The Torah of Jesus was essentially prophetic and in no sense priestly or legal.
His charity towards men is given its finest expression in the answer which he made to a proselyte who asked to be taught the commandments of the Torah in the shortest possible form: "What is unpleasant to thyself that do not to thy neighbour; this is the whole Law, all else is but its exposition."
Rather it was implicitly contained in the Torah, and the duty of the teacher was to show this.
To obtain these heavenly mysteries, which alone make the Torah superior to profane codes, definite hermeneutical rules are employed, of which the following are the most important.
The Ark of the Law, in the Jewish synagogue, is a chest or cupboard containing the scrolls of the Torah (Pentateuch), and is placed against or in the wall in the direction of Jerusalem.
Aqiba, the great principle of the Torah.) It is useful for the interpretation of the Mishnah treatises Qbdashim and Teharoth.
Systematic abstracts of the legal parts of the Talmud were made by Isaac Alfazi (or " Riph," 1013-1103), and by Maimonides (Mishneh Torah, otherwise called Sepher haYad or Yad ha-Hazakah).
And thus Israel's old prophetic Torah was at length to achieve its victory, for after Jesus came St Paul.
In spite of the relief afforded by orthodox additions, it was urged that its Epicurean sentiments contradicted the Torah and favoured heresy.
'PENTATEUCH, the name found as early as in Tertullian and Origen corresponding to the Jewish :turn 'Tin y; nvnn (the five-fifths of the Torah, or Law), and applied to the first five books of the Old Testament (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy).
The Apocry- Torah, the Law delivered to Moses, held among the Jews of the 4th century B.C. as it holds now, a pre eminent position.
The sacred law (Torah) was the earthly reproduction of a heavenly Torah which had no origin in time, and constituted the sum of ideal wisdom into which God looked when he would create the world.'
On the analogy of the other laws it is probable that the old torah, which forms the basis of the chapter, has been subsequently expanded, but except in the colophon (vv.
The book differs from the Pentateuch or Torah in the absence of legal matter, and in its intimate connexion with the narrative in the books which follow.
About 1270), who had studied in France, wrote the fan.ous Or Zarua` (from which he is often called), an halakhic work somewhat resembling Maimonides' Mishneh Torah, but more diffuse.
1340), was the author of the Tur (or the four Tarim), a most important manual of Jewish law, serving as an abridgement of the Mishneh Torah brought up to date.
The statement, however, remains virtually true, since Judaism is mainly constituted by the body of legal precepts called the Torah, and, moreover, by the postexilian Torah.
Circumcision and Sabbath, separation from marriage with a foreigner, which rendered a Jew unclean, as well as strict conformity to the precepts of the Torah, constituted henceforth an adamantine bond which was to preserve the Jewish communities from disintegration.
There were various causes which combined to enhance the importance of the written Torah (the " instruction " par excellence communicated by God through Moses).
(911-959) goes back the Jewish form of oath which in its later development required the Jew to gird himself with thorns; stand in water; and, holding the scroll of the Torah in his hand, invoke upon his person the leprosy of Naaman, the curse of Eli and the fate of Korah's sons should he perjure himself.
His renown in later days is summed up in the words (Mishna, end of Sotah): "When Rabban Gamaliel the Elder died, regard for the Torah (the study of the Law) ceased, and purity and piety died."
What the priestly Torah was at the time of the exile can be seen from the collection of laws in Lev.
31 seq.), when priestly Torah and priestly atonement should be no longer required.
14 (" she bringeth her food from afar "), says " the words of the Torah are poor (or deficient) in one place but rich in another."
The rise of this function of the prophets is plainly parallel with the change which took place under the kings in the position of the priestly oracle; the Torah of the priests now dealt rather with permanent sacred ordinances than with the giving of new divine counsel for special occasions.
It was only in so far as the community of faith still possessed certain external features of nationality that postexile prophecy was possible at all, and very soon the care of the national or quasi-national aspects of religion passed altogether out of their hands into those of the scribes, of whom Ezekiel was the first father, and whose Torah was not the living word of prophecy but the Pentateuchal code.
- A careful distinction was drawn between the Written Law, the Mosaic Torah, and the rest of the Scriptures (ii'?zw n,in), and the Oral Law, or Torah by Mouth (nP ` 3.1 r r 1-1 i 11).
Literary and historical criticism places the discussion on another basis when it treats the Mosaic Torah in its present form as a post-exilic compilation (about 5th century B.C.) from sources differing in date, origin and history.
1) and expressed itself as a word of instruction of Yahweh (torah); see Isa.
Other writers are Aaron (the elder) ben Joseph, 13th century, who wrote the commentary Sepher ha-mibhhar; Aaron (the younger) of Nicomedia (14th century), author of `E Ilayyim, on philosophy, Gan `Eden, on law, and the commentary Kether Torah; in the 15th century Elijah Bashyazi, on law (Addereth Eliyahu), and Caleb Efendipoulo, poet and theologian; in the 16th century Moses Bashyazi, theologian.
Passing over the less important, these are the Moreh Nebhukhim (so the Hebrew translation of the Arabic original), an endeavour to show philosophically the reasonableness of the faith, parts of which, translated into Latin, were studied by the Christian schoolmen, and the Mishneh Torah, also called Yad hahazagah (1 ' =14, the number of the parts), a classified compendium of the Law, written in Hebrew 4 See M.
Are regularly introduced by the formula " This is the law (torah) of.
But the Greek translators read the former orim and connected it with torah, " decision"; it would thus = "doctrine"; so Symmachus, cf.
Pre-existence is also asserted of Moses and of sacred institutions such as the New Jerusalem, the Temple, Paradise, the Torah, &c. (Apocal.