As a result the topography is characterized by low, rounded hills, but is nowhere mountainous.
Finally, the surface topography will often throw much light on the underground structure.
Several minor ranges, the topography of which is little known, extend from Cambridge Gulf, behind a very much broken coast-line, to Limmen Bight on the Gulf of Carpentaria.
The glacial era has left abundant evidences in the topography of the state.
There are no mountains, forests or large bodies of water to moderate the extremes of summer and winter, and the uniformity of topography makes the ranges of temperature for different parts of the state very nearly the same.
Moreover, he wrote an article in the Edinburgh Review of July 1805 criticizing Sir William Gill's Topography of Troy, and these circumstances led Lord Byron to refer to him in English Bards and Scotch Reviewers as "the travell'd thane, Athenian Aberdeen."
Leake (Topography of Athens and the Demi, 2nd ed., 1841) brought the descriptive literature to an end and inaugurated the period of modern scientific research, in which German archaeologists have played a distinguished part.
The Berkshire district affords an excellent example of the interrelations of topography, soil and population.
in Bohn's Illustrated Library), and Ancient Athens, its History, Topography and Remains (1873).
Pallas, with several Russian students, laid the first foundation of a thorough exploration of the topography, fauna, flora and inhabitants of the country.
of his works) and Hoeck (Kreta, 3 vols., GÃ¶ttingen, 1823-1829), but the latter work was published before the researches which have thrown so much light on the topography and antiquities of the island.
For topography, &c. and archaeology, see Sudan § Anglo-Egyptian and Egypt.
Following Prjevalsky the Russian explorers, Pevtsov and Roborovski, in 1889-1890 (and again in 1894), added greatly to our knowledge of the topography of western Chinese Turkestan and the northern borders of Tibet; all these Russian expeditions being conducted on scientific principles and yielding results of the highest value.
Topography And Antiquities The Attic plain, -ro ircSlov, slopes gently towards the coast of the Saronic Gulf on the south-west; on the east it is overlooked by Mount Hymettus (3369 ft.); on the north-east by Pentelicus or Brilessus (3635 ft.) from which, in ancient and modern times, an immense quantity of the finest marble has been quarried; on the north-west by Parnes (4636 ft.), a continuation of the Boeotian Cithaeron, and on the west by Aegaleus (1532 ft.), which descends abruptly to the bay of Salamis.
During his residence in Rome Niebuhr discovered and published fragments of Cicero and Livy, aided Cardinal Mai in his edition of Cicero De Republica, and shared in framing the plan of the great work on the topography of ancient Rome by Christian C. J.
It contains many valuable articles on history, topography, botany, mining, commerce and statistics.
As his official duties made no great demands on his time, he had abundant leisure to devote to his favourite studies, - the antiquities and topography of Scotland having thenceforth special attractions for his busy pen.
The topography and the climate of Nevada have led to the formation of two kinds of lakes, the ephemeral and the perennial.
Flinders Petrie began the systematic exploration of the ruins of Bedreshen, and in three seasons cleared up much of the topography of the ancient city, identifying the mound of the citadel and palace, a foreign quarter, &c. Among his finds not the least interesting is a large series of terra-cotta heads representing the characteristic features of the foreigners who thronged the bazaars of Memphis.
inconsistencies, its errors of chronology and topography, its poetical colour, and its living descriptions of battles.
The systematic study of Athenian topography was begun in the 17th century by French residents at Athens, the consuls Giraud and Chataignier and the Capuchin monks.
valuable for details of local history, antiquities and topography: A.
The surface is the typical glacial topography, with a few low, rocky hills, less than loo ft.
Ptolemy used the word geography to signify the description of the whole oekumene on mathematical principles, while chorography signified the fuller description of a particular region, and topography the very detailed description of a smaller locality.
It was also in the reign of Justinian that Cosmas Indicopleustes, an Egyptian merchant, made several voyages, and afterwards composed his XpUTTcavuxr} Toaoypa(Pia (Christian Topography), containing, in addition to his absurd cosmogony, a tolerable description of India.
"Before his time," says Digby Wyatt, "popular topography was unknown."
There would, indeed, be an exception to the general correctness of the topography if we were compelled to suppose that "country of the Gerasenes" (which is the best reading according to existing MS. evidence at Mark v.
His published works deal chiefly with topography and ancient mythology.
The administration and acreage of parks and open spaces, and their provisions for the public recreation, fall for consideration later, but some of them are notable features in the topography of London.
Gough, British Topography (London 1768).
Until after the War of Independence the primitive topography remained unchanged, but it was afterwards subjected to changes greater than those effected on the site of any other American city.
Smith, Antient Topography of London (1815); David Hughson [E.
The " bluffs " (remnants of an eroded plain formed of alluvion deposits over an old, mature and drowned topography) run through the second tier of parishes W.
We are principally concerned, however, with the results which add to our knowledge of the topography and architecture of the Acropolis.
For the controversies respecting the Agora, the Enneacrunus and the topography of the town in general, see W.
The topography, inhabitants, art, products, &c., of the kingdom are described in a volume of the series Espana entitled Aragon, by J.
For the ancient topography cf.
Owing to topography, and also to the manner in which Massachusetts ' At least seventy hills in the state, mainly in this quarter, have an elevation of 1500 ft.
- For Topography: W.
The Thesean synoecism led to the introduction of new cults and the foundation of new shrines partly on the Acropolis, partly in the inhabited district at its base both within and without the wall of the Pelasgicum, Some of the shrines in this region are mentioned by Thucydides in a passage which is of capital importance for the topography of the city at this period (ii.
Topography, eec. - Physically the protectorate may be described as almost mountainous in contrast with the somewhat monotonous plains of the interior.
Recent investigation has thrown a new and unexpected light on the art, the monuments and the topography of the ancient city.
A marked feature of the topography of the south shore is what is known as the Lake ridge, or, as it approaches the Niagara river, the Mountain ridge.
The etymology of the name, which to a Greek ear meant "swarthy-faced," is unknown, nor can we say why in official inscriptions of the Axumite dynasty the word is used as the equivalent of Habashat (whence the 1 For the topography and later history see Sudan and Abyssinia.
Flavin Biondo, the first Renaissance writer on the topography of ancient Rome (1388-1463), was a native of Forli.
Monographs: Much information on modern Turkish history and politics will be found in the works dealing primarily with topography, finance, law and defence, which have been cited above.
Perhaps the most important work on Peru of modern times is that of the Italian savant Antonio Raimondi (1825-1890), who spent the greater part of his life in studying the topography and natural resources of the country.
Grenfell and Hunt conclude therefore - " So great indeed are the divergences between this account and the extant and no doubt well-informed authorities with regard to the topography and ritual of the Temple that it is hardly possible to avoid the conclusion that much of the local colour is due to the imagination of the author who was aiming chiefly at dramatic effect and was not really well acquainted with the Temple.
acquainted with the topography, Buller sent a Lord Roberts force to turn Botha's left, in conjunction with a sent out.
Underground railways are of three general types: the one of extreme depth, built by tunnelling methods, usually with the shield and without regard to the surface topography, where the stations are put at such depth as to require lifts to carry the passengers from the station platform to the street level.
Since the foundation of the German Institute in 1874, Athenian topography has to a large extent become a speciality of German scholars, among whom Wilhelm DOrpfeld occupies a pre-eminent position owing to his great architectural attainments and unrivalled local knowledge.
The Athenian siege (415-13) is of the deepest importance for the topography of Syracuse, and it throws some light on the internal politics.
He first visited Taif at the invitation of the pasha, thence he proceeded to Mecca, where he spent three months studying every detail of the topography of the holy places, and going through all the ceremonies incumbent on a Moslem pilgrim.
By the end of the 19th century the topography of the lake region was known with fair accuracy.
For the purposes of scientific topography observation of the natural features and outlines is followed by exact investigation of the architectural structures or remnants, a process demanding high technical competence, acute judgment and practical experience, as well as wide and accurate scholarship. The building material and the manner of its employment furnish evidence no less important than the character of the masonry, the design and the modes of ornamentation.
While modern research has added considerably to our knowledge of prehistoric Athens, a still greater light has been thrown on the architecture and topography of the city in the earlier historic or " archaic " era, the subsequent age of Athenian greatness, and the period of decadence which set in with the Macedonian conquest; the first extends from the dawn of history to 480-479 B.C., when the city was destroyed by the Persians; the second, or classical, age closes in 322 B.C., when Athens lost its political independence after the Lamian War; the third, or Hellenistic, in 146 B.C., when the state fell under Roman protection.
Topography, Travels, &c.: The works of J.
The monumental work of James Stuart and Nicholas Revett, who spent three years at Athens (1751-1754), marked an epoch in the progress of Athenian topography and is still indispensable to its study, owing to the demolition of ancient buildings which began about the middle of the 18th century.
This is an area of cone karst, the type of limestone topography that tends to contain deep caves.
1.2 General Topography and Drainage.
1.3 Relation of General Topography to Settlement.
Strangford Lough is an almost landlocked inlet of the sea set within a diverse lowland topography.
Gell's Topography of Rome and its Vicinity (2nd ed., 1 vol., London, 1846); A.
The oldest rectangular map of the world is contained in a most valuable work written by Cosmas, an Alexandrian monk, surnamed Indicopleustes, after returning from a voyage to India (535 A.D.), and entitled Christian Topography.
To remedy this, Murat and other general officers as well as minor agents were sent ahead and instructed to travel through South Germany in plain clothes with a view to collecting information and mastering the topography.
The respiratory current of water is therefore conducted to the exterior by different means from that adopted by Amphioxus, and this difference is so great that the theory which seeks to explain it has to postulate radical changes of structure, function and topography.
Parallelism of mountain ridges and intervening valleys is thus attributable to the folding of the rocks, but the origin of the interior structure of the mountains is to be kept distinct from the origin of the mountains as features of topography.
A great series of dams was therefore constructed (mapped and described in " Topography of Nineveh," J.R.A.S.
The later small movements are of importance because they are related to the existing topography with which we are here concerned.
The height is greatest along the inner or north-western border of the belt, and here a sub-mountainous topography has been produced by normal dissection, chiefly in the Tertiary cycle; the valleys being narrow because the rocks are resistant.
They completely dominate the topography of their districts.
Nevertheless the mountains are of especial interest to the physiographer who wishes to make a comparative study of land forms as affected by normal and by glacial sculpture, in order to give due attention to process as well as to structure and stage in the analysis and description of mountain topography.
These great changes in the relation of land and water, and in topography, led to correspondingly great changes in life, and the combination marks the transition from the Mesozoic to the Cainozoic era.
The present height of the deposits, in some places as much as 10,000 ftgives some suggestion of the changes in topography which have taken place since the early Tertiary.
At the close of the period the topography of the western part of the country must have been comparable to that of the present time.
Subsequent erosion has changed the details of topography on an extensive scale, and subsequent deformative movements have renewed large topographic features where erosion had destroyed those developed by the close of the Miocene.
But in spite of these great changes since the Miocene, the great outlines of the topography of the present were probably marked out by the close of that period.
The careful study of these fluvial formations is likely to throw much light on the history of the deformative movements and changes in topography in the United States during the late stages of geological history.
The details of the topography of the western mountains are largel of post-Pliocene development.
While these ancient events shaped the topography in a broad way, its final development was comparatively recent, during the glacial period, when the loose materials were scoured from some regions and spread out as boulder clay, or piled up as moraines in others; and the original water-ways were blocked in many places.
For this reason the region has a very youthful topography with innumerable lakes and waterfalls as evidence that the rivers have not long been at work.
In topography and characteristics and in the difficulties of its regulation the Arkansas is in many ways typical of the rivers in the arid regions of the western states.
The topography of the Orkneys is wholly Norse, and the Norse tongue, at last extinguished by the constant influx of settlers from Scotland, lingered until the end of the 18th century.
Partsch, Physikalische Geographie von Griechenland (Breslau, 1885); Baedeker's Greece (3rd ed., Leipzig, 1905); for statistics see GREECE: Topography.
The latter site, which was advocated by Sir William Gell (Topography and Antiquities of Ithaca, London, 1807), was supported by Dr H.
The fact is that no amount of ingenuity can reconcile the descriptions given in the Odyssey with the actual topography of this island.
He succeeds in fitting the Homeric topography to this latter island, and suggests that the name may have been transferred in consequence of a migration of the inhabitants.
Educated at the Collegio Romano and the university of Rome, he became professor of ancient topography at that university in 1878.
The numerous traditional sites now shown round Hebron are traceable generally to medieval legendary topography; they include the Oak of Mamre (Gen.
van Deman Magoffin, Topography and Municipal History of Praeneste (Johns Hopkins University Studies, xxvi.
For topography and geology, see R.
These two diagrams naturally have much the same general shape, but though the boundaries of the several regions in the iron-cementite diagram are known pretty accurately, and though the relative positions of the boundaries of the two diagrams are probably about as here shown, the exact topography of the iron-graphite diagram is not yet known.
- For the topography of Latium, and the local history of its more important cities, the reader may consult Sir W.
Tomassetti, " Della Campagna Romana nel medio evo," published in the Archivio della Societi Romana di Storia Patria (Rome, 1874-1907), and separately (a work dealing with the medieval history and topography of the Campagna in great detail, containing also valuable notices of the classical period); by the same author, La Campagna romana (Rome, 1910 foll.); R.
Ashby, " The Classical Topography of the Roman Campagna," in Papers of the British School at Rome, i.
For language and epigraphy see NABATAEANS, SEMITIC LANGUAGES; for topography, &C., PALESTINE; and for the later history, JEWS.
of the Tebtunis series of papyri (Grenfell, Hunt and Goodspeed, 1907) contains a lengthy account of the topography of the Arsinoite nome.
Topography, &c. - Belgium lies between 49° 30' and 51° 30' N., and 2° 32' and 6° 7' E., and on the land side is bounded by Holland on the N.
The sayings and Johnsoniana have been reprinted in very many and various forms. Valuable work has been done in Johnsonian genealogy and topography by Aleyn Lyell Reade in his Johnsonian Gleanings, &c., and in the Memorials of Old Staffordshire (ed.
Zuyder Zee, though the topography of the district has greatly altered.
Antiquities, Sites, &c.The remains for archaeological investigation in Egypt may be roughly classified as material and literary: to the latter belong the texts on papyri and the inscriptions, to the former the sites of ancient towns with the temples, fortifications and houses; remains of roads, canals, quarries and other matters falling within the domain of ancient topography; the larger monuments, as obelisks, statues, stelae, &c.; and finally the small antiquitiesutensils, clothes, weapons, amulets, &c. Where moisture can reach the antiquities their preservation is no better in Egypt than it would have been in other countries; for this reason all the papyri in the Delta have perished unless they happen to have been charred by fire.
The names of the gods and the places of their worship were catalogued and classified, and manuals were devoted to the topography of mythological regions.
The accompanying simple figure indicates better than any verbal description the topography of the main groups of foci in the motor field of a manlike ape (chimpanzee).
netaacet Diagram of the Topography of the Main Groups of Foci in the Motor of Chimpanzee.
Its topography is described in detail under Zealand.
Patria (TO, IIaTpca Ti - js Kcvvaravnvov1r6XEcos), treating of the history, topography, and monuments of Constantinople.
It is divided into five sections: (a) the foundation of the city; (b) its situation, limits and topography; (c) its statues, works of art, and other notable sights; (d) its buildings; (e) the construction of the church of St Sophia.
(London, 1892), a valuable contribution as to the condition of the province at that date, its connexion with Lake Moeris and its possibilities in the future; The Assuan Reservoir and Lake Moeris (London, 1904), by Sir William Willcocks - with text in English, French and Arabic - a consideration of irrigation possibilities; The Topography and Geology of the Fayum Province of Egypt, by H.
1.1.5 Influence of Topography
When the land reappeared a new series of valleys would at once begin to be eroded; and the subsequent degradation of these overlying sediments might reveal portions of the older topography, as in the case of the Great Glen, Lauderdale, and other ancient valleys.
(For the chief rivers see the separate articles on them, and also the section on the physical features in the article on the different shires of Scotland.) The topography of the country being the result of prolonged denudation, it is reasonable to infer that the oldest surfaces likely to be preserved are portions of some of the platforms of erosion successively established by the wearing down of the land to the sea-level.
The influence of the topography of the country on the history of its inhabitants has been all-important.
The topography of Darwaz south of the river is not accurately known, but at least one considerable stream of some 60 m.
In 1864 was founded the Palestine Exploration Fund, under the auspices of which an ordnance survey map of the country was completed (published 1881), and accompanied by volumes containing memoirs on the topography, orography, hydrography, archaeology, fauna and flora, and other details.
While the buildings give archaeological evidence for every period of Greek life and history from the pre-Mycenaean period down to Roman times, the topography itself shows that the Heraeum must have been constructed before Mycenae and without any regard to it.
For the topography, &c., see Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Pilot (5th ed.
von Schwarz, Alexander des Grossen Feldziige in Turkestan (1893),(1893), a commentary on Arrian and Curtius based upon the author's personal knowledge of the topography; C. Wachsmuth, Einleitung in das Studium der alten Geschichte (1895), p. 574, cf.
ATTHIS (an adjective meaning "Attic"), the name given to a monograph or special treatise on the religious and political history, antiquities and topography of Attica and Athens.
This plan, which is here reproduced from de Petra 1 is the only satisfactory document for the topography of Herculaneum; for the plan of the theatre published in the Bullettino archeologico italiano (Naples, 1861, i.
At Athens the agora of classical times was adorned with trees planted by Cimon; around it numerous public buildings were erected, such as the council chamber and the law courts (for its topography, see Athens).
The entire region is very much dissected by streams, and the topography is characteristically of a terrace and escarpment type.
The following may be cited here on different aspects: Topography.
33 to " Alexander "; also the very minute topography in xx.
to S.E., across the Blue Ridge, the Piedmont and the Coastal Plain, following courses which were established before erosion had produced much of the present topography.
In the Piedmont Province temperature conditions are naturally less stable, owing to the distance from the sea and to the greater inequality of surface topography.
The greatest variability in temperature conditions in the state occurs in the Blue Ridge, Newer Appalachian Provinces, where the most rugged and variable topography is likewise found.
In comparative morphology it provides many illustrations of important biological principles (such, for example, as substitution and change of function of organs), and throws new light upon, or at least points the way to new ideas of, the primitive relations of different organic systems in respect of their function and topography.
In spite of some extraordinary blunders in topography and history, his observant and detailed record, marked by evident good faith, is among the most valuable of medieval documents relating to Palestine: it is also important in the history of the Russian language, and in the study of ritual and liturgy (from its description of the Easter services in Jerusalem, the Descent of the Holy Fire, &c.).
The upturning of the rocks of the Great Plains at the foot of the Front Range develops an interesting type of topography, the harder layers weathering into grotesquely curious forms, as seen in the famous Garden of the Gods at the foot of Pike's Peak.
1875 1876 1879 1883 1885 1887 1890 1891 1893 1895 1897 1899 1901 1903 1905' 1905' 1907 1909/n==Authorities== - For topography and general description: Hayden and assistants, reports on Colorado, U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories (13 vols., 1867-1878), various reports, especially annual report for 1874 Captain J.
this ridge is bounded by the region of the Great Plains, the dissected topography of which is characterized by many broad valleys intervening.
(1856); on the topography see W.
The first light thrown on the topography of Ephesus was due to the excavations conducted by the architect, J.
Beyond this the topography is wholly uncertain.
His account of the many small states into which the Tukhara empire had broken up is of great interest, as many of them are identical in name and topography with the high valley states and districts on the Upper Oxus, which are at this day the object of so much geographical and political interest.
These again have been connected by links of more or less regularity, so that, if the Baluchistan triangulation lacks the rigid accuracy of a " first class " system, it at least supports good topography on geographical scales.
The main features of Nepalese topography are now fairly well defined.
(P. LA.) Such is the general outline of Himalayan evolution as now understood, and the process of it has led to certain marked features of scenery and topography.
Alexander Winchell, Michigan: Being Condensed Popular Sketches of the Topography, Climate and Geology of the State (1873), is in large measure restricted to the south half of the state.
The haziness and inaccuracy of his topography make it clear that he did not attempt to familiarize himself with the actual scenes of events even that took place in Italy.
In 1907 there were three general divisions of these schools: the Army School of the Line, for officers (not below the grade of captain) of the regular army and for militia officers recommended by the governors of their respective states or territories, offering courses in military art, engineering, law and languages; the Army Signal School, also open to regular and militia officers, and having departments of field signalling, signal engineering, topography and languages; and the Army Staff College, in which the students are the highest graduates from the Army School of the Line, and the courses of instruction are included in the departments of military art, engineering, law, languages and care of troops.
of the Raritan the topography of this belt is similar to the northern portion, but much of the area is over 200 ft.
I.) General Bibliography Among earlier works devoted to, or dealing largely with topography, a few may be mentioned out of a considerable mass.
Early in the 10th century the Victoria History of the Counties of England (dedicated to Queen Victoria) began to appear; its volumes deal with each county from every aspect - natural history, prehistoric and historic antiquities, ethnography, history, economic conditions, topography and sport being dealt with by authorities in all branches.
" In a broad way, the larger features of topography correspond with those of the western states.
The present article gives (1) the history of the state, (2) an account of the topography, ethnology, &c., of the country and of its economic condition at the date of its becoming a Belgian colony.
Stream erosion has dissected these domes far enough to reveal the core of the igneous rock and to give a rugged topography.
Climate.-On account of its great diversity in topography, the state of Utah is characterized by a wide range in climatic conditions.
Owing to the paucity of Phoenician remains the topography of the town and its surroundings is still obscure.
Superficially, each is a simple rolling plateau, much broken by erosion (though considerable undissected areas drained by underground channels remain), especially in the east, and dotted with hills; some of these are residual outliers of the eroded Mississippian limestones to the west, and others are the summits of an archaean topography above which sedimentary formations that now constitute the valley-floor about them were deposited and then eroded.
For the period of the Prophet, Ibn Hisham and Wakidi are valuable sources in topography as well as history.
ed., Leipzig, 1908); Karten von Attica, published by the German Archaeological Institute of Athens, with explanatory text, chiefly by Professor Milchhofer (1875-1903); see also ATHENS, ELEUSIS and GREECE: Topography.
For topography: - the Servian and Austrian General Staff Maps; P. Coquelle, La Royaume de Serbie (Paris, 1894); and A.
Our knowledge of its topography is derived from the classical writers, the inscriptions of Nebuchadrezzar, and the excavations of the Deutsche Orientgesellschaft, which were begun in 1899.
The topography is necessarily that of the Babylon of Nebuchadrezzar; the older Babylon which was destroyed by Sennacherib having left few, if any, traces behind.
He, nevertheless, used telescopes to good purpose in his studies of lunar topography, and his designations for the chief mountainchains and " seas " of the moon have never been superseded.
An interesting feature in Bajour topography is a mountain spur from the Kunar range, which curving eastwards culminates in the well-known peak of Koh-i-Mor, which is visible from the Peshawar valley.
Authorities.-For the topography, products, inhabitants and modern condition of Croatia-Slavonia, see Bau and Bild Osterreichs, by C. Diener, F.
Besides the actual buildings discovered, a number of points were fixed which greatly facilitate the study of Spartan topography, based upon the description left us by Pausanias.
Topography and Antiquities: W.
Crosby, "The Topography of Sparta," in American Journal of Archaeology (Princeton, 1893), viii.
For topography, &c., see The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, a compendium prepared by officers of the Sudan government and edited by Count Gleichen (2 vols., London, 1905); for administration, finance and trade the annual Reports [by the British agent at Cairo] on Egypt and the Sudan, since 1898; and the special report (Blue Book Egypt, No.
The great Mashkel swamp and the Kharan desert to the east of it, mark the flat phase of southern Baluchistan topography.
Of Polybius's anxiety to get at the truth no better proof can be given than his conscientious investigation of original documents and monuments, and his careful study of geography and topography - both of them points in which his predecessors, as well as his successor Livy, conspicuously failed.
As instances of his careful attention to geography and topography we have not only the fact of his widely extended travels, from the African coast and the Pillars of Hercules in the west, to the Euxine and the coasts of Asia Minor in the east, but also the geographical and topographical studies scattered throughout his history.
He was keenly interested in history and topography, especially in that of his native country.
auxiliary in fact, regular policy to use auxiliaries where the topography required it.
Special emphasis has been laid on the implementation of the boundary conditions for free surface topography.
The reason for the stranding is not known but the topography of the bay and the large tidal range were probably contributory.
This valley embodies the nature of the changing topography of the northern fells.
flexure of Venusian lithosphere measured from residual topography and gravity.
An appendix reconstructs Knight's library, principally consisting of books concerning heraldry, topography and history.
karst surface topography has been obscured by thick layers of glacial till.
The topography of the island is dominated by the paps; conical shaped mountains rising to over 2500 feet.
Indeed, the nineteenth century topography is of village in a meadow ascending a lofty sandstone ridge which has extensive views.
They result from topography and geology, following the chalk scarp and the river valleys.
seabed topography occurring over the full active profile " envelope " are required.
seafloor topography terminology, general characteristics of coastal regions, and what is on the sea floor.
Detailed topography is largely controlled by a succession of Tertiary basalt lava flows that define successive, large-scale steps within the landscape.
topography of such valleys, it is not possible to use weather radar to monitor them.
topography of soft surfaces can be mapped.
topography of the island is dominated by the Paps; conical shaped mountains rising to over 2500 feet.
topography of the landscape is the same but darker and quite eerie.
The underlying rock is granite which gives rise to a rugged, undulating topography which nowhere rises above 85m.
Judging by the surrounding topography it would have been difficult to be sure that these buildings were here from the hills alone.
This year I will be looking at how crystals grow on surfaces of defined topography.
Marianne island Diving with large numbers of gray reef sharks: the underwater topography of Marianne is exceptional.
This, aided by the rugged topography, nurtured a local tradition of independence.
Climate: Owing to the varied topography, the country has diverse climatic conditions.
These children showed a deep knowledge of the urban topography.
Interference effects from other nearby topography can be assessed, and guidance is provided for the effects of flow separation on steep topography.
The amplitude of dynamic topography predicted by a layered mantle viscosity model is consistent with the observed upper bound of ~ 600m.
topography measurement performed between each scratch.
Much of the karst surface topography has been obscured by thick layers of glacial till.
To gain more insight into this critical issue changes in seabed topography occurring over the full active profile " envelope " are required.
The masking or topography of semiconductor products is also protected by a particular kind of design right called the semiconductor topography right.
X-ray topography is an established method of imaging crystalline defects in single crystal materials.
He tapped his finger on Mays ' sketch of the surface topography.
Satellite remote sensing with aim of improving knowledge of ice sheet topography, ice dynamics and surface energy balance.
undulatederlying rock is granite which gives rise to a rugged, undulating topography which nowhere rises above 85m.
undulatetland, the topography can be very rocky with a stepped appearance or strongly undulating lowlands.
Changes in topography tend to be only small undulations.
zonation of the vegetation is closely related to topography.
The finding of the remains of the saint in 18J3 afforded striking confirmation of an incident recorded by a Spanish Benedictine named Haedo, who published a topography of Algeria in 1612.
with the earth alone, not with the universe, and from chorography and topography by dealing with the whole earth, not with a country or a place.
of his works) and Hoeck (Kreta, 3 vols., GÃƒ¶ttingen, 1823-1829), but the latter work was published before the researches which have thrown so much light on the topography and antiquities of the island.
- Physical and economic conditions are discussed in a pamphlet (591 pp.) published by the State Department of Agriculture, Florida, a Pamphlet Descriptive of its History, Topography, Climate, Soil, eec. (Tallahassee, 1904); in Climate, Soil and Resources of Florida (United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, 1882); A Preliminary Report on the Soils of Florida (United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Soils, Bulletin 13, 1898); C. L.
Leake, Topography of Athens and the Demi (2nd ed., London, 1841); C. Wachsmuth, Die Stadt Athen im Alterthum (vol.
Wilson, "Porto Rico: Its Topography and Aspects," in the Bulletin Amer.
Topography London as a whole owes nothing in appearance to the natural configuration of its site.
The following are some of the chief works connected with the topography of London: Thomas Pennant, Of London (1 79 0, 1793, 1805, 1813, translated into German 1791); John T.
Topography, &c. - Belgium lies between 49Ã‚° 30' and 51Ã‚° 30' N., and 2Ã‚° 32' and 6Ã‚° 7' E., and on the land side is bounded by Holland on the N.
The topography of the Great Basin region in Idaho is similar to that of the same region in other states (see Nevada); in Idaho it forms a very small part of the state; its mountains are practically a part of the Wasatch Range of Utah; and the southward drainage of the region (into Great Salt Lake, by Bear river) also separates it from the other parts of the state.
Of Biblical and exegetical works we have a considerable part of Eusebius' Commentaries on the Psalms and on Isaiah, which are monuments of learning, industry and critical acumen, though marred by the use of the allegorical method characteristic of the school of Origen; also a work on the names of places mentioned in Scripture, or the Onomasticon, the only one extant of a number of writings on Old Testament topography; and an epitome and some fragments of a work in two parts on Gospel Questions and Solutions, the first part dealing with the genealogies of Christ given in Matthew and Luke, the second with the apparent discrepancies between the various gospel accounts of the resurrection.
Schrdter of Lilienthal produced another profusely illustrated description of lunar topography.
This lecture looks at: seafloor topography terminology, general characteristics of coastal regions, and what is on the sea floor.
This upper bound is consistent with the residual oceanic topography anomalies above subduction systems.
Unfortunately because of the topography of such valleys, it is not possible to use weather radar to monitor them.
Using a low load, the topography of soft surfaces can be mapped.
It 's essentially the same place as Grianne 's home, the topography of the landscape is the same but darker and quite eerie.
This procedure consists of sequential constant load scratches over the same track, with a low load topography measurement performed between each scratch.
In Shetland, the topography can be very rocky with a stepped appearance or strongly undulating lowlands.
Vegetation on the mountain: a brief summary The zonation of the vegetation is closely related to topography.
The American Wind Energy Association predicts that North Dakota alone can meet over 25 percent of the country's electricity demand due to its flat, unobstructed topography.
This website also offers satellite images, which show you the topography of the land.
Remember the state is overdosed with diverse climates and geological topography, not all of it conducive to vineyards.
The topography of the area allows grape growers to cultivate many different types of grapes, from hardy natives to more delicate varieties, such as Pinot Noir.
The climate, topography and soil conditions in each region determines which grapes grow best there.
Make note of how quickly elevation changes by observing the topography lines on the map.
As the child continues to draw, there may be two or more baselines to show distance or topography.
If there is no history of a recent infection, the doctor will order tests such as a commuted topography (CT) scan or a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan to help rule out other possible causes of vertigo, such as tumors.
Topography and Soil: The site needs to meet grading requirements to prevent wet basements and overflowing sewage disposal systems.
Whether your child is in his early toddler years or is ready to hop on the school bus, the following kid geography games will help him learn the continents, bodies of water, and the topography of our fantastical planet.
The Aloha State's diverse topography offers something for every traveler despite age and budget.
The narrative of this journey, which contained the first accurate knowledge (from scientific observation) regarding the topography and geography of the region, was published by his widow under the title, Narrative of a Residence in Koordistan and on the site of Ancient Nineveh, F&'c. (London, 1836).
This system has the advantage of the greatest convenience in operation, no lifts being required, since the distance from the street surface to the station platform is about 12 to 15 ft.; it has the disadvantages, however, of necessitating the tearing up of the street surface during construction, and the readjustment of sewer, water, gas and electric mains and other subsurface structures, and of having the gradients partially dependent on the surface topography.
The Dutchman Joannes Meursius (1579-1639) wrote three disquisitions on Athenian topography.
The age of the Peisistratids (560-511 B.C.) marked an era in the history of Athenian topography.
Topographical and geophysical survey, surface collection and geochemical sampling were used to further investigate the topography and chronology of the site.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.