoms or a complete end to symptoms in their adult years.
People with Tourette syndrome are more likely to exhibit non-obscene, socially inappropriate behaviors such as expressing insulting or socially unacceptable comments or performing socially unacceptable actions.
It is not known whether these symptoms stem from more general dysfunction of impulse control that might be part of Tourette syndrome.Advertisement
Researchers have found that 21 to 90 percent of individuals with Tourette syndrome also exhibit symptoms of ADD.
Symptoms of OCD are present in 1.9 to 3 percent of the general population, whereas 28 to 50 percent of people with Tourette syndrome have symptoms of OCD.
Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is also seen more frequently in those with Tourette syndrome.
Approximately 34 to 53 percent of individuals with Tourette syndrome exhibit some form of self-injuring behavior.
The SIB is often related to OCD but can also occur in those with Tourette syndrome who do not have OCD.Advertisement
Symptoms of anxiety and depression are also found more commonly in people with Tourette syndrome.
It is not clear, however, whether these are symptoms of Tourette syndrome or occur as a result of having to deal with the symptoms of moderate to severe Tourette syndrome.
Parents should call the doctor if they notice the symptoms of Tourette syndrome.
The diagnosis of Tourette syndrome is made by observing and interviewing the child, looking at the family's medical history, and talking to the child's family and sometimes to other caregivers.
The diagnosis of Tourette syndrome is complicated by a variety of factors.
The extreme range of symptoms of this disorder can make it difficult to differentiate Tourette syndrome from other disorders with similar symptoms.
The DSM-IV outlines suggested diagnostic criteria for a variety of conditions, including Tourette syndrome.
Some physicians criticize the DSM-IV criteria, arguing that they do not include the full range of behaviors and symptoms seen in Tourette syndrome.
For these reasons many physicians use their clinical judgment as well as the DSM-IV criteria as a guide to diagnosing Tourette syndrome.
The treatment and management of Tourette syndrome varies from patient to patient and should focus on the alleviation of the symptoms that are most bothersome to the individual or that cause the most interference with daily functioning.
Counseling may also help individuals to cope better with the symptoms of Tourette syndrome and to have more positive social interactions.
The education of family members, teachers, and peers about Tourette syndrome can be helpful and may help to foster acceptance and prevent social isolation.
Many people with mild symptoms of Tourette syndrome never require medication.
As of 2004, the most effective treatment of tics associated with Tourette syndrome involved the use of drugs such as haloperidol, pimozide, sulpiride, and tiapride, which decrease the amount of dopamine in the body.
Clonidine used in conjunction with such stimulants as Ritalin may be useful for treating people with Tourette syndrome who also have symptoms of ADD.
In many cases the treatment of Tourette syndrome with medications can be discontinued after adolescence.
The prognosis for Tourette syndrome is fairly good.
Although symptoms generally get worse during early adolescence, many people with Tourette syndrome experience a lessening of the severity of their symptoms during late adolescence and early adulthood.
Approximately one third of children with Tourette syndrome will experience complete or nearly complete remission during their late adolescent and early adult years.
It is difficult to tell how many children with Tourette syndrome experience complete remission over their entire adult lives, but it has been estimated to be about 8 percent.
People with Tourette syndrome who have other symptoms such as obsessive-compulsive disorder, attention deficit disorder, and self-injurious behavior usually have a poorer prognosis.
There is no known way to prevent Tourette syndrome.
It is also sometimes associated with learning and psychological disorders, many of which are often more debilitating than Tourette syndrome itself.
Children with Tourette syndrome often have problems socializing because of embarrassment over uncontrollable tics and negative reactions from parents, teachers, and peers who do not understand the disorder.
Children with Tourette syndrome may need special attention to help them cope with the social implications of their disorder.
Since the 1970s, researchers have been looking at genetic factors in tic disorders and Tourette syndrome.
One prospective study done at Yale reported in 2004 that new GABHS infections do not appear to cause a worsening of tics in children diagnosed with OCD or Tourette syndrome.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs), PET scans, and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans have been used by researchers, however, to study the brains of patients diagnosed with Tourette syndrome.